Apodrosus empherefasciatus Girón & Franz, 2010

Girón, Jennifer C. & Franz, Nico M., 2010, Revision, phylogeny and historical biogeography of the genus Apodrosus Marshall, 1922 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae), Insect Systematics & Evolution 41, pp. 339-414 : 395-399

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1163/187631210X538799

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scientific name

Apodrosus empherefasciatus Girón & Franz


Apodrosus empherefasciatus Girón & Franz sp.n.

( Fig. 17 View Fig )


Apodrosus empherefasciatus is characterized by the combination of a mesally constricted rostrum, an apically bifurcated median furrow on the head, uniformly colored legs, a slightly produced interval X at the basal third of the elytra, and a predominantly white coloration with light brown, iridescent (yellowish to reddish) scales forming an apparent striped pattern along the elytra and with recurvate, decumbent setae. This species may be differentiated from A. quisqueyanus by its more or less uniform (as opposed to irregularly patterned) coloration, and by the acutely angled cornu and ramus of the spermatheca. Furthermore, it differs in scale coloration from the darker A. adustus and in having a characteristic constriction between the cornu and corpus of the spermatheca.

Specimens examined

Holotype ♀ “ BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice , 24-28-VII-2006, M. C. Thomas, T. R. Smith, UV trap in interior coppice ” ( CWOB) ; paratypes: “Bahamas, Andros I. Morgan’s Bluff Rd., cocconut grove, 4 V 1987, J. Browne & D. Myles, coast, coppice edge, sweeping. 87-152J” (CMNC: 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Morgans Bluff, 25 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♂); “Bahamas, Andros I. San Andros, Robinson’s Place, J. Browne 10 VI 1987, wet pineland, -blk. lt. 87-41J” (CMNC: 1 ♂); “Bahamas, Andros I. CDC Farm, Shotgun Coppice, 19 VII 1987, J. Browne, high interior coppice, blk. lt. 87-107J” (CMNC: 2 ♂); “Bahamas, Andros I. Menne-nite’s Farm, 30 VII 1987, J. Browne, crop, blk. lt. 87-107J” (CMNC: 1 ♂, 2 ♀); “Bahamas, Andros I. Menne-nite’s Farm, 31 VII 1987, J. Browne, crop, blk. lt. 87-143J” (CMNC: 1 dissected ♂); “Bahamas, Andros I., Behring Pt., Behring Pt. Beach, 12 VIII 1987, J. Browne, random srch. of beach drift. 87-198J” (CMNC: 2 ♀); “Bahamas, Andros I., Man-O-War Snd., 13 VIII 1987, J. Browne, high interior coppice morng., shrub & tree beating. 87-199J” (CMNC: 2 ♂, 2 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Captain Bill’s Blue-hole, 27July 2006, R. Turnbow” (FSCA: 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Capt. Bill’s Blue Hole, Central Andros Nat. Pk., 27-VII-2006, coll. G. B. Edwards” (FSCA: 1 ♂, 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Forfar Field Station, 2 June 2001, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♂, dissected); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Forfar Field Station, 6 June 2004, R. Turnbow” (RHTC: 2 ♀, 1 dissected); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Forfar Field Sta., nr Stafford Creek, 8-VI-2004, M. C. Thomas, BLT” (FSCA: 1 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Forfar Field Station, 8 June 2004, R.Turnbow” (RHTC:1 ♀, 1 dissected); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Forfar Field Station, 22 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 2 ♂; 1 ♀; RHTC: 4 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Forfar Field Station, 22-VII-2006, T. R. Smith, beating” (FSCA: 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Forfar Field Sta., nr Stafford Creek, 22-28- VII-2006, M. C. Thomas, T. R. Smith, UV trap in coastal coppice” (FSCA: 3 ♂, 2 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Forfar Field Sta., nr Stafford Creek, 22-28-VII-2006, G. B. Edwards” (FSCA: 3 ♀);“BAHAMAS: Andros, Stafford Creek, 4 June 2001, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 3 ♂; RHTC: 2 ♂, 2 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Stafford Creek, 8 June 2001, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♀; RHTC: 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 9 June 2004, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♀; RHTC: 2 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 9 June 2004, M. C. Thomas” (FSCA: 1 ♂; 1 ♀);“BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 11-VI-2004, M. C. Thomas, BLT.” (CWOB: 1 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 23-VII-2006; M. C. Thomas, beating vegetation” (CWOB: 1 ♂, 1 dissected ♀; FSCA: 1 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 23-VII-2006; T. R. Smith, beating” (FSCA: 1 ♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 23 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♀; RHTC: 3♂, 1 dissected; 1♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 24-28-VII-2006, M. C. Thomas, T. R. Smith, UV trap in interior coppice” (FSCA: 2 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 27 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (RHTC: 1♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros Is., Maidenhair Coppice, 23-VII-2006; T. R. Smith, beating” (CWOB: 2 ♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Cargill Creek, 24 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♂, dissected; RHTC: 1♀); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Cargill Creek, 26 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 1 ♂, 1 ♀; RHTC: 1♂); “BAHAMAS: Andros, Small Hope, 27 July 2006, R. Turnbow” (CWOB: 2 ♂, 3 ♀; RHTC: 1♂; 1♀).


Body length 3–5 mm; in dorsal view ( Fig. 17A View Fig ) 2.5-times longer than greatest width which is at second third of elytra; dorsal outline in lateral view subplane. Integument surface smooth; vestiture uniformly composed of white and brown, iridescent (yellowish to reddish) scales, with recurvate, decumbent setae. Eyes ( Fig. 17B View Fig ) 1.5-times longer than wide, projected, 0.4-times width and 0.6-times length of head in lateral view, separated from anterior margin of prothorax by 0.4-times greatest diameter of eye; line of anterior margin of eyes impressed; shortest distance between eyes (in dorsal view) 0.4-times greatest width of pronotum; median furrow ( Fig. 17B View Fig ) apically shortly bifurcated, shallow, extending between anterior and posterior margins of eyes. Rostrum ( Fig. 17B View Fig ) slightly longer than wide, mesally slightly constricted; epistome apically with 3-5 setae situated on each side, posteriorly extending as a longitudinal, narrow keel almost to base of rostrum; nasal plate evident, concave. Rostrum in lateral view slightly longer than wide; antennal insertion approximately at apical fourth of rostrum; scrobe curved downwards by 45°, directed ventrally at end, extending to anterior third of eye, separated from it by 2-times width of scrobe. Mandibles with 2 lateral setae, pharyngeal process nearly as long as mandible. Maxillae with cardo 3.6-times longer than its greatest width; stipes with 3–4 lateral setae; galeo-lacinial complex mesally extending to midpoint of maxillary palpomere III, apex with 2–3 long setae, with 4 tongue-like apically narrowed setae and a tuft of shorter and apically rounded setae, with 4 lacinial teeth and a tuft of long fine setae at base of lacinia; maxillary palpomere I longer than III, III slightly longer than II; I and II with a mesolateral seta. Labium with prementum suboval, slightly longer than wide, apical margin slightly mesally projected; in lateral profile with ventral surface slightly depressed at base, thereafter abruptly roundly produced, continuing straight to apex, sculptured. Antennae reddish brown; antennal scape extending to posterior margin of eye; funicular antennomere I 1.5-times longer than II; antennal club 0.5-times length of funicle, 2.3-times longer than wide. Pronotum ( Fig. 17A View Fig ) subquadrate, slightly wider than long, greatest width at mid length; dorsal surface shallowly puncturate, each puncture with a curved, spatulate, brownish seta; posterior margin nearly straight, 1.2-times wider than anterior margin; prothorax in lateral view with dorsal outline 1.7-times length of ventral outline; scutellum subcircular, with scarce scales. Mesosternum ( Fig. 17D View Fig ) 0.5-times length of prosternum. Metasternum with lateral portions posteriorly produced (in lateral profile gradually ascending towards posterior fifth, thereafter descending roundly, posterior face covered with scales); distance between posterior margin of mesocoxae and anterior margin of metacoxae 0.7-times length of prosternum. Metendosternite with furcal arms as long as stalk, positioned nearly at 120° in relation to horizontal axis; ventral margin of stalk 3.3-times its dorsal width. Legs with profemora 1.1-times longer than pronotum; claws subparallel. Elytra in dorsal view ( Fig. 17A View Fig ) 1.6-times their greatest width which is 1.5-times wider than pronotum; anterior margins sinuate; humeral region 1.5-times wider than posterior margin of pronotum; lateral margins parallel; apex roundly truncate; in lateral view ( Fig. 17C View Fig ) with dorsal outline subplane; posterior declivity distinct, rounded; striae IX and X fused along their second third; intervals completely covered with oval scales, forming a pattern of dark and light intervals, appearing striped; interval X slightly produced along basal third and along apex of elytra; with recurvate, spatulate setae. Wings 1.7-times length of elytra, 3.1-times longer than wide; costal margin emarginate along basal third; apex rounded; medial margin slightly rounded; cubital margin slightly emarginate; 3A intersecting with 2A. Venter ( Fig. 17D View Fig ) densely covered with scales; anterior margin of VII 2.4-times wider than its length; ♂: IV 1.8-times longer than V and VI jointly, 1.4- times longer than VII, VII with posterior margin rounded; ♀: IV 1.7-times longer than V and VI jointly, 2-times longer than VII, VII with posterior margin slightly narrowed mesally.

Terminalia. Male with tergum VII 1.4-times wider than its mesal length, distal third with multifid setae; anterior margin nearly triangular, mesally narrowly truncate, posterior margin mesally slightly emarginate, laterally rounded. Tergum VIII 1.6-times wider than its mesal length, anterior margin slightly emarginate, apical margin nearly straight in mid region, laterally widely rounded. Sternum VIII without spiculum relictum. Spiculum gastrale with apodeme 1.3-times longer than aedeagus, each furcal arm lightly sclerotized, suboval. Tegmen with tegminal apodeme nearly 0.6-times length of aedeagus; tegminal plate mesally slightly projected posteriorly. Aedeagus in dorsal view ( Fig. 17E View Fig ) 3.3-times longer than its greatest width, parallel sided; apex truncate, laterally rounded. Endophallus with a pair of subtriangular sclerites positioned near apical fourth, and a pair of hook-like sclerites near midpoint. Aedeagus in lateral view ( Fig. 17F View Fig ) 9-times longer than its greatest width; apex slightly curved upwards. Aedeagal apodemes nearly as long as aedeagus.

Female. With tergum VII 1.2-times longer than wide; posterior margin acutely rounded, with anteapical multifid setae and apical unifid setae. Tergum VIII suboval, 1.3-times longer than wide. Sternum VIII with lamina sagittate, occupying posterior one fifth. Coxites+styli nearly as long as lamina of sternum VIII, stylus 2.8-times longer than its greatest width, with 4–5 long apical setae. Genital chamber 0.7-times length of sternum VIII. Spermatheca ( Fig. 17G View Fig ) 1.2-times longer than wide, J-shaped; cornu slightly rounded, roundly acutely curved towards ramus, margin between cornu and ramus emarginate; distance between cornu and base of corpus shorter than width of cornu; ramus apically truncate.


Th e examined specimens vary primarily in their patterns of coloration which range from uniformly white to appearing striped, turning light brown when abraded.


Noun in apposition. Named after the Greek term empheres meaning “resembling” and the Latin term fascia meaning “band, stripe” ( Brown 1956), in reference to the apparent striped scale coloration pattern on the elytra.

Natural history

Apodrosus empherefasciatus is apparently restricted to shrubby, coastal habitats on Andros Island, Bahamas ( Fig. 18A View Fig ). The host plant associations remain unknown.


Charles W. O'Brien