Diaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi),

Smith-Pardo, Allan H., Evans, Gregory A. & Dooley, John W., 2012, A review of the genus Chrysomphalus Ashmead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) with descriptions of a new species and a new, related genus, Zootaxa 3570, pp. 1-24: 19-20

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http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.282977

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Diaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)


Diaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)  , 1896 ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11), stat. rev.

Fig. 21View FIGURE 21

Chrysomphalus degeneratus Leonardi  in Berlese & Leonardi, 1896: 345. Type data: Italy (Portici) on leaves of Pandanus graminifolia  . Type depository: Portici: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Italy

Aspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)  ; Cockerell, 1896: 334.

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) degeneratus (Leonardi)  ; Cockerell, 1897: 29.

Hemiberlesia degenerata (Leonardi)  ; McKenzie, 1939: 54.

Abgrallaspis degeneratus (Leonardi)  ; Balachowsky, 1948: 317; Miller & Davidson, 2005: 42.

Diaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)  ; Borchsenius, 1950: 225.

Dynaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)  ; Borchsenius, 1966: 282; Danzig, 1993: 151.

Distribution: Nearctic: USA; Western Palearctic: Georgia, Greece, Italy, Portugal; Eastern Palearctic: China, Japan, North Korea.

Host families: Araliaceae  , Aquifoliaceae  , Celastraceae  , Ericaceae  , Oleaceae  , Pandanaceae  , Rutaceae  , and Theaceae  .

Discussion: Scale insect workers have found it difficult to place Chrysomphalus degeneratus  in an appropriate genus based on its morphology, since it lacks some of the characteristics that define the various genera and/or exhibits characteristics intermediate between genera. Since Leonardi described it in 1896, it has been placed in the following genera: Abgrallaspis  , Aspidiotus  , Diaspidiotus  , Dynaspidiotus  and Hemiberlesia  . Prior to this study, it was placed in the genus Abgrallaspis  . Research on the molecular systematics of diaspidid species by Andersen et al. (2010) and by Rugman-Jones et al. (2010), which included Abgrallaspis degeneratus  , Chrysomphalus aonidum  , C. dictyospermi  , Abgrallaspis cyanophylli  (the type species of the genus Abgrallaspis  ) and numerous species from several other aspidiotine genera, showed a very close relationship between A. degeneratus  and species of Chrysomphalus  , Aonidiella  and Diaspidiotus  and a relatively distant relationship to the Abgrallaspis  species included in their study. After discussion with Benjamin Normark (pers. comm.) and consideration of the results of Anderson et al. (2010) and Rugman-Jones et al. (2010) it was decided to examine the morphology of Abgrallaspis degeneratus  to determine whether it supported the molecular findings.

Although the genus Abgrallaspis  has been shown to be paraphyletic (Andersen et al., 2010; Rugman-Jones et al., 2010) and its limits poorly-defined, it appears that the species currently placed in Abgrallaspis  lack the paraphysis in the L 2 –L 3 interlobular space and lack the long and slender paraphysis arising from the mesal corner of L 1 typical of Chrysomphalus  , Aonidiella  and certain species of Diaspidiotus  [as well as in A. degeneratus  ]. In Abgrallaspis  , the paraphysis arising from the mesal corner of L 1 is entirely absent, extremely short, or forms a wide basal sclerosis, at least half the width of L 1, and the paraphysis arising from the lateral corner of L 1 is either absent, or relatively short and/or weakly developed. In addition, most Abgrallaspis  species have 3 pairs of well-developed pygidial lobes. Unlike Chrysomphalus  species, the paraphyses of A. degeneratus  are less well-developed, about as long as, or shorter than, the pygidial lobes, the paraphysis in the interlobular space between L 2 and L 3 is absent or very short and inconspicuous, and the margin anterior to L 3 has a series of 3 short glandular spines, whereas in Chrysomphalus  the paraphyses are well-developed, usually longer than the pygidial lobes with a well-developed, elongate paraphysis in the interlobular space between L 2 and L 3 and the margin anterior to L 3 has a series of plates with clubbed, fringed or bifurcate apices. Based on these characters, we believe that A. degeneratus  is better placed in Diaspidiotus  , the genus in which Borchsenius (1950) had placed it. It is most similar to Diaspidiotus africanus ( Marlatt, 1908)  in the presence of perivulvar pores and in the shape of the lobes, paraphyses, plates and spines.














Diaspidiotus degeneratus (Leonardi)

Smith-Pardo, Allan H., Evans, Gregory A. & Dooley, John W. 2012

Dynaspidiotus degeneratus

Danzig 1993: 151
Borchsenius 1966: 282

Diaspidiotus degeneratus

Borchsenius 1950: 225

Abgrallaspis degeneratus

Miller 2005: 42
Balachowsky 1948: 317

Hemiberlesia degenerata

McKenzie 1939: 54

Aspidiotus (Chrysomphalus) degeneratus

Cockerell 1897: 29

Chrysomphalus degeneratus

Berlese 1896: 345

Aspidiotus degeneratus

Cockerell 1896: 334