Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.,

Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina, Whitfield, James B., Janzen, Daniel H., Winifred Hallwachs,, Dyer, Lee A., Smith, M. Alex, Hebert, Paul D. N. & Fernandez-Triana, Jose L., 2019, A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador, ZooKeys 890, pp. 1-685: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.890.35786

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:FD8F6953-11F6-4DF2-950F-6A387340BCE5

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4056414

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/025356FD-8CDB-C806-4C21-0037BB13F976

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
status

 

Glyptapanteles ilarisaaksjarvi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.  Figs 109View Figure 109, 110View Figure 110

Female.

Body length 2.27 mm, antenna length 2.22 mm, fore wing length 2.12 mm.

Type material.

Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 06-SRNP-56482, DHJPAR0012003; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Mundo Nuevo, Vado Miramonte; dry-rain intergrade forest; 305 m; 10.77175, -85.43400; 11.vi.2006; José A. Sánchez leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; larva was found in the field with two rows of cordwood cocoons next to it; adult parasitoids emerged on 18.vi.2006, 25.vi.2006 and 26.vi.2006; Copidosoma floridanum  Ashmead ( Chalcidoidea  : Encyrtidae  , Encyrtinae  ) was reported as other parasitoid; ( CNC). Paratypes. • 5 (2♀, 3♂) (0 ♀, 0 ♂); 06-SRNP-56482, DHJPAR0012003; same data as for holotype; ( CNC).

Other material.

Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Vado Cuajiniqui : • 18 (3♀, 2♂) (12♀, 1♂); 92-SRNP-350, DHJPAR0001475; dry forest; 275 m; 10.94041, -85.68043; 05.ii.1992GoogleMaps  ; gusaneros leg.; brown cocoons at right angles to caterpillar body forming two rows parallel cordwood to the caterpillar body, caterpillar stayed alive for three days next to the cocoons; cocoons formed on 15.ii.1992; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.ii.1992. • 33 (2♀, 2♂) (18♀, 11♂); 92-SRNP-348, DHJPAR0001460; same data as for preceding except: brown cocoons at right angles to caterpillar body in two rows parallel to the caterpillar body; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 18.ii.1992GoogleMaps  . • 8 (4♀, 0 ♂) (4♀, 0 ♂); 94-SRNP-5424, DHJPAR0000086; same data as for preceding except: 06.vii.1994GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in third instar; two rows of parallel cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 22.vii.1994. • 7 (2♀, 2♂) (2♀, 1♂); 94-SRNP-5427, DHJPAR0001439; same data as for preceding except: 06.vii.1994GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of parallel cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 17.vii.1994.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Potrerillos, Rio Azufrado : • 51 (6♀, 3♂) (36♀, 6♂); 02-SRNP-32075, DHJPAR0000029; dry forest; 95 m; 10.81224, -85.54438; 01.x.2002; Guillermo Pereira leg.GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; two rows of parallel gray cordwood cocoons on each side of the larva and adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 18.x.2002. • 7 (1♀, 2♂) (0 ♀, 4♂); 06-SRNP-13960, DHJPAR0005105; same data as for preceding except: 18.v.2006GoogleMaps  ; two rows of beige cordwood cocoons on each side of the larva and adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 03.vi.2006. • 75 (7♀, 6♂) (61♀, 1♂); 06-SRNP-13955, DHJPAR0005106, DHJPAR0012004; same data as for preceding except: 18.v.2006GoogleMaps  ; Lucía  Vargas leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; cocoon characteristics not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 30.v.2006  . • 57 (3♀, 3♂) (47♀, 4♂); 08-SRNP-12256, DHJPAR0030795; same data as for preceding except: 11.iv.2008  ; Lucía  Vargas leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons on each side of larva cadaver, cocoons formed on 16.iv.2008  and adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 22.iv.2008.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Liberia, Liberia: • 43 (3♀, 3♂) (31♀, 6♂); 10-SRNP-13639, DHJPAR0039427; dry forest; 140 m; 10.62972, -85.44162; 19.vi.2010; Guillermo Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; cocoons formed on 21.vi.2010; adult parasitoids emerged on 27.vi.2010. • 42 (3♀, 3♂) (26♀, 10♂); 10-SRNP-13640, DHJPAR0039428; same data as for preceding except: cocoons formed on 20.vi.2010. • 37 (3♀, 3♂) (24♀, 7♂); 10-SRNP-13641, DHJPAR0041712; ; same data as for preceding except: caterpillar already with cocoonsGoogleMaps  .

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero a Maritza, 1 km NW estación Cacao: • 17 (3♀, 2♂) (12♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-35966, DHJPAR0041678; cloud forest; 1,150 m; 10.92691, -85.46822; 26.viii.2010; Manuel Pereira leg.GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons formed on 03.ix.2010; adult parasitoids emerged on 14.ix.2010.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Estacion Cacao : • 19 (3♀, 3♂) (16♂, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-35502, DHJPAR0040382; cloud forest; 1,150 m; 10.92691, -85.46822; 10.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; Fredy Quesada leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons formed on 19.vii.2010; adult parasitoids emerged on 26.vii.2010. • 47 (3♀, 3♂) (41♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-35505, DHJPAR0040386; same data as for preceding except: Manuel Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 15.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.vii.2010. • 43 (3♀, 2♂) (38♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-35500, DHJPAR0040391; same data as for preceding except: 09.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; Manuel Pereira leg.; cordwood cocoons adhered to te leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 27.vii.2010. • 6 (2♀, 2♂) (2♂, 0 ♂; 10-SRNP-35504, DHJPAR0040393; same data as for preceding except: Manuel Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 15.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; adult parasitoids emerged on 23.vii.2010. • 40 (3♀, 3♂), (31♀, 3♂); 10-SRNP-35517, DHJPAR0040395; same data as for preceding except: 09.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; Manuel Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 25.vii.2010. • 27 (3♀, 3♂) (21♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-35498, DHJPAR0040399; same data as for preceding except: 09.vii.2010GoogleMaps  ; Manuel Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 25.vii.2010. • 84 (3♀, 3♂) (73♀, 5♂); 10-SRNP-35509, DHJPAR0040409; same data as for preceding except: 12.vii.2010GoogleMaps  , Harry Ramirez leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 29.vii.2010.

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Horizontes, Vado Rio Tempisque : • 37 (3♀, 3♂) (25♀, 6♂); 10-SRNP-13469, DHJPAR0041710; dry forest; 19.vi.2010; Guillermo Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in fifth instar. • 97 (3♀, 3♂) (81♀, 10♂; 10-SRNP-13470, DHJPAR0045167; same data as for preceding except: caterpillar collected in fifth instar; large stacks of brown cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate. 

Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Estacion Quica : • 17 (3♀, 3♂) (10♀, 1♂); 10-SRNP-73408, DHJPAR0041644; rain forest; 470 m; 10.99697, -85.39666; 27.xii.2010; Ricardo Calero leg.GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 11.i.2011; adult parasitoids emerged on 20.i.2010. • 8 (2♀, 2♂) (4♀, 0 ♂); 11-SRNP-70040, DHJPAR0042065; same data as for preceding except: 03.i.2011GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; cocoons formed on 14.i.2011; adult parasitoids emerged on 21.i.2011. • 7 (2♀, 2♂) (3♀, 0 ♂); 11-SRNP-70063, DHJPAR0042066; same data as for preceding except: 04.i.2011; Dinia Martinez leg.GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; cocoons formed on 14.i.2011; adult parasitoids emerged on 21.i.2011. • 28 (3♀, 3♂) (22♀, 0 ♂); 11-SRNP-70137, DHJPAR0042508; same data as for preceding except: 06.i.2011; Dinia Martinez leg.GoogleMaps  ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; cocoons formed on 04.ii.2011; adult parasitoids emerged on 10.ii.2011.

Malaise-trapped material.

COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector El Hacha, Sendero Bejuquilla : • 1 (1♀, 0 ♂) (0 ♀, 0 ♂); 98-SRNP-16170, DHJPAR0013352; Malaise trap; intergrade dry-rain forest; 280 m; 11.03004, -85.52699; 10.viii.1998; DH Janzen & W Hallwachs leg.GoogleMaps 

Yellow pan-trapped material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa : • 1 (1♀, 0 ♂) (0 ♀, 0 ♂); 08-SRNP-12187, DHJPAR0024753; yellow pan-trapped; dry forest; 295 m; 10.83764, -85.61871; 12.i.2008; Andy Deans leg.GoogleMaps 

Diagnosis.

Nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae ( Figs 109B, CView Figure 109, 110B, DView Figure 110), propodeum medially rhomboid-shaped with transverse rugae, but no trace of median longitudinal carina ( Figs 109B, CView Figure 109, 110B, DView Figure 110), antenna shorter than body, fore wing with 2RS vein straight, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins not forming a stub ( Figs 109IView Figure 109, 110IView Figure 110), and lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition ( Figs 109D, GView Figure 109, 110E, GView Figure 110).

Coloration

( Fig. 109A, D, F–JView Figure 109). General body coloration brown-black except labrum, mandibles, scape, and pedicel yellow-brown; first four proximal antennal flagellomeres dorsally lighter (light brown) than ventrally (dark brown), remaining flagellomeres dark brown on both sides; glossa, maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae yellow. Eyes and ocelli silver. Fore and middle legs yellow except coxae which outer side is light brown, but inner side is yellow-brown, and claws brown; hind legs yellow except black coxae, apex of femora, apex of tibiae, and tarsomeres brown. Petiole on T1 with two colorations: proximal 3/4 reddish brown and distal 1/4 brown, contours black, and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median and adjacent areas dark brown, adjacent area narrow with limits well-defined, and lateral ends yellow; medially T3 with a brown area reaching the distal edge of T3, width of brown area coincides with the distal width of median and adjacent dark areas on T2, and lateral ends yellow; T4 and beyond completely brown; distally each tergum with a narrow yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, T1-3 completely yellow; T4 mostly brown only with a small ventral yellow area; T5 and beyond completely brown. S1-4 yellow; penultimate sternum and hypopygium brown.

Description.

Head ( Fig. 109A, B, EView Figure 109). Head rounded with pubescence short and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.17:0.08, 0.16:0.08, 0.16:0.08), distal antennal flagellomere longer than penultimate (0.11:0.05, 0.07:0.05), antenna shorter than body (2.22, 2.27); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face flat or nearly so, with dense and fine punctations, interspaces with microsculpture and longitudinal median carina absent. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces wavy. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex, posteriorly straight. POL subequal in length with OOL (0.10, 0.11). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex lateral rounded and dorsally wide.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 109 A–C, EView Figure 109). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Distal 1/3 of mesoscutum with lateral margin slightly dented, punctation distinct throughout, interspaces with microsculpture. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation indistinct throughout, in profile scutellum flat and on same plane as mesoscutum phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with quite a little complete parallel carinae; dorsal ATS groove with carinae only proximally. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation smooth, shiny and depressed centrally. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina; AFM with a small lobe and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick, smooth and with a distal flat flange; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum with transverse rugae, proximal half curved with fine sculpture and distal half rugose; distal edge of propodeum with a flange at each side and without stubs; propodeal spiracle distally framed by a short concave carina; nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, and dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum and both dorsal and ventral furrows smooth. Propleuron with a mix of rugae and fine punctation, dorsally with a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove deep with transverse lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge elongated more fusiform (tapering at both ends).

Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire, but with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.11, 0.07). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface, dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia longer than outer spur (0.29, 0.25), entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus longer than fourth tarsomere (0.12, 0.09).

Wings ( Fig. 109I, JView Figure 109). Fore wing with r vein curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming a weak, even curve at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with a small smooth area; vein 2CUa absent and 2CUb spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent; vein 2-1A present only proximally as tubular vein; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, complete and touching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe very narrow, subdistally and subproximally straightened, and setae present only proximally.

Metasoma ( Fig. 109A, D, F–HView Figure 109). Metasoma laterally compressed, petiole finely sculptured only laterally, virtually parallel-sided over most of length, but barely narrowing over distal 1/3, apex truncate (length 0.28, maximum width 0.14, minimum width 0.08), and with scattered pubescence concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 distally losing definition (length median area 0.10, length T2 0.13), edges of median area polished and lateral grooves deep, median area broader than long (length 0.10, maximum width 0.18, minimum width 0.07); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.17, 0.13) and with scattered pubescence only distally. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.

Cocoons ( Fig. 4VView Figure 4). Light brown, beige or gray oval cocoons with ordered silk fibers, but covered by a net. Two rows of parallel cordwood on each side of the larva and adhered to the leaf substrate.

Comments.

Distally, the propodeal spiracle is framed by a concave carina; lateral areas on the propodeum, at each side of nucha, with some carinae. Some specimens with the petiole reddish brown and contours black. Both sexes are slim.

Male

( Fig. 110 A–JView Figure 110). Similar in coloration and shape to female.

Etymology.

Ilari Eerikki Sääksjärvi is director at the Biodiversity Unit, University of Turku, Finland. His research is focused on diversity, taxonomy, and systematics of tropical, especially Amazonian, ichneumonid parasitoid wasps.

Distribution.

The parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Cacao ( Estación Cacao and Sendero a Maritza), Sector Horizontes (Vado Río Tempisque), Sector Liberia ( Liberia), Sector Pitilla ( Estación Quica), Sector Mundo Nuevo (Vado Miramonte), Sector Potrerillos ( Río Azufrado), and Sector Santa Rosa (Vado Cuajiniqui), during February 1992, July 1994, October 2002, April-June 2006, June-August 2010, and January-February and December 2011 at 95 m, 140 m, 275 m, 305 m, 470 m, and 1,150 m on dry, dry-rain intergrade, rain , and cloud forests.Adult parasitoids were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector El Hacha (Sendero Bejuquilla) and Sector Santa Rosa ( Área Administrativa) on August 1998 and January 2008 at 280 m and 295 m in intergrade dry-rain forest and dry forest.

Biology.

The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious. A case of multiparasitoidism was reported: Copidosoma floridanum  Ashmead ( Chalcidoidea  : Encyrtidae  , Encyrtinae  ).

Host.

Agrapha oxygramma  (Geyer) ( Noctuidae  : Plusiinae  ) feeding on Baccharis trinervis  ( Asteraceae  ). Argyrogramma basigera  (Walker) ( Noctuidae  : Plusiinae  ) feeding on Hydrocotyle umbellate  ( Araliaceae  ) and A. verruca  (F.) ( Noctuidae  : Plusiinae  ) ( Fig. 4VView Figure 4) feeding on Echinodorus subalatus  ( Alismataceae  ). Soybean loope Pseudoplusia includens  (Walker) ( Noctuidae  : Plusiinae  ) feeding on Milleria quinqueflora  ( Asteraceae  ). Condica cupienta  (Cramer) ( Noctuidae  : Amphipyrinae  ) feeding on Mikania cordifolia  and M. micrantha  ( Asteraceae  ) and C. sutor  ( Guenée) ( Noctuidae  : Amphipyrinae  ) feeding on Eryngium foetidum  ( Apiaceae  ), Elephantopus mollis  and Lepidaploa cinera  ( Asteraceae  ). Undetermined species of Noctuidae  feeding on Stachytarpheta jamaicensis  ( Verbenaceae  ). Caterpillars were collected in third, fourth, and fifth instar.

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

MPM

Milwaukee Public Museum

BM

Bristol Museum