Sathon oreo Fagan-Jeffries & Austin

Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P., Cooper, Steven J. B. & Austin, Andrew D., 2019, New species of Australian microgastrine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Microgastrinae) documented through the ‘ Bush Blitz’ surveys of national reserves, Zootaxa 4560 (3), pp. 401-440: 428-437

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4560.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CAFAD1A2-9A50-4B24-A8A9-4C4F0D9FFCE1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/030BCC00-867B-0077-B4DD-F9B3401CFD45

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Sathon oreo Fagan-Jeffries & Austin
status

sp. nov.

Sathon oreo Fagan-Jeffries & Austin   sp. nov.

( Fig. 16 View FIGURE 16 )

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C1

Material examined (including Genbank numbers of DNA barcodes). Holotype: South Australia:   ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland (SAMA: 32-036135; Genbank COI: MH 138935 View Materials ). Paratypes: Australian Capital Territory: ♀ Black Mountain CSIRO land, Malaise trap, 9–14/xi/1991, Austin & Dangerfield ( WINC)   . ♀ Canberra, Black Mtn, Behind CSIRO, 35°16'S 149°06'E, 23/ix/2002 – 31/x/2002, C. Lambkin ( ANIC: 32 130223; Genbank COI: MH 138874 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . ♀ Canberra, Black Mtn, Behind CSIRO, 35°16'S 149°06'E, 23/ix/2002 – 31/x/2002, C. Lambkin ( ANIC: 32 130224; Genbank COI: MH 138875 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . ♀ Canberra, Black Mtn, Behind CSIRO, 35°16'S 149°06'E, 23/ix/2002 – 31/x/2002, C. Lambkin ( ANIC: 32 130225; Genbank COI: MH 138877 View Materials in ethanol) GoogleMaps   . South Australia: ♀ Ferries Macdonald Cons   .

Pk., 1–14/i/1996, Malaise trap. J. Jennings (WINC). ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 12/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32-036137; Genbank COI: MH 138932 View Materials )   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32-036136; Genbank COI: MH 138944 View Materials ; in ethanol)   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32- 036138; Genbank COI: MH 138937 View Materials )   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in native plot within bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32-036141; Genbank COI: MH 138843 View Materials )   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in native plot within bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32-036142; Genbank COI: MH 138842 View Materials )   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in native plot within bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA: 32-036143; Genbank COI: MH 138915 View Materials ; in ethanol)   . ♀ Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 25/x/2000, C. Stephens, Malaise trap in native plot within bridal creeper invaded eucalypt woodland ( SAMA 32-036144 View Materials ; Genbank COI: MH 138914 View Materials in ethanol)   . Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 35°27'13"S 138°36'22"E, 20/x/ 2016 – 05/xi/2016, E. Fagan-Jeffries, Malaise trap ( SAMA: 32-036139; Genbank COI: MH 138799 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . Mt Billy Con. Pk. Fleurieu Peninsula, 35°27'13"S 138°36'22"E, 05/xi/2016 – 20/xi/2016, E. Fagan-Jeffries, Malaise trap ( SAMA: 32-036140; Genbank COI: MH 138798 View Materials ; in ethanol). Victoria GoogleMaps   : ♀ Otway Ranges, Melba Gully , 4/ii/90, R. Wharton   . ♀ Fleurieu Peninsula, Deep Creek Cons. Pk. , 7–21/ii/90, Malaise trap, J. Bracken & R. Wharton ( WINC)   . Grampians Bioscan site 406, 37°03'41"S 142°22'50"E, 19/xi/2012, J. Grubb, M. Mackenzie, P. Lillywhite, K. Pawley, Malaise trap, Cooinda Burrong Scout Camp, basecamp and surrounds ( MV: HYM-61362; Genbank COI: MH 138852 View Materials ; in ethanol) GoogleMaps   . ♀ Grampians Bioscan site 407, Mount Difficult Road, between two intersections with Longpoint Track , 37°02’02”S, 142°28’02”E, 19–23/xi/2012, M. Mackenzie, P. Lillywhite, J. Grubb, K. Pawley, Malaise trap GRB407 View Materials ( MV: HYM-61361; Genbank COI: MH 138845 View Materials WG: MH 139294 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   . ♀ Grampians Bioscan site 426, Strachans Camp Ground near intersection Sawmill Track , Glenelg River Road, and Jensens Road , 37°22’32”S, 142°16’57”E, 24/xi/2012, P. Lillywhite & B. Patullo Malaise trap GRB426 View Materials ( MV: HYM-61363; Genbank COI: MH 138844 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. The conspicuous white stripe on the antenna of the female easily separates this species from the other species of Sathon described from Australasia.

Description. FEMALE. Colour: dark except for non-sclerotised areas around T–3 and sternites which are often a striking white; antenna dark other than flagellomeres 6–7 which are white; coxae (pro-, meso-, metacoxa) pale, pale, dark; femora (pro-, meso-, metafemur) dark with paler area posteriorly, dark, dark; tibiae (pro-, meso-, metatibia) dark, dark, dark; tegula and humeral complex light brown; pterostigma dark; fore wing veins dark. Head: antenna slightly longer than body length; body length (head to apex of metasoma) 2.4–2.9 mm; ocularocellar line/posterior ocellus diameter 2.3–2.5; interocellar distance/posterior ocellus diameter 1–1.4. Mesosoma   : anteromesoscutum evenly and densely punctate; mesoscutellar disc with numerous shallow punctures associated with setae; number of pits in scutoscutellar sulcus 8–14; maximum height of mesoscutellum lunules/maximum height of lateral face of mesoscutellum 0.2–0.3. Wings: fore wing length 2.5–3.0 mm; length of veins r/2RS 0.5– 0.7; length of veins 2RS/2M 1.0; length of veins 2M/(RS+M)b 0.9–1.2; pterostigma length/width 2.5–2.8, areolet large, enclosed, vein r-m unpigmented. Legs: metatibia inner spur length/metabasitarsus length 0.3–0.4. Propodeum: reticulate rugose, with very short medial longitudinal carina at anterior end, often diverging carinae from this medial carina that appear to form the anterior half of an areola, and diverging carinae from posterior centre also give the impression of an areola, but these carinae often indistinguishable from other sculpturing, often smooth sections at anterior corners. Metasoma: T1 length/width at posterior margin 2.7–3.3; T1 clearly narrowing posteriorly, mostly smooth but often with faint longitudinal branching carinae; T2 width at posterior margin/length 2–2.6, T2 with no clear sculpturing, but not completely smooth; T3 sculpture smooth and shiny; hypopygium with completely membranous area mid-ventrally; ovipositor sheaths length/metatibial length 0.5–0.6.

MALE. Known only from photograph on BOLD, antennal segments all dark.

Etymology. This species is named for the brown antenna with a thick white stripe caused by the white flagellomeres 6–7 resembling the brown-white-brown colouration pattern of the Oreo cream-centred chocolate biscuits. The species name is a noun in apposition.

Distribution. This species appears to occur in large numbers in specific areas of the country, including in South Australia, Victoria, and at Black Mountain, Canberra. There is also an associated BOLD sequence (see below) that extends the distribution to Tasmania ( Fig. 15 View FIGURE 15 ).

Remarks. In this species we also tentatively place the following seven specimens, which have been sequenced for the COI barcoding region by the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario, are stored in the Centre for Biodiversity Genomics, and are publicly available on the BOLD. The COI barcoding region is less than 1.2% divergent between these specimens and the others detailed above, and available images of these specimens agree in general morphology and possess the distinctive white band on the antenna. BOLD process identifiers: ASQAS157-11 ( Australia), MCCAA2641-12 (ACT), HYAT465-11 (Tas), MCCAA1444-12 (ACT), ASQAS156-11 ( Australia), CNBAN190-13 (ACT), MCCAA1052-12 (ACT). The BOLD BIN for this species is BOLD:AAV2186.

White or yellowish bands on the antenna of females are not extremely common in Microgastrinae, but have been reported for numerous species in the genera Apanteles   (e.g. A. taeniaticornis Wilkinson (1928))   , Diolcogaster (e.g. D. duocolor Gupta and Fernández-Triana (2015))   , Exulonyx (e.g. E. camma (Nixon, 1965))   , Glyptapanteles   sensu lato (Fernández-Triana pers. comm.), Prasmodon (e.g. P. bobpoolei Fernández-Triana and Whitfield (2014d)) Promicrogaster   (e.g. P. leilycastilloae Fernández-Triana and Boudreault (2016))   , Pseudoapanteles (e.g. P. alfiopivai Fernández-Triana and Whitfield (2014b))   , and Rhygolplitis (Fernández-Triana, pers. comm.). The only described species from Australia with white antennal bands is Diolcogaster robertsi Saeed et al. (1999) with flagellomeres 5–8 white. White bands also occur in many species of Ichneumonidae   , and in a few other groups of braconids (Quicke 2015). The function of these white bands is not known, although suggestions include possible involvement in providing visual feedback of antennal separation (Quicke 2015).

CSIRO

Australian National Fish Collection

WINC

Waite Insect and Nematode Collection

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

MH

Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel

SAMA

South Australia Museum

MV

University of Montana Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Tortricidae

Genus

Sathon