Centrophorus lusitanicus

White, William T., Ebert, David A. & Naylor, Gavin J. P., 2017, Revision of the genus Centrophorus (Squaliformes: Centrophoridae): Part 2 - Description of two new species of Centrophorus and clarification of the status of Centrophorus lusitanicus Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello, 1864, Zootaxa 4344 (1): -

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Centrophorus lusitanicus


Validity of Centrophorus lusitanicus  

The complicated nomenclatural history of C. lusitanicus   , as discussed above, has hindered resolution of this group of gulper sharks. When considering Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello’s (1864) description of C. lusitanicus   in relation to the currently recognised species of Centrophorus   , several of the characters used to distinguish the new species from C. granulosus   [= ’uyato’] relate to the true C. granulosus   :

C. lusitanicus   is much larger

C. lusitanicus   has a blackish violet colour

• first dorsal fin base is longer in C. lusitanicus   • free rear tip of first dorsal fin more produced in C. lusitanicus   • dorsal spines shorter and weaker in C. lusitanicus   C. lusitanicus   has a shorter snout

• pectoral-fin free tip is less produced in C. lusitanicus  

These characteristics are perfectly consistent with the key diagnostic characters of true C. granulosus   . Although the original description does not mention the skin characteristic, it does mention that the name used by ‘our fisherman’ is ‘Lixa-de-lei’ which is Portuguese for sandpaper. This also points to C. granulosus   , which differs from C. ‘uyato’ in having a much rougher skin. This information together with the character information provided in the description and the associated illustration ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ) strongly suggest that C. lusitanicus   is a synonym of the true C. granulosus   . It differs from the smaller (<1 m) Centrophorus   species with the very long first-dorsal fin base that has been referred to as C. lusitanicus   in recent literature. Based on our current understanding, three species of Centrophorus   are known to occur off Portugal, C. granulosus   , C. squamosus   and C. ‘uyato’ (e.g. Ebert et al., 2013). Barbosa du Bocage & de Brito Capello’s (1864) refers to C. squamosus   , C. granulosus   [= ‘uyato’] and their new C. lusitanicus   . Given the scope of Barbuso du Bocage & de Brito Capello’s paper, it seems unlikely that the authors would have missed this common species, thus lending more support to the claim that C. lusitanicus   is a synonym of the true C. granulosus   .

Since the authors refer to the fresh condition, the type locality from off Portugal for C. lusitanicus   is not in question. However, the surviving apparent ‘syntype’ of C. lusitanicus   has long been considered to be BMNH 1867.7.23.2 and is clearly not conspecific with the true C. granulosus   ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ) as it has a much longer first dorsalfin base. This led to an investigation into the type status of C. lusitanicus   noting that no reference was made in the original description of C. lusitanicus   to any type specimens. Günther (1870) appears to be the first to link the name C. lusitanicus   with a specimen of the long-finned species in the British Museum, referring to a male of 29 inches in length. This corresponds to the size and sex of BMNH 1867.7.23.2 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Günther (1870) does not, however, refer to this specimen as a type, but does include the location as Portugal. In correspondence with the Natural History Museum in London, it was suggested that the type status may have been erroneously given to this specimen (J. Maclaine, pers. comm.). The jar it is placed in contains a yellow lid which was originally used to highlight an important specimen (not type status), thus it is possible someone later mistook this for being a type specimen. The original documentation of this specimen entering the Natural History Museum doesn’t mention it being a ‘type’ specimen. The specimen entered the Natural History Museum by donation from Bocage as C. granulosus   , and not as C. lusitanicus   . The final aspect which has led to much confusion is the location of the specimen as Portugal. The original ledger ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ) includes three specimens donated from Bocage, Centrophorus crepidalbus   , C. granulosus   and Scymnodon ringens   . To the right of the first species, C. crepidalbus   , is ‘In spirit’ and ‘Portugal’. The two latter specimens have ditto marks underneath ‘In spirit’, but not underneath ‘Portugal’. Indeed no locality data was specified for either of these two specimens when they first arrived in the BMNH collection. Importantly they were never listed as from Portugal.

It could still be argued that the BMNH specimen was most likely collected from Portugal given it was donated from the Lisbon Museum by Bocage unless there was some indication or evidence of alternative collection locations. José Vicente Barbosa du Bocage (1823–1907) became the director of the Zoology of the Natural History Museum of the Polytechnic School in Lisbon in 1858 where his work consisted of acquiring and describing biological collections ( Madruga, 2013). Many of these collections were sent to Lisbon by José Alberto de Oliveira Anchieta (1832–1897) who mostly collected in the (then) African Portuguese colonies of Angola and Mozambique ( Madruga, 2013). This information, combined with the fact that the long-finned species is well known from this part of Africa, provides reasonable evidence that the BMNH (and ZMB) specimens were likely collected from The weight of the available evidence suggests that C. lusitanicus   refers to the true C. granulosus   from off Portugal and so must be considered a junior synonym of the latter species. The purported syntype of C. lusitanicus   ( BMNH 1867.7.23.2) is not a type specimen and refers to a separate long-finned species. A second Bocage specimen of the same long-finned species in the Museum für Naturkunde ( ZMB 6455, Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ), is likely from the same collection location as the BMNH specimen.


Museum f�r Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)