Urophonius pizarroi, Ojanguren-Affilastro & Ochoa & Mattoni & Prendini, 2010

Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A., Ochoa, José A., Mattoni, Camilo I. & Prendini, Lorenzo, 2010, Systematic Revision of the granulatus Group of Urophonius Pocock, 1893 (Scorpiones, Bothriuridae), with Description of a New Species from Central Chile, American Museum Novitates 2010 (3695), pp. 1-44: 31-38

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3695.2

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scientific name

Urophonius pizarroi

n. sp.

Urophonius pizarroi   , n. sp.

Figures 1, 2D, 3D, 4D, 5D, 6D, 7D, H, 8G, H, 18–20; table 2

TYPE MATERIAL: CHILE: Región Metropolitana de Santiago: Holotype ♂ ( MZUC), Cerro Manquehue [33°20′S 70°35′W], 25.xi.1966, W. Duarte GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: same data, 3 ♂, 8 ♀ ( MZUC); Cantillana [33°51′ S 70°57′ W], 10–22.xii.1983, L. Irrazaval, 1 ♀ ( AMNH) GoogleMaps   .

ETYMOLOGY: This species is dedicated to Chilean biologist Jaime Pizarro Araya (Universidad de La Serena, Chile), who conducted extensive work on the ecology and systematics of the epigean arthropod fauna of northern Chile in recent years, dramatically increasing the knowledge of this fauna.

DIAGNOSIS: Urophonius pizarroi   , n. sp., can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by its dark pigmentation. The carapace and tergites of this species are almost completely pigmented and there is no median unpigmented stripe on the tergites, as observed in the other species.

This species is most similar morphologically to U. tregualemuensis   from central and southern Chile. Both species share the following combination of characters: the hemispermatophore distal lamina is elongated ( fig. 8E–H View FIGURE 8 ); the carinae of metasomal segment V are weakly developed; pedipalp femoral trichobothrium e is situated proximal to dorsal macroseta M1 (fig. 19A).

Urophonius pizarroi   , n. sp., can be distinguished from all other species in the granulatus   group by the shape of the lobe of the hemispermatophore, which is well developed and protruding, without an internal laminar extension, and with a deeply excavated internal surface ( fig. 8G View FIGURE 8 ). In other species of the granulatus   group, the basal lobe is less developed, does not protrude, and its internal surface is only slightly excavated, concave in U. tregualemuensis   ( fig. 8E View FIGURE 8 ) and U. somuncura   ( fig. 8C View FIGURE 8 ), or bearing an internal laminar extension in U. granulatus   ( fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 ).

DESCRIPTION: Based on the holotype ♂ and a paratype ♀, both in MZUC   .

Total length: 21.5–28 mm (n = 4; mean = 25.75 mm) in ♂; 27–32 mm (n = 8; mean = 30 mm) in ♀.

Color: Base color dark reddish brown, with black or dark-brown spots of pigmentation ( fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 ). Chelicerae with reticulate pigmentation on external surfaces of fingers (densely so on movable finger) and near articulation, in basal part of manus. Carapace almost entirely pigmented ( fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ); dark, triangular area extending from anterior margin of carapace, past median ocular tubercle, to anterior margin of posterior longitudinal sulcus; median ocular tubercle and area around lateral ocelli dark brown or black; two lateral stripes extending from lateral margins to median part of posterior longitudinal sulcus; two dark spots occupying almost entire posterior margin of carapace. Tergites I–VII, each almost entirely, densely pigmented, with some isolated unpigmented areas surrounded by pigmentation. Sternum, genital opercula, and pectines weakly pigmented, with some faint spots. Sternites III–VI, unpigmented medially, weakly pigmented at lateral margins; VII densely pigmented on lateral margins, with two VSM stripes, usually extending entire length of the segment but in some specimens, restricted to the posterior two-thirds and with small VM spot at posterior margin. Metasomal segments I–III, dorsal surfaces each with single triangular dark spot medially, and pair of narrow stripes along DL carinae; lateral surfaces densely pigmented between LSM and LIM carinae, pigmentation connecting to VL stripes in posterior third of segment; ventral surfaces each with three separate dark stripes (two VL stripes, broader in posterior half of segment and a VSM stripe, broader medially) extending entire length of segment, but not connected at posterior margin. Metasomal segment IV, similar to I–III but with triangular DSM spot reduced to broad median stripe connecting with posterior pigmentation; in most specimens, ventral stripes join in posterior third of segment. Metasomal segment V, dorsal surface with paired, narrow DSM stripes and broad, DL stripes in anterior half, joining in posterior half; lateral surface with a dark stripe joining VL stripes in posterior half of segment; ventral surfaces as in other segments with three ventral stripes, except that VL stripes join with VM stripe, to form single dark spot, in posterior third of segment. Telson, vesicle densely pigmented, except for paired narrow

VSM and VL unpigmented stripes; aculeus basally unpigmented, apex dark brown. Pedipalps, trochanter, femur, and patella densely pigmented; chelae with seven dark stripes along DI, DM, DS, D, E, V, and VM carinae;

area near the articulation of fixed and movable fingers, and base of fingers densely pigmented. Legs with all segments, except telotarsi, densely pigmented.

Carapace: Surfaces slightly granular, more densely so near lateral margins (♂) or slightly granular near lateral margins, smooth medially (♀). Anterior margin straight. Anterior longitudinal and interocular sulci weakly developed; posterior longitudinal and lateral sulci well developed. Median ocular tubercle shallow, median ocelli large, almost 2 diameters apart. Three pairs of small lateral ocelli on each side of carapace, 1 diameter apart; FIGURE 19. Urophonius pizarroi   , n. sp., paratype ♂

(MZUC), dextral pedipalp segments. A. Femur, doranterior and median ocelli situated in same sal aspect. B. Patella, dorsal aspect. C. Patella, external horizontal axis, posterior ocellus situated aspect. D. Patella, ventral aspect. Scale bar = 1 mm.

slightly dorsal to others.

Tergites: Surfaces, I – VI almost smooth (♀) or sparsely and finely granular, more coarsely so near posterior and lateral margins (♂); VII with paired submedian and lateral carinae   ,

comprising medium-sized granules, lateral carinae restricted to posterior two-thirds of segment, submedian carinae to posterior third, intercarinal surfaces with scattered coarse granules, rest of surface finely granular.

Sternites: Surfaces, III–VI smooth, with small, elliptical spiracles; VII, anterior half smooth,

posterior half granular, with VSM and VL carinae absent (♂) or obsolete, represented only by scattered granules (♀) ( figs. 3D View FIGURE 3 , 4D View FIGURE 4 ).

Metasoma: Metasomal segment I, dorsal surface sparsely granular; DL and LSM carinae granular, extending entire length of segment; some specimens with one pair of LSM macrosetae; surface between DL and LSM carinae densely granular; LIM carinae restricted to posterior half of segment; one pair of LIM macrosetae; lateral margins sparsely granular; ventral surface with paired VL and VSM carinae, more developed in ♀, diverging slightly at anterior margins; two pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segment II, similar to segment I, except with carinae less developed; one pair of LSM macrosetae; LIM carina restricted to posterior margin type ♂ ( MZUC). B, C. Paratype ♀ ( MZUC). A. Dorsal aspect. B. External aspect. C, D. Ventral aspect. E. Internal aspect. Scale bar = 1 mm   .

of segment; VL and VSM carinae well developed (♀) or absent (♂); three pairs of VS M macrosetae. Segment III, DL carinae granular (♀) or smooth (♂), extending entire length of segment; LSM carina vestigial, restricted to anterior and posterior margins of segment; LIM carina absent; one pair of DL, LSM, and LIM macrosetae; ventral surface smooth; two pairs of VL macrosetae and three pairs of VSM macrosetae. Segment IV, DL carinae absent or granular, extending entire length of segment, but weakly developed medially, and connected to posterior margin of LSM carina by scattered granules, forming accessory carina; LSM carinae vestigial, restricted to anterior and posterior margins of segment; LIM carina absent; one pair of DL, LSM, and LIM macrosetae; ventral surface smooth; three pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae. Segment V elongated ( figs. 5D View FIGURE 5 , 6D View FIGURE 6 ); length/width ratio 2.07–2.27 (n = 3; mean = 2.14) in ♂, 1.74–1.83 (n = 7; mean = 1.78) in ♀; length/height ratio 2.19–2.43 (n = 3; mean = 2.27) in ♂, 1.94–2.1 (n = 7; mean = 2.03) in ♀; D L carinae granular, restricted to anterior quarter of segment; one pair of DL macrosetae; LSM carinae represented by pair of macrosetae at posterior margin; LIM carinae represented by three pairs of macrosetae; ventral surface granular in posterior third (♂) or posterior two-thirds (♀) of segment; VL carinae reduced to posterior two-thirds of segment, comprising larger granules near posterior margin; VSM carinae restricted to median part of segment, subparallel to VL carinae but diverging in posterior third; VM carina restricted to posterior half of segment and obscured by granules; three pairs of VL and VSM macrosetae, and two pairs of macrosetae at posterior margin of segment.

Telson: Vesicle shallow, more globose and elongated in ♂ than ♀ ( fig. 7D, H View FIGURE 7 ), length/height ratio 2.83–3.27 (n = 4; mean = 3.09) in ♂, 2.9–3.2 mm (n = 6; mean = 3.03) in ♀; ventral sur - face slightly granular (♀) or smooth (♂); dorsal surface smooth, with (♂) or without (♀) an elliptical median depression, corresponding to telson gland. Aculeus short, shallowly curved.

Pedipalps: Femur with DI, DE, and VI carinae granular, extending entire length of segment (fig. 19A); trichobothrium e usually situated proximal to dorsal macroseta M1 but, in some specimens, situated almost in same axis. Patella with VI carina granular, extending entire length of segment; DI and VI carinae obsolete, visible only as slight curvature of surface, along entire length of segment (fig. 19B–D). Chela manus slender, acarinate ( fig. 20 View FIGURE 20 ), internal surface with pronounced, subtriangular projection and shallow depression, with group of 3 or 4 granules near base of fixed finger (♂); fingers elongated, median denticle row medially uneven (but not forming a clear double row), with five pairs of accessory granules.

Legs: Surfaces smooth. Basitarsi each with two well-developed, equal-length pedal spurs. Telotarsi elongated, shallow, each with ventromedian row of hyaline setae, and paired rows of ventrosubmedian spiniform setae, with following counts on each telotarsus: I: 1/1, II: 2/2, III: 5/6, IV: 6/7; the only pair of setae on I are weakly developed and setiform, whereas the rest are stout and spiniform. Ungues strongly curved and equal in length.

Pectines: Tooth count: 15–17 (n = 5; mode = 16) in ♂; 12–15 (n = 8; mode = 14) in ♀.

Hemispermatophore: Basal portion very well developed. Distal lamina well developed, elongated, similar in length to basal portion; distal crest slightly undulated, oriented in same direction as principal axis of hemispermatophore; frontal crest (distal posterior flexure) present; internal lobe with two well-developed denticles ( fig. 8H View FIGURE 8 ), external denticle ca. 50 % larger than internal denticle. Lobe region well developed ( fig. 8G View FIGURE 8 ), basal lobe very well developed, protruding, without internal laminar extension; internal surface forming deep, concave excavation. We examined the hemispermatophores of four specimens and observed no conspicuous variation. The lobe region of the hemispermatophore of U. pizarroi   , n. sp., is remarkable in being conspicuously more developed than in other species of the granulatus   group, as in species of the brachycentrus   group of Urophonius (Acosta, 1999)   . However, the other morphological characters of U. pizarroi   , n. sp., are clearly shared with the granulatus   group, suggesting that the well-developed lobe region is plesiomorphic.

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from two localities in the Region Metropolitana de Santiago of central Chile (fig. 1). The type locality of this species is the northernmost record for the granulatus   group   .

ECOLOGY: The habitat of the area in which the type locality is located comprises a mixture of shrub steppe and sclerophilous forests, representing the Matorral y Bosque Esclerofilo botanical region ( Gajardo, 1993).


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American Museum of Natural History


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute


Severoceské muzeum


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