Eunota togata leucophasma, Acciavatti, 2021

Acciavatti, Robert E., 2021, Taxonomic revision of Eunota togata (LaFerté-Sénectère, 1841) (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) in North America with a new subspecies from western Texas and New Mexico, United States, Insecta Mundi 2021 (848), pp. 1-32 : 15-19

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.5041444

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Eunota togata leucophasma

subsp. nov.

Eunota togata leucophasma View in CoL , new subspecies

Diagnosis. This new subspecies can be distinguished from E. togata globicollis (Casey) occurring in western Texas and New Mexico as follows: 1) small body size; 2) large, elongate white labrum with 4–8, erect submarginal setae, medial four grouped in pairs (most specimens with six); 3) head nearly flat on dorsum with large eyes only slightly prominent dorsally, but extremely bulging laterally; 4) white decumbent setae densely covering nearly all exposed body segments except ventrally on head and medially on metathorax and abdomen; 5) decumbent setae wide and elongate; 6) third and four male antennomeres with numerous white, decumbent setae in addition to erect sensory setae; 7) legs with long femurs, tibiae and tarsi, posterior legs extremely long, especially those of males; 8) elytra in nearly all specimens completely white except for narrow, metallic copper suture, in a few specimens copper color is expanded slightly around scutellum.

Description. Body sizes. Holotype, male ( Fig. 12–16 View Figures 12–17 ), elytral apex to labrum 10.5 mm, elytra at widest point 3.4 mm. Allotype, female ( Fig. 18–22 View Figures 18–23 ), elytral apex to labrum 12.0 mm, elytra at widest point 3.6 mm. Paratypes, body lengths, males 8.0–10.7 mm; females 9.0–12.2 mm. General habitus. Body dorsally mostly white; dense wide decumbent white setae cover most of head, sparser on pronotum; elytral surface almost completely white; body ventrally metallic copper green, pleura and sterna almost entirely obscured by dense wide decumbent white setae. Head. Mandibles moderately long, four teeth beyond large basal molar, proximal three teeth of similar size and acutely angled, apical tooth large, long, distinctly curved downward, most prominently in male; lateral outer margins ivory, all teeth dark brown black, one to a few decumbent white setae near mandible base on some specimens. Labrum ivory, large, anterior labral margin with a small medial tooth flanked by a slight to prominent bulge on each side; six to eight thin erect submarginal setae, middle four paired on either side of medial tooth, one to several white decumbent setae medially on some specimens of both sexes; clypeus, frons, genae obscured by dense decumbent white setae; vertex with sparser decumbent white setae; small areas laterad of antennal insertions and mesad of eyes glabrous; large areas behind eyes and ventrally on head glabrous; antennal scape with a single sensory seta (rarely a second seta present), proximal third and fourth antennomeres with decumbent white setae (besides primary erect setae) in clusters near distal ends in most males, these setae sparse or lacking in some male, and completely absent in all females; eyes only slightly prominent dorsally, but extremely bulging laterally; maxillary and labial palpi testaceous except for a dark apical segment on both sexes. Prothorax. Pronotum subquadrate and globose in dorsal profile, widest at middle with lateral margins uniformly arcuate; anterior and posterior sulcus shallowly grooved; dorsally with moderately wide decumbent white setae covering nearly all of surface and oriented mostly transversally, setae denser at margins and along a central band, setae sparser on each side of center; surface finely rugose with copper reflections centrally becoming mostly green laterally; proepisterna entirely covered with dense wide decumbent white setae oriented dorsoventrally; surface finely rugose with copper reflections. Pterothorax. Laterally all sclerites entirely covered with dense wide decumbent white setae oriented dorsoventrally; surface finely rugose with copper reflections; female coupling sulcus of mesepisterna forming a deep pit near its dorsal margin barely visible under dense decumbent white setae. Elytra. Dorsal surface smooth, completely white except for narrow, metallic suture and wider metallic area at extreme inner angles adjoining scutellum; epipleura pale with scattered white decumbent setae basally; apices microserrulate. Abdomen. Male with anterior six sterna almost entirely covered with dense white decumbent setae and terminal sternite pale brown with scattered setae; females with anterior four sterna almost entirely covered with dense white decumbent setae and terminal two sternites non-metallic dark purple black with scattered setae. Legs. Trochanters pale and covered with decumbent white setae, anterior two pairs with an erect subapical setae, posterior pair glabrous; femurs and tibiae covered with white, decumbent setae. Male genitalia. Fig. 2 View Figures 1–3 . Slim, elongated aedeagus body of nearly uniform width throughout most of its length except for narrow, right-angled basal section, and abruptly tapered distal section with a distinctive arcuate tip bent upward and more sclerotized on outer margin than most of its body; internal sclerites small in size, few in number, concentrated near middle at base of outer half of aedeagus, comprised of a hollow curved tubular flagellum, a thin transverse sclerite, a larger shield, and two needle-like structures.

Remarks on genitalia. For comparison, Fig. 1–3 View Figures 1–3 each show a male aedeagus representative of three Eunota togata subspecies at their geographical limits: 1) Fig. 1— E View Figures 1–3 . togata togata, Los Olmos, Kleburg Co., Texas; 2) Fig. 2— E View Figures 1–3 . togata leucophasma, new subspecies, Salt Flat, Hudspeth Co., Texas; 3) Fig. 3— E View Figures 1–3 . togata latilabris, Lincoln, Lancaster Co., Nebraska. With only slight differences observed in each aedeagus for internal sclerites and their apical tips uniformly sized and shaped, it can be concluded that these three described taxa represent a single species.

Primary types. Holotype, male, labeled ( Fig. 17 View Figures 12–17 ), “ TEXAS, Hudspeth Co. / Salt Flat / 6-IX-1976 / Howard P. Boyd ” (black typeset), “ HOWARD BOYD / COLLECTION / Acc. 35,563” (black typeset), “ Eunota togata / fascinans / (Casey) / det. R. Acciavatti” (black typeset), “ HOLOTYPE / Eunota / togata / leucophasma / Acciavatti” (red label with black typeset) . Allotype, female, labeled ( Fig. 23 View Figures 18–23 ), same label data and format as holotype, also labeled “ ALLOTYPE / Eunota / togata / leucophasma / Acciavatti” (red label with black typeset). Three paratypes (2♂ 1♀) ( CMNH) with same label data as holotype, also labeled “ PARATYPE / Eunota / togata / leucophasma / Acciavatti” (blue label with black typeset) .

Paratypes: Ninety-seven additional paratypes, each labeled with “ PARATYPE / Eunota / togata / leucophasma / Acciavatti” (blue label with black typeset), and locality, collector, quantity by sex, and source collection, are listed chronologically within Texas and New Mexico by county as follows: TEXAS: “Salt Flat, Tex. / Hudspeth Co. / VIII-19-1952 ”, “ M. Cazier / R. Schrammel”, “ Cicindela /togata globicollis / Casey / det. H. L. Willis,1965” (6♂ 2♀)( AMNH); “ TEXAS: Hudspeth Co. , Salt Flat , 3400 ft., 28 August 1973, TX-5, R. R. and M.E. Murray ” (1♀) ( CMNH); “ TEXAS Hudspeth Co. / 6 mi. E. Dell City at / Salt L. 21-VII-1974 ”, ″ W.A. Iselin / Collector” (1♂) ( CMNH) ; “ US: TEXAS / Hudspeth Co. / Salt Flat at black / light 17-VI-1975 / W.A. Iselin, leg.” (1♂ 3♀)( CMNH) ; “ TEXAS Hudspeth / Co, Salt Flat / 11-VIII-1975 ”, “alkali lake shore / leg. J. Stamatov ” (2♂ 3♀)( JSC) ; “ TEXAS Hudspeth Co. / 2 mi. E. Dell City at / blk. light 15-VIII-1976 / W.A. Iselin, leg.” (4♂)( CMNH) ; “ TEXAS Hudspeth / Co. Salt Flat / 6-IX-1976 ”, “alkali mud flat / leg. J. Stamatov ” (1♂ 5♀)( JSC), “ USA TEXAS / Hudsbeth [sic] Co. / Salt Flat / 18-VIII-1978 / Coll. J. Stamatov ” (1♂)( JSC) ; “TX Hudspeth Co. / HY.62-5mE-Salt Flat / D. Brzoska 25-VIII-1979 ” (3♀)( DBC) ; “TX, Hudspeth Co. / 5 mi. E Salt Flat / 9 VIII /81 / Col. C.B. Knisley ” (1♀)( CBKC) ; “TX. Hudspeth Co. / Salt Flat / 27 July 1985 / J. Glaser ” (3♂ 5♀) ( CMNH) ; “ USA: Texas: Hudspeth Co. / Salt Flat, 1-VIII-1985 / J. Stamatov Collector ” (1♂) ( JSC), “TX. Hudspeth Co. / Salt Flat / 2 Aug 1985 / J. Glaser ” (3♂ 1♀) ( CMNH) ; “TX- Hudspeth Co. / HY.62-5mE-Salt Flat / D. Brzoska 16-IX-1986 ” (3♂ 1♀)( DBC) ; “ TEXAS Hudspeth Co. / 15 IX 1986 / Coll. J Stamatov ” (2♂ 5♀)( JSC) ; “TX- Hudspeth Co. / HY.62-5mE-Salt Flat / D. Brzoska 20-VIII-1987 ” (2♂ 4♀)( DBC) ; “ TEXAS Hudspeth Co. / 7 mi. E Salt Flat / 19 VII 1992 / Coll. J. Stamatov ” (1♀) ( JSC) ; “ USA:TX- Hudspeth Co. / HY.62-7mW-Salt Flat / D. Brzoska 22-VII-1993 ” (1♂)( DBC) ; “TX: Hudspeth Co. / 5 mi. E. of Salt Flat / 2 Sept. 1994 / leg. S.M. Spomer ” (1♂ 1♀) ( SSC) ; “ USA:TX HUDSPETH CO. / HY.62- 5mE-Salt Flat / 31°45′31”[N];104°38′97″W / D. Brzoska 9-VIII-1997 ” (2♂ 1♀)( DBC) ; “ TEXAS: Hudspeth / Co., 9 km E of Salt / Flat , Rts. 62/180 / at pull off, 9-VIII- / 2005, C.B. Knisley ” (4♂ 6♀)( CBKC) ; “ TEXAS: Hudspeth / Co., E of Dell City, / Linda Lake , So. of / State Line Rd. , 4-/ VIII-2005, Knisley” (1♀) ( CBKC) ; “TEX. Hudspeth Co. / 5mi. E Salt Flat / 5-VII-1971 / Lawton / Willis ” (1♀) ( KUNHM). NEW MEXICO: “NM, Doña Ana Co. / White Sands MR / 1 km W of Lake Lucero / 27-VII-2000 / Col. Knisley, Hill ” (1♂)( CBKC) ; “NM – Otero Co. / Hy.70 – mm 20 / D. Brzoska 17-IX-1988 ” (1♀)( DBC) ; “ USA:NM – Otero Co. / 9 m SW, 4.5 m E- / Alamogordo (off Hy .82) [actually off Hy .70] / D. Brzoska , 17-VII-1993 ” (1♂ 1♀)( DBC) ; “ USA:NM OTERO CO. / 4m E Hy. 70 @ mm 202 / (SE [actually SSW] Alamogordo) / 32°44′05”[N]; 106°08′24″W / D. Brzoska 10 -VIII-1997 ” (1♂)( DBC) ; “NM, Otero Co. / White Sands MR / Target Salt Lake , RR 6 / 27-VIII-2000 / Col. Knisley, Hill ” (2♂ 2♀)( CBKC) ; “ NEW MEXICO: Otero Co. / 8miSE Cienega,6.7miE / TX 1576 at TX/NM Line / 32°00.29′N; 104°59.75′W, 1118m, 8 August 2001 / bare alkali flat, uv / light, S.M. Clark / Robert E. Acciavatti ” (2♂ 1♀)( CMNH) GoogleMaps .

Type locality. Texas: Hudspeth County, 9 km E Salt Flat, Texas, along US 62/ US 180 ( Fig. 46 View Figures 46–49 ). Type locality is 1105 meters above sea level with latitude 31°45′15.7″N and longitude 104°59′25.35″W at 28.5 km southeast of Dell City, Texas. Type locality GPS mapping coordinates are 31.7525, −105.0158. This site lies centrally in Salt Basin, a conspicuous geographic feature of northeastern Hudspeth County, Texas, and southeastern Otero County, New Mexico, as a large Pleistocene lake remnant, sustained with aquifers and surface flooding.

Type locality note. Site is located between Salt Flat, Texas, and eastern edge of large, white salt flat along major east-west, paved highway downslope from agricultural irrigation circles on right side of Fig. 46 View Figures 46–49 . Type locality is accessible from a roadside pull-off and parking area on north side of US 62/ US 180. Although this specific locality was chosen as its type locality, this new subspecies undoubtedly occurs throughout Salt Basin for it has been collected at several accessible saline and alkali habitats there. One such site in northern part of Salt Basin lies in Otero County, New Mexico, east of Dell City, Texas, just north of Texas / New Mexico State Boundary in upper left of Fig. 46 View Figures 46–49 .

Paratype localities. New Mexico: Doña Ana County, Lake Lucero ; New Mexico: Otero County, salt ponds along and east of US 70 southwest of Alamogordo ( Fig. 47 View Figures 46–49 ) ; New Mexico: Otero County, Salt Target Lake, White Sands Missile Range .

Geographical variation. Eunota togata leucophasma , new subspecies, populations occur in Torrance County, New Mexico, east of Willard at the salt and alkaline lakes complex (Laguna del Perro) within Estancia Basin, and at Laguna Encino and smaller lakes in Encino Basin to the east ( Fig. 48 View Figures 46–49 ). Individuals from these populations are not considered paratypes because a majority lack completely white elytra ( Fig. 24, 25 View Figures 24–29 ); rather their dark elytral color becomes narrowly expanded along the suture except the posterior quarter is covered by white maculation so no dark posterior lobe is evident, traits typical of specimens in Estancia Basin.

Type depositories. Holotype at CMNH; allotype and 25 paratypes at CMNH; remaining paratypes distributed as follows: 8 paratypes to AMNH; 1 to KUNHM; 2 to UASM; 1 to UNSM; 2 to SSC; 17 to CBKC; 21 to DBC; 21 to JSC.

Etymology. This feminine singular subspecific name, leucophasma, combines Latin leukos and phasma, both derived from Greek λεΥΚΌς and φάσμα, signifying “white” and “phantom or apparition.” Subspecies name refers to adult appearance from their extensive white elytra and decumbent setae covering almost all body segments and legs, thereby, making them appear as brilliant, white ghostly forms running over white-encrusted, dry soil surfaces of their habitat.

Habitats. Eunota togata adults occur on a variety of habitats associated with saline and alkaline soils. Label data on E. togata leucophasma , new subspecies, types indicate this subspecies was collected from bare alkali flat, alkali lake shore, and alkali mud flats. Published habitat records for other populations of E. togata in New Mexico include damp alkaline flats of an alkaline sink at Laguna del Perro, Torrance County, NM ( Lawton and Willis 1974; Johnson 1975a, 1975b).

Adult behavior. Eunota togata adults are gregarious and occur in large numbers during peak emergence in suitable habitats, especially on damp substrates along edges of ponds and ditches with water. Adults are wary during daylight hours and when disturbed run in a zig-zag pattern before taking flight, often for moderate distances. Notable is their presence in these open, hot substrates during the day while co-occurring species seek shade under vegetation. During hours of darkness, E. togata adults are attracted to ultraviolet wavelengths from fluorescent tubes, as well as, visible wavelengths from lanterns. Adults around these light sources often remain motionless for short periods, allowing this behavior to be exploited to capture specimens.

Geographical distribution. Eunota togata leucophasma , new subspecies, is confined to Salt Basin of west Texas into adjoining New Mexico and Tularosa Basin and Estancia Basin of central New Mexico ( Fig. 50 View Figure 50 ). Intergrade populations between E. togata leucophasma , new subspecies, and E. togata globicollis exist in central Pecos River = E. t. latilabris; = E. t. globicollis ; = E. t. leucophasma, new subspecies; = E. t. globicollis × E. t. leucophasma, new subspecies, intergrade. = type locality of each subspecies.

Valley of eastern New Mexico and at several locations in Permian Basin of southeastern New Mexico and western Texas. Other populations of this species in western Texas and eastern New Mexico are assignable to E. togata globicollis .

Comparison with other Eunota togata subspecies. Detailed collection data for E. togata examined from western Texas and New Mexico specimens are in Appendix 1. As stated previously, not all E. togata specimens from populations within western Texas and eastern New Mexico are taxonomically assigned to either E. togata leucophasma , new subspecies, or E. togata globicollis ; rather, these represent intergrade populations between these two subspecies. Assigning populations to either subspecies, or giving them intergrade status, was based on defining elytral maculation characteristics for each subspecies. Eunota togata leucophasma , new subspecies, adults have only these maculation characteristics: 1) white maculation entirely covering each elytron or wide without distinct sinuate inner edge and occasionally with small white mark extending toward scutellum; 2) dark surface color limited to anterior area around scutellum and along suture, but never forming a rounded lobe along suture projecting posteriorly into white band across posterior elytral margins. Eunota togata globicollis adults have several maculation characteristics: 1) white maculation as a lateral band with sinuate inner edge and three obvious bulges projecting inward onto dark disc surface; 2) dark surface color forming a distinct lobe or narrow projection extending posteriorly along suture into the white band across posterior elytral margins. Intergrade populations between these two subspecies have adults with both types of elytral maculation.

Application of these elytral maculation characteristics provide the following assignments for several populations in New Mexico and western Texas. Eunota togata leucophasma , new subspecies ( Fig. 24, 25 View Figures 24–29 ) occurs in Torrance County, New Mexico, around numerous salt and alkaline playas of Estancia Basin. The playa complex in the foreground of Fig. 48 View Figures 46–49 is known as Laguna del Perro, whereas Laguna Encino and smaller playa lakes appear in the distance. Intergrade specimens between E. togata globicollis X E. togata leucophasma , new subspecies, ( Fig. 26–29 View Figures 24–29 ) occur at several locations: Bitter Lake and Bottomless Lakes, Chaves County, New Mexico; Laguna Plata, Lea County, New Mexico; Shafter Lake, Andrews County, Texas; unnamed lake near O’Donnell, in Lynn County, Texas. Intergrade status is suspected for populations occurring around several small, alkali lakes on Llano Estacado (Staked Plains) in High Plains of western Texas, such as those found around Tahoka, Lynn County, Texas ( Fig. 49 View Figures 46–49 ). Regrettably, specimens from these sites were absent from collections borrowed for study likely due to accessibility issues because these lakes are located on privately owned ranches. An intergrade population of E. togata globicollis and E. togata togata from Reeves County, Texas, has been recorded based on intermediate position of sutural spine on elytra for some females ( Willis 1967). Although this variant has been seen on specimens, most specimens exhibit elytral maculation typical of intergradation between E. togata globicollis and E. togata leucophasma , new subspecies; thereby making it reasonable to conclude this population represents an intergrade between these two subspecies rather than as Willis (1967) reported.


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