Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2021, Review of Brazilian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae), with description of ten new species, Zootaxa 5049 (1), pp. 1-84 : 66-68

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Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha


Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha View in CoL

( Figs 2B View FIGURE 2 , 43A–H View FIGURE 43 , 58 View FIGURE 58 )

Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016: 429–431 View in CoL View Cited Treatment , figs 80–86, 113, 122. Type locality: Querari, Amazonas, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Medium size (3.5–5.0 mm) ( Figs 43A, B View FIGURE 43 ). Antenna dark brown, but postpedicel variable in length and color (see Remarks section below), palpus pale yellow ( Figs 43C–E View FIGURE 43 ). Proepisternum long, almost reaching prosternum to form a precoxal bridge ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ). Scutum rounded, as broad as mesopleuron in lateral view ( Figs 43A, B View FIGURE 43 ). Hind femur slightly to strongly swollen, brown, with a yellow subapical ring ( Figs 43F, G View FIGURE 43 ). Wing sub-hyaline, light brown, infuscated at humeral crossvein and apices of Sc and R 2+3, and hyaline around pterostigma; pterostigma wide, rectangular, about 2 x longer than wide ( Fig. 43H View FIGURE 43 ).

Type examined material. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( INPA) labelled: “ BRASIL, AMAZONAS, Querari ( Pelotão ) 1°5′N - 69°51′W ” “ 06.iv–15.v.1993, João Vidal ” “ Holótipo, Syneches striatus, Menezes & Ale-Rocha ” [red label] GoogleMaps . Holotype condition: good; not dissected.

Additional examined material. BRAZIL. Amapá: Serra do Navio, Cach [oeira] Pedra Preta , 00°53′39.2″N 52°00′41.9″W, Malaise, 13–15.iv.2014, J.T. Câmara & J.A. Rafael (1 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps idem, 19.xi.2014, J.A. Rafael (1 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps . Amazonas : Careiro Castanho, BR 319 Km 181, Sítio São Paulo, 04°12′48″S 60°49′04″W, 13–27.vii.2016, Malaise grande 2, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier F. (3 ♀, INPA) GoogleMaps ; Manaus, R. F. Adolpho Ducke, Sede , 30.i.2018, Varredura, R. Ale-Rocha et al. (1 ♂, INPA) ; idem, Aspirador (1 ♀, INPA) . Pará: Belem, Pará , IPEAN, 26.iii.1970, J.M. & B.A. Campbell (1 ♀, CNC) . Mato Grosso: Nova Lacerda, Serra , 14°28′38″S 59°33′36″W, 27.iv.2006, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier F., Arm. Luz (8 ♂, 8 ♀, INPA) GoogleMaps . Maranhão: Bom Jardim, REBIO-Res. Biol. Gurupi, Armad. Luminosa Móvel , 17–27.i.2010, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, J.T. Câmara & M.B. Aguiar Neto cols. (1 ♂, 2 ♀, INPA) ; idem, Armad. Luminosa Base , 16–20.iv.2010, J.C. Silva, M.M. Abreu, J.A. Silva & A.C.S. Ferreira cols. (3 ♂, INPA) ; Mirador, Parque Est. Mirador, Base do Mosquito , Armadilha Luminosa , 04–08.ii.2011, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira (4 ♂, 2 ♀, CZMA) . Rondônia: Ouro Preto do Oeste, R. INPA/ Ceplac , 10°43′00″S, 62°14′45″W, 22.iv.2006, J.A. Rafael & F.F. Xavier F., Arm. Malaise (1 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps . Goiás: Corumbá [de Goiás], F. Monjolinho, Barretto col., xi.[19]45 (1 ♀, INPA) . São Paulo: Salesópolis , BORACEA [sic. Boracéia], 12–17.i.1948, L. Trav. F. & D. Braz (1 ♂, MZUSP) ; idem, Trilha dos Pilões–Malaise , 23°39′05.1″S 45°53′51.8″W, 27.ii.2005, 13h00–14h00, L.K. Nogueira & A.P. Aguiar, BIOTA-FAPESP (1 ♀, MZUSP) GoogleMaps . Espírito Santo: Domingos Martins, Mata Pico do Eldorado , 20°22′17″S 40°39′29″W, 23.ix–03.xii.2004, Malaise, M. Tavares e eq[uipe], col. (3 ♂, 4 ♀, UFES) GoogleMaps ; Santa Teresa, Est. Biol. Santa Lucia , 810 m, 19°58′18″S 40°32′07″W, 09–12.iv.2001, Malaise, Ponto 3 Bosque, C.O. Azevedo & equipe col. BIOTA-FAPESP (1 ♀, MZUSP) GoogleMaps . Pará: Rio Xingu, Camp (52°22′W, 3°39′S) ca 60 km S. Altamira, 02–08.x.1986, P. Spangler & O. Flint, 1st Jungle stream trail 1, Malaise trap day&night collection, USNM 2053223 (1 ♂, 2 ♀, NMNH) GoogleMaps . Paraná: S. J. Pinhais, Serra do Mar , i.1985, Arm. Malaise, J.A. Rafael (1 ♂, 1 ♀, INPA) . Santa Catarina: Nova Teutônia , 27°11′S 52°23′W, 300–500 m, xi.1970, F. Plaumann (3 ♂, MZUSP) GoogleMaps ; idem, xii.1970 (2 ♂, INPA) GoogleMaps . COLOMBIA. Rio Raposo , Aug. 1964, V. H. Lee, light trap, USNM 2053223 (1 ♂, NMNH) . VENEZUELA. T. F. Amaz. Cerro de La Neblina, Camp II, 2100 m, 0°50′N 65°59′W, 30.i.1985, Malaise trap at edge of open bog and Bonnetia scrub, W.E. Steiner collr., USNM 2053223 (1 ♂, 1 ♀, NMNH) GoogleMaps .

Distribution. Brazil (States of Amapá *, Amazonas, Espírito Santo *, Goiás *, Maranhão *, Mato Grosso *, Pará, Paraná *, Rondônia *, São Paulo *, Santa Catarina *) ( Fig. 58 View FIGURE 58 ); Colombia * and Venezuela. Syneches striatus is widely distributed in Brazil, recorded in the Amazon, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes.

Remarks. Syneches striatus is one of the most morphologically variable Brazilian species of Syneches and it is apparently composed by two groups of species. One group comprises specimens from North Brazil (administrative states of Amazonas and Amapá), with a long postpedicel, almost twice longer than preceding segments, which color varies from pale yellow (Amazonas) to dark brown with pale yellow apex (Amapá), and the hind femur is only slightly swollen. The other group is composed by specimens from other parts of Brazil, with specimens from the administrative states of Maranhão (Northeast Brazil), Espírito Santo (Southeast Brazil), Mato Grosso (Center West Brazil) and Paraná (South Brazil), which have the postpedicel wholly yellow, short, subequally long to the preceding segments combined and the hind femur strongly swollen. All specimens of S. striatus share the proepisternum long, almost reaching the prosternum to form a precoxal bridge. Wings, as well as male and female terminalia, show no significant variation. Therefore, we suspect that this species may actually represent a species complex, but presently we prefer to maintain all under the same name until additional studies, particularly molecular based ones, can give us some light into this issue.


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium














Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly 2021

Syneches striatus Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016: 429–431

Menezes, I. S. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2016: 431
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