Aptilotella involucris Luk & Marshall, 2014

Luk, Stephen P. L. & Marshall, Stephen A., 2014, A revision of the New World genus Aptilotella Duda (Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae), Zootaxa 3761 (1), pp. 1-156 : 27-28

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Aptilotella involucris Luk & Marshall

sp. n.

Aptilotella involucris Luk & Marshall , sp. n.

Figures 22–24 View FIGURES 22–23 View FIGURE 24 , and 149–160

Description. Habitus as in Figures 22 and 23 View FIGURES 22–23 . Body length 1.6–1.8 mm. Head ground color yellow-orange. Frons finely rugose. Ocellar triangle slightly raised; ocelli present; ocellar bristle two-thirds the length of frons. Orbital bristle present; orbital setulae in four pairs. Interfrontal setae in three pairs. Face weakly shining and pale in males, with a broad white band in facial excavation; shining in females; gena dull, lower margin setaceous. Antenna orange, first flagellomere brown. Scutum and scutellum black, shining, finely rugose and microtrichose. Scutum uniformly setose. Scutellum trapezoidal, 1.6 times wider than long, 0.6 times the width of scutum. Scutellar bristles subequal in length. Pleuron black. Legs yellow-orange; mid and hind coxae and tarsi dark brown; femora brown basally; mid tibia with two anterodorsal and one distal posterodorsal bristle. Male mid leg ( Figs. 22 View FIGURES 22–23 , 160 View FIGURES 156–160 ) modified: trochanter ventrally with a comb of strong setae; mid femur swollen in distal half, ventrally with long setae and stout setae before base; tibia with a ventrodistal comb. Wing rudiment dark brown. Abdomen black, shining, finely rugose and microtrichose; tergites each with two rows of setae, which become longer with each segment. Cercus orange, surstylus brown.

Male terminalia. Sternite 5 ( Figs. 24 View FIGURE 24 , 152 View FIGURES 149–152 ) anteromedially grooved; posteromedial third projected and raised, flanked by setae, its margin medially excavated and sunken, and giving rise to a pair of very dark, compressed, knobby processes with a large inner tooth which clasps the cercus. Synsternite 6+7 as in Figure 151 View FIGURES 149–152 . Anal aperture dorsally deeply emarginate. Cercus ( Figs. 24 View FIGURE 24 , 149, 150 View FIGURES 149–152 ) gradually tapering, twice as long as basal width; base swollen and setulose; apex sloped inward; distal third bearing several sensory setae, three stout setae and a long seta next to the middle stout seta. Surstylus ( Figs. 149, 150 View FIGURES 149–152 ) semi-cylindrical, twice as long as wide; posterior margin setaceous, basally tuberculate; distal third with several sensory setae. Postgonite ( Fig. 154 View FIGURES 153–155 ) curved with strongly concave anterior margin; descending arm half the total length, gradually tapering, with two basal sensory setae; articulatory process for pregonite triangular and rounded; articulatory process for basiphallus a small knob on a broad stalk. Hypandrium ( Fig. 155 View FIGURES 153–155 ) with straight, apically truncate medial rod; posteromedial fork rounded and divergent; rectangular hypandrial arms appearing triangular due to membranous connection with medial rod, the left arm apically dilated; pregonite clavate with thicker anterior margin. Aedeagus as in Figure 153 View FIGURES 153–155 . Basiphallus arched, with prominent posterior hump; articulatory process for postgonite slender, directed forward. Ejaculatory apodeme round with a descending apical stalk. Ventrobasal sclerite divided. Lateral flanking sclerite darkened and dorsally emarginate in distal third; dorsal margin rolled, straight; basal margin slanted; distal margin rounded, supporting in dorsal half a membranous sac clothed in fine rows of minute denticles. Ventral flanking sclerites with the basal article fused posteroventrally and along ventrodistal margin of lateral flanking sclerite, distally tapering to a point; the medial article confluent with basal article, ascending and ending beneath membranous sac; the distal article articulating with ventrodistal margin of basal article, ladle-shaped and opening outward. Medial paired sclerites originating from inside distal margin of lateral flanking sclerites, slender portion convergent and protruding between membranous sacs. Distal oval sclerites flanking slender portion of medial paired sclerites. Ventral paired sclerites descending between ladle-shaped distal articles; apically with a leaf-shaped sclerite, flanked ventrally by a rod-shaped sclerite and ventrolaterally by triangular ventral plate-like sclerites.

Female terminalia. Epiproct ( Figs. 156, 157 View FIGURES 156–160 ) subpentagonal, with indented basal margin; medially densely microtrichose. Each half of tergite 8 ( Figs. 156–158 View FIGURES 156–160 ) subpentagonal, convex; apex rounded; distal half setose. Tergite 7 ( Fig. 156 View FIGURES 156–160 ) anteromedially notched. Cercus 1.5 times as long as wide; with several preapical setae. Hypoproct ( Figs. 157, 158 View FIGURES 156–160 ) reduced to a pair of lightly sclerotized, microtrichose discs. Spermathecae ( Fig. 159 View FIGURES 156–160 ) simple; length of sclerotized ducts approximately twice the diameter of a spermatheca.

Etymology. The manuscript name used for this species by Smith (1994) is here retained. It is derived from the Latin involucer, “unable to fly.”

Type material. Holotype ♂, INBC. COSTA RICA: Cartago, Tapanti—Macizo de la Muerte National Park , N of La Esperanza del Guarco, 17–18.viii.2001, dung traps in cushion plants, S.A. Marshall.

Paratypes. COSTA RICA: Cartago, same label as holotype (5♀, DEBU) ; Cerro Chirripó , trail to, 2800 m, 27.vi.1999, mixed oak forest, leaf litter, R.S. Anderson (♂, DEBU) ; San José, km 74 SE San José, 25.ii.1984, dung trap, H. Howden (4♂, 4♀, DEBU) ; same label as previous but from flight intercept trap (♀, DEBU) ; Pan-American Highway , km 95, 3200 m, 13.iv.1985, oak cloud forest, L. Masner (♀, DEBU) ; km 68, Tres de Junio Bog , 2600 m, 10.ii.1996, litter ex forest adjacent to sphagnum bog, R.S. Anderson (♂, DEBU) ; km 87, near Cerro Buenavista , 9°36’30”N, 83°46’W, 3150 m, 8.vi.1997, mixed elfin forest litter, R.S. Anderson (♂, ♀, DEBU) GoogleMaps ; km 71, near Tres de Junio , 23.vi.1999, wet cloud forest leaf litter, R.S. Anderson (2♂, ♀, DEBU) ; km 78, near Ojo de Agua , 8.vii.1999, cloud forest leaf litter, R.S. Anderson (♀, DEBU) ; Cerro de la Muerte , 3200 m, 3.iv.1985, cloud forest, pan traps, L. Masner (♀, DEBU) ; Cerro de la Muerte , 7–13.iv.1985, oak cloud forest, L. Masner and H. Goulet (♂, DEBU) ; Heredia Porrosati, 6 km N San José de la Montaña , 10°5’30”N, 84°7’W, 1900 m, 21.vi.1997, montane forest litter, R.S. Anderson (♀, DEBU). GoogleMaps

Comments. Aptilotella involucris is a highly apomorphic and sexually dimorphic species that is readily recognized by its large and slender form. The distiphallus is arrayed with internal and ventral sclerites of uncertain affinities. Females possess a strongly domed tergite 7 which may be mistaken for an epandrium, but examination of the unmodified mid leg and non-pruinose face eliminates confusion as to the sex of the individual.


Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio)


Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph