Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 ), Johnson, 1898

Deeming, John C., 2018, A revision of the Afrotropical species of Pachylophus Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) and some related Ovoviviparous genera, Zootaxa 4482 (1), pp. 1-51: 8-10

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Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 )


Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898)  

( Plate 4 View PLATE 4 , Fig. 19; plate 5, Fig. 22; plate 12, Figs 58, 59)

Elachiptera femorata Johnson, 1898: 164  

Pachylophus tellinii Bezzi, 1908: 177   , syn. n.

Pachylophus frontellinus Speiser, 1910: 196  

Pachylophus cymbiformis Becker, 1916: 426  

Described as a species of Elachiptera   from Somalia, this species is further recorded from Rhodesia, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. P. frontellinus Speiser, 1910: 196   and P. cymbiformis Becker, 1916: 426   are junior synonyms. In NHMUK are 2♂ (one of them headless) labelled "Durban, F. Muir" determined by C.G. Lamb as P. frontellinus   . Misidentifications are listed under P. frontalis   (below). Dr. Ebejer informs me that he has run the type of P. cymbiformis   through the above key and that it traces perfectly to femoratus   . Through the kindness of Mrs. Sarah Whitman of the Museo Zoologico de "La Specola", Museo di Storia Naturale, Firenze I have been able to examine the unique holotype of Pachylophus tellinii Bezzi, 1908   from Eritrea. This is in good condition, though the tips of the wings are damaged. It bears the following labels: (1) male sex sign (2) red " Typus " label, (3) ERITREA: ADI-UCRI, vii.1901, Dr. A. Andreini, (4) what appears to be "1109" on a diamond-shaped label, (5) " Pachylophus Tellinii   n. sp." handwritten. It is without doubt conspecific with Pachylophus femoratus (Johnson)   .

Material : 5♂ 4♀, with individual puparia N. NIGERIA: Zaria, Samaru, em. ix –xi.1972 ex shoots Sporobolus pyramidalis, J.C. Deeming     ; 1♀, Samaru , 16.xii.1979, J.C. Deeming   ; 1♀, same data but 12.xi.1969   ; 1♀, same data but 23.viii.1968, m. v. trap     ; 1♀, same data but 9.iii.1969   ; 1♀, same data but   ; 1♂, same data but 10.vii.1967   ; 1♂, Funtua, Maska Fish Farm, 15.xi.1970, J.C. Deeming; 10♂ 14♀, Mambilla Plateau, Ngel Nyaki , forest edge, 1600–1700m, 27–29.xii.1989, D.P. Knoop   ; 1♀, GHANA: Legon , i.1989, M. Cobblah   ; 1♂, Western Province, Elmina   , 4–8.xi.1995, M.R. Wilson (all in NMWC)   ; 1♂ 2♀, CAMEROUN: Monts Bamboutos, Djuttitra, 1800–2000 m., vii.1939, Fini leg. ( MNHN)   ; 1♂, ETHIOPIA: Between Weldiya and Lalibela, 11°57'N 39°25'E, 3326m., 18.iii.1995, M. von Tschirnhaus (X1021) ( ZSM) GoogleMaps   ; 31♂ 57♀, Shewa Distr., River Awash Wenz S. of Nazret , 15.iii.1995, M. v. Tschirnhaus, (X1015), ( ZSM)   ; 1♀, Shewa Prov., 2km NNW Muke T'uri, stream, 30.iii.1995, (X1036), M.v. Tschirnhaus, ( ZSM)   ; 1♂ 1♀, Gonder Prov., Blue Nile at T'is Isat Fwafwate waterfall, 28.iii.1995, (X1032), M. v. Tschirnhaus, ( ZSM)   ; 2♂ 1♀, cultivated country near Addis Allem , c. 8000 ft., 18–19.ix.1926, H. Scott   ; 2♂18♀, Between Addis Allem and Djem-Djem, 7–8000 ft., 20.ix.1926, J. Omer Cooper; 1♂, Djem-Djem Forest , 8000–9000 ft., 21–29.ix.1926, H. Scott   ; 1♂ 4♀, Addis Abeba, 10.x.1926, J. Omer Cooper   ; 3♂ 9♀, Mulu, above Muger Valley , c. 8000 ft., 18-23.xii.1926, H. Scott (all in NHMUK); long series of both sexes KENYA: Kasarani, 10–11.viii.1989, J.W. Ismay   ; 1♀, Rift Valley, Ol Arabe Gorge , 11.xi.1988, R.K. Butlin   ; 1♂, same data but 18.xi.1988   ; 1♀, Cherangani Hills, Kapcherop, 2.xi.1983, I. Yarom; 1♀, Masai Mara, Keekorok Lodge , 29– 30.viii.1983   , A. Freidberg (all in NMWC); 1♂, Mt   . Kenya, Timberless Gap , 9500 ft., 29.vii.1949, J. A. Riley   ; 8♂ 9♀, Nairobi , 9–13.xii.1970   , A.E. Stubbs (1♀ bearing P. frontellinus   det. label in handwriting of J.W. Ismay)   ; 10♂ 8♀, same data but 7.i.1971   ; 1♂, N. of Nairobi, Limuru, 14.xii.1970, A. E. Stubbs; 4♂ 2♀, Nairobi, Karura Forest , 9–13.xii.1970, A.E. Stubbs   ; 3♀, Nairobi, Kabete, 6000 ft., 7.xii.1971, C.F. Huggins; 1♂ 2♀, 14–16 kms. S. of Nakuru, 15–16.xii.1970   , A.E. Stubbs   ; 1♀, Lake Nakuru, 15–16.xii.1970   , A.E. Stubbs; 1♀   , Nyeri, iii –iv.1948, M. Steele (all in NHMUK)   ; 2♀, (1 with Laboulbeniales   on abdomen) West face of Mt. Kenya, E. of Naro Moru , 12.iii.1970, (X328)   ; 2♂ 3♀, 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 0°08'N 37°10'E, 9.iii.1970, (X345) GoogleMaps   ; 8♂ 15♀, (1♂ 1♀ with Laboulbeniales   on tip of abdomen) same locality, 29.iii.1970, (X347) GoogleMaps   ; 8♂ 15♀, 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 29.iii.1970, (X345)   ; 2♀, 7.5km WNW of Ol Kalou , mountain-top, 25.iii.1970, (X342)   ; 1♂, Chyulu Range , 1800m, 18.ii.1971, (X348); all M. v. Tschirnhaus ( ZSM)   ; 1♂ 3♀, UGANDA: Queen Elizabeth National Park, Kyambura Game Reserve, 18.vii.1994, O. Krüger (X974)   ; 2♂ 3♀ NE of Queen Elizabeth National Park , 15.vii.1994, O. Krüger (X973)   ; 1♀, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Collin's Camp, 31.viii.1994, O. Krüger, (X977); 21♂ 38♀, (2♀ with Laboulbeniales   on abdomen and 1♂ on hind tarsus) TANZANIA: Marangu , 22.ii.1971, M.v. Tschirnhaus, (X362)   ; 7♂ 11♀, (1♂ with Laboulbeniales   on hind tarsus) same data (X361)   ; 1♂ 1♀, Kilimanjaro, above Marangu , 6400–7000 ft., 4.iii.1971, M.v. Tschirnhaus, (X375)   ; 2♂ 2♀, Kilimanjaro, 6700–7000 ft. 27.ii.1971, M. v. Tschirnhaus, (X363); (all in ZSM)   ; 1♀, ZAMBIA: Lusaka, 20.v.1994, J.N. Pollock ( NMWC)   ; 3♂ 10♀, ZIMBABWE: 10km SE of Harare, 19.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay   ; 1♀, Harare, Nat. Botanic Gdns. , 14.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay   ; 1♂, Mazowe , grasses, 16.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay (all in OUM)   ; 1♀, ANGOLA: 12 mls. S.W. of Luimbale , c. 5500 ft., 20–21.iii.1972, BMSAE   ; 1♀, SOUTH AFRICA: Durban, 1902, F. Muir   ; 19♂ 18♀, Pirie Dam , ii.1944, J. Omer Cooper (all in NHMUK)   ; 1♀, Natal, 10km N.E. of Drummond , 18.ix.1983, A. Freidberg   ; 1♀, Natal, 25km W. of Winterton , 16.ix.1983, A. Freidberg (all in NMWC). There is a striking difference in the ground colour of the thorax, abdomen and, to a lesser extent, the legs of the above material, that from Ethiopia and the Mt   . Kenya specimen being considerably darker, appearing blackish brown, whereas those from elsewhere are ferruginous, the South African (Pirie Dam) material, which is mature, being especially pale.  

In addition to the above-listed material 2♂ 4♀ collected with the typical material by Dr. Ismay at 10km S. of Harare appear to be a different species, being slightly smaller, having the frons less projecting and consequently the frontal triangle shorter and with straighter sides, the hind margin of the surstylus less concave (forming a concavity of one quarter of a circle in typical form) and the angle between gena and occiput lightly dusted (shining in typical form). However, amongst Dr. von Tschirnhaus' material are specimens which are morphologically intermediate between the typical form and that from Harare, having the frontal triangle variable in shape and the dusting of the genal/occipital angle dusted. These specimens lead me to consider that all should, for the time being at any rate, be regarded as representing the same species. Within the Chloropinae   characters of male terminalia are often misleading, and the unfortunate result of workers figuring the same structure from a slightly different angle can lead to confusion.

This morphologically intermediate material is: 3♂ 2♀, TANZANIA: foot of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Marangu, 4.iii.1971, (X376)   ; 1♂ 1♀, Kilimanjaro, above Marangu, 4.iii.1971 (X375)   ; 1♂, KENYA: 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 9.iii.1970, (X345)   ; 2♀, western face of Mt. Kenya, E. of Naro Moru, 12.iii.1970, (X328)   ; 1♂, Chyulu Range, SW of Kibwesi, 18.ii.1971, (X348); 2♀, mountain ridge 7.5km WNW of Ol Kalou , 25.iii.1970, (X342) (all in ZSM).  

A dissected female from Mulu was found to contain a well developed larva with shell membrane still attached.

Puparium 3.75mm in length, 0.96mm in greatest breadth, tubular, smooth surfaced and yellowish brown in colour; mandibular sclerite ( Plate 5 View PLATE 5 , Fig. 22); anterior spiracles similar to those described here for P. pellucidus   , transversely orientated and situated on lateral edges of dorsal emergence cap; posterior spiracles small, uncoloured and not raised above puparial integument, those figured here ( Plate 4 View PLATE 4 , Fig. 19) showing the right hand spiracle to have 3 large respiratory pores, whereas the left hand one has the appearance of the development of a further pore.


Natural History Museum, London


National Museum of Wales


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology


Oxford University Museum of Natural History














Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 )

Deeming, John C. 2018

Elachiptera femorata

Johnson, 1898 : 164

Pachylophus tellinii

Bezzi, 1908 : 177

Pachylophus frontellinus

Speiser, 1910 : 196

Pachylophus cymbiformis

Becker, 1916 : 426