Apollophanes fitzroyi, Baert, L., 2013

Baert, L., 2013, The Thomisidae and Philodromidae (Arachnida: Araneae) of the Galápagos Islands (Ecuador), European Journal of Taxonomy 43, pp. 1-23: 16-19

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5852/ejt.2013.43

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scientific name

Apollophanes fitzroyi

sp. nov.

Apollophanes fitzroyi   sp. nov.



Males of A. fitzroyi   are recognized by the palp with RTA and VTA fused at base, the latter excavated, and by the short embolus arising at the distal end of the tegulum. Females are characterized by the epigyne with ovoid spermathecae provided with a prominent apical spermathecal organ.


The species is named after Captain Fitzroy, commander of HMS Beagle, who made accurate navigational charts of the archipelago and took Charles Darwin to the islands in 1835.

Type material


♂, ISLA SANTIAGO , Playa Espumila , Arid zone , 3-9 Jun. 1991 (pan trap), leg. J. Heraty   .


♀, ISLA NORTH SEYMOUR , Bursera   litter, 16 Oct. 1975, leg. W.G. Reeder   .


ISLA SANTA CRUZ : ♂, 15 km north of Santa Rosa , alt. 140 m, arid zone forest , 1-30 Apr. 1992 (flying interception trap), leg. S. Peck;   1 ♂, Cerro Colorado , alt. 10 m, 11 Mar. 1975, leg. W.G. Reeder   . ISLA FERNANDINA : ♂, Cerro Verde , alt. 170 m, 9 May 1991 (night catch), leg. L. Baert, J.-P. Maelfait & K. Desender   .


ISLA SANTA FÉ : ♀, in detritus along coastline , 15 May 1975, leg. H. Franz   . ISLA SANTIAGO : ♂, alt. 580 m, transition wood , 8 Apr. 1982, leg. L. Baert & J.-P. Maelfait   .


Male holotype

TOTAL LENGTH. 4.63; prosoma length: 1.98, width: 1.92, height: 0.87.

COLOUR. Prosoma: Orange brown, strongly speckled with small black spots along sides, with sparse short setae, hairy (white hairs); chelicerae creamy, strongly speckled; labium, endites & sternum creamy, very sparsely speckled. Legs: Creamy strongly speckled with black. Pedipalp creamy. Opisthosoma: creamy with greyish sides and median greyish lanceolate heart mark, many short setae, venter creamy; anal tubercle surrounded by many setae.

EYES. MOQ: AW = 0.73 PW, AW = 0.89 LAP, Cl = 2.3 DAME.

LEGS. Measurements: I (9.47): Fe 2.78, Pa 1.10, Ti 2.35, Mt 2.10, Ta 1.14; II (11.65): Fe 3.29, Pa 1.22, Ti 2.94, Mt 2.75, Ta 1.45; III (8.47): Fe 2.63, Pa 0.90, Ti 2.00, Mt 2.00, Ta 0.94; IV (8.39): Fe 2.63, Pa 0.86, Ti 2.00, Mt 2.00, Ta 0.90. Length of cymbium: 0.70. Spination: Fe I: 3d2pl3rl, Fe II: 3d3pl3rl, Fe III: 3d2pl1rl, Fe IV: 3d2distal rl; Ti I-IV: 1d2pl2rl2-2-2v; 3pl3rl2-2v.

PALP. ( Fig. 6A-C) Cymbium long oval, with a retrolateral and prolateral spine. Tibia with 1 dorsal and 1 prolateral spine; VTA and RTA fused at base, VTA excavated ( Fig. 6C). Embolus short, arising at distal end of tegulum. Femur with 3 dorsal spines of which 2 at distal end.

Female allotype

TOTAL LENGTH. 5.40; prosoma length: 2.59, width: 2.51, height: 0.72.

COLOUR. Prosoma: As in male, but speckled with brown along sides; chelicerae creamy, strongly speckled; labium, endites & sternum creamy, very sparsely speckled. Legs: Creamy with fewer black spots. Opisthosoma: whitish with creamy sides and median creamy lanceolate heart mark, many short setae, venter creamy; anal tubercle surrounded with many setae.

EYES. MOQ: AW = 0.80 PW, AW = 0.93 LAP, Cl = 2.75 DAME.

LEGS. Measurements: I (10.04): Fe 2.98, Pa 1.37, Ti 2.47, Mt 2.08, Ta 1.14; II (10.76): Fe 3.61, Pa 1.56, Ti 2.94, Mt 2.43, Ta 1.22; III (9.22): Fe 2.90, Pa 1.22, Ti 2.24, Mt 1.88, Ta 0.98; IV (9.18): Fe 2.94, Pa 1.10, Ti 2.16, Mt 2.04, Ta 0.94.

EPIGYNE. ( Fig. 7 View Fig. 7 ) Medium septum with broad elongate copulatory openings ( Fig. 7A View Fig. 7 ), spermathecae ovoid with a prominent apically situated spermathecal organ ( Fig. 7B View Fig. 7 ).


The species seems to be confined to the central islands of Santa Cruz, Seymour Norte, Santa Fé and Santiago. It has been found on Santa Cruz in the lower arid zone (5-10 m alt.) and in the transition forest zone (110-250 m alt.), on Santiago in the transition forest at a higher elevation (580 m alt.).


The closely fused VTA and RTA of the male palpal tibia, the absence of a membranous area at the base of the embolus (# of Thanatus C. L. Koch, 1837   ), the equidistant posterior eyes (# of Tibellus Simon, 1875   ) and the elongated copulatory openings located at sides of septum (epigynal slits) reaching the epigynal fold in the female and the vulval conformation (spherical spermatheca and apical small spermatecal organ) observed in this galapagoan species, show it clearly belongs to the genus Apollophanes   ( Dondale & Redner 1975; Muster 2009). It resembles A. punctipes (O.P. Cambridge, 1891)   most closely, but a thorough examination of the male and female type material of this species clearly showed the morphological differences between both species.