Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau

Schmidt, C. A. & Shattuck, S. O., 2014, The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior, Zootaxa 3817 (1), pp. 1-242 : 52-53

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Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau


Tribe Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau View in CoL View at ENA

Ponérites Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835: 185 (as group name). Type genus: Ponera Latreille, 1804: 179 . Ashmead, 1905: 382 ( Ponerini ).

Odontomachidae Mayr, 1862: 708 (as subfamily of Formicidae ). Type genus: Odontomachus Latreille, 1804: 179 View in CoL . Bolton, 1994: 164 ( Odontomachini , as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Leptogenyi Forel, 1893a: 162 (as tribe of Ponerinae ). Type genus: Leptogenys Roger, 1861: 41 . Brown, 1963: 3 (Leptogenysii, as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Harpegnathii Forel, 1900a: 63 (as tribe of Ponerinae ). Type genus: Harpegnathos Jerdon, 1851: 116 View in CoL . Bolton, 1994: 164 ( Harpegnathini , as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Drepanognathini Ashmead, 1905: 382 (as tribe of Pachycondylinae ). Type genus: Drepanognathus Smith, F., 1858: 81 (unnecessary replacement name for Harpegnathos Jerdon, 1851 ). Bolton, 1994: 164 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Pachycondylinae Ashmead, 1905: 382 (as subfamily of Ponerinae ). Type genus: Pachycondyla Smith, F., 1858: 105 . Bolton, 1994: 164 ( Pachycondylini , as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Euponerinae Emery, 1909: 355 (as group of Ponerinae ). Type genus: Euponera Forel, 1891: 126 . Bolton, 1994: 164 (Euponerini, as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Centromyrmicini Emery, 1911: 57 (as subtribe of Ponerini ). Type genus: Centromyrmex Mayr, 1866: 894 View in CoL . Brown, 1953a: 9 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Plectroctenini Emery, 1911: 92 (as subtribe of Ponerini ). Type genus: Plectroctena Smith, F., 1858: 101 . Bolton, 1994: 164 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Dorylozelini Wheeler, 1922b: 646 (as tribe of Ponerinae ). Type genus: Dorylozelus Forel, 1915a: 24 (junior synonym of Leptogenys Roger, 1861: 41 View in CoL ). Taylor, 1969: 132 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Pseudoneoponerini Chapman & Capco, 1951: 77 (as tribe of Ponerini ). Type genus: Pseudoneoponera Donisthorpe, 1943a: 439 . Bolton, 2003: 159 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Archiponerini Dlussky & Fedoseeva, 1988: 78 (as tribe of Ponerini ). Type genus: Archiponera Carpenter, 1930: 27 View in CoL . Bolton, 2003: 172 ( Archiponera as incertae sedis in Ponerinae ). Bolton, 1994: 164 (as junior synonym of Ponerini ).

Thaumatomyrmecini Emery, 1901: 36 View in CoL (as tribe of Ponerini ). Type genus: Thaumatomyrmex Mayr, 1887: 530 View in CoL . Thaumatomyrmecini as junior synonym of Ponerini : Syn. nov.

Tribe Ponerini contains the vast majority of ponerine generic and species diversity. Bolton (2003) provided a diagnosis for Ponerini which is still mostly accurate, though our inclusion of Thaumatomyrmex necessitates some minor changes.

Diagnosis. The only unequivocal autapomorphy of Ponerini is the vestigial nature of the mandibles in males. Differentiation of the female castes between Ponerini and Platythyreini ( Platythyrea ) is less straightforward. Ponerini workers can generally be identified by their closely approximated frontal lobes and antennal sockets, by their lack of two pectinate metatibial spurs, by the projection of their helcium low on the anterior face of A3 (which has a high vertical anterior face), and by their non-pruinose sculpturing. Exceptions to each of these character states exist within Ponerini , however, and the occurrence of some of these states in certain Platythyrea species (the Australian species formerly placed in Eubothroponera ) complicates the tribe’s diagnosis. The spacing of the frontal lobes and antennal sockets is the most consistent difference between the tribes, with the exception of Thaumatomyrmex , which has very widely spaced frontal lobes but is a member of Ponerini . Thaumatomyrmex has derived pitchfork-like mandibles, in contrast to the triangular mandibles present in all Platythyrea , and also lacks the paired pectinate metatibial spurs, high helcium, and pruinose sculpturing present in nearly all Platythyrea . The following diagnosis is adapted from that of Bolton (2003), with a change to reflect the inclusion of Thaumatomyrmex .

Worker. With the standard characters of Ponerinae . Frontal lobes and antennal sockets usually closely approximated medially; if these are widely spaced ( Thaumatomyrmex ), the mandibles are pitchfork-like, with a few highly attenuated teeth. Metacoxal cavities closed, fully fused or with a suture in the annulus (not evaluated in this study). Helcium usually projecting from low on the anterior face of A3, which has a high vertical anterior face above the helcium (the helcium projects from near midheight on the anterior face of A 3 in Boloponera , Buniapone , Dolioponera , Feroponera , Promyopias , some Cryptopone species , and some Centromyrmex species ; Harpegnathos has a relatively low anterior face above the helcium).

Queen. Similar to worker but typically winged, slightly larger, and with ocelli and larger compound eyes. The queen caste has frequently been modified during the course of ponerine evolution. Ergatoid queens are common, and the queens of Simopelta are dichthadiigyne. Some taxa with gamergates have lost the queen caste (e.g., Diacamma , Dinoponera , Hagensia and Streblognathus ).

Male. Mandibles highly reduced and vestigial. Palp formula often higher than in conspecific females.

Larva. See references under individual genera.

Discussion. Ponerini first appeared in the literature under the informal group name Ponérites ( Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau, 1835). Subsequent authors recognized Ponerini as a tribe of Ponerinae , with early authors using the names Ponerii or Poneri (e.g., Forel 1893 a, 1895). Ashmead (1905) was the first to use the name Ponerini , which has been used by all subsequent authors.

Ponerini has a large number of junior synonyms, as various authors have erected family-group names for many of the most morphologically derived ponerine genera, as well as some more plesiomorphic genera. These taxa are now known to share a strong synapomorphy in the vestigial mandibles of males, as well as generally similar worker and queen structure. Molecular phylogenetic evidence ( Schmidt, 2013) confirms the synonymic status of these groups, and demonstrates that an additional synonymy is necessary: Thaumatomyrmecini , recognized by Bolton (2003) and earlier authors as a distinct tribe, is nested within a non-monophyletic Ponerini . This result is also supported by morphological evidence (see discussion under Thaumatomyrmex ), so we are newly synonymizing Thaumatomyrmecini under Ponerini .












Ponerini Lepeletier de Saint-Fargeau

Schmidt, C. A. & Shattuck, S. O. 2014


Bolton, B. 2003: 172
Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Dlussky, G. M. & Fedoseeva, E. B. 1988: 78
Carpenter, F. M. 1930: 27


Bolton, B. 2003: 159
Chapman, J. W. & Capco, S. R. 1951: 77
Donisthorpe, H. 1943: 439


Taylor, R. W. 1969: 132
Wheeler, W. M. 1922: 646
Forel, A. 1915: 24
Roger, J. 1861: 41


Brown, W. L. Jr. 1953: 9
Emery, C. 1911: 57
Mayr, G. 1866: 894


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Emery, C. 1911: 92


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Emery, C. 1909: 355
Forel, A. 1891: 126


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Ashmead, W. H. 1905: 382


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Ashmead, W. H. 1905: 382


Emery, C. 1901: 36
Mayr, G. 1887: 530


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Forel, A. 1900: 63
Jerdon, T. C. 1851: 116


Bolton, B. 1994: 164
Mayr, G. 1862: 708
Latreille, P. A. 1804: 179
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