Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian and Rúdio, Moreira, Nessimian and Rudio, 2010

Moreira, F. F. F., Nessimian, J. L., Rúdio, J. A. & Salles, F. F., 2010, New species and new records of Veliidae from Espírito Santo State and adjacent Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with notes on nomenclature (Insecta: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha), Journal of Natural History 44 (45 - 46), pp. 2761-2801: 2767-2770

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2010.512423

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian and Rúdio

sp. nov.

Paravelia capixaba Moreira, Nessimian and Rúdio   , sp. nov.

Apterous male

BL 2.68–2.84; HL 0.39–0.40; HW 0.55–0.60; ANT I 0.34–0.39, ANT II 0.21–0.29, ANT III 0.43–0.48, ANT IV 0.31–0.40; INT 0.26–0.28; EYE 0.14–0.16; PL 0.60–0.76; PW 0.84–0.90; FORELEG: FEM 0.73–0.90, TIB 0.65–0.69, TAR I 0.05, TAR II 0.05– 0.06, TAR III 0.20; MIDLEG: FEM 0.94–1.08, TIB 0.94–1.10, TAR I 0.05–0.08, TAR II 0.20–0.23, TAR III 0.26; HINDLEG: FEM 0.89–0.99, TIB 0.91–1.00, TAR I 0.08, TAR II 0.10–0.13, TAR III 0.24–0.26.

General colour yellowish brown, lighter on venter. Eyes dark red. Most of antennomeres I–II and basal third of III dark yellow; distal margin of I, base of II, most of III and all IV brown. Rostrum yellowish brown on article I to middle of III; distal half of III brown; IV shining dark brown. Posterior lobe of pronotum lighter than anterior. Thoracic sternites yellow. Margins of abdominal tergite I and central areas of II–V brown; VII entirely brown, darker on posterior fourth; VIII dark brown. Margins of acetabula light brown. Coxae, trochanters, venter of fore femur, proximal two-thirds of fore tibia, and proximal ventral half of mid and hind femora light yellow; distal third of fore tibia, distal ventral half of mid tibia, and tarsomeres II–III of all legs dark yellow. Tarsomere I of all legs yellowish brown; tarsal claws brown.

Dorsum of femora yellow with a light brown band on middle and other subapical, bands indistinct on mid and hind legs, almost absent on fore leg; mid and hind tibiae brown with a yellow band near middle. Proctiger and parameres brown.

Body robust, covered on dorsum and sides by short light setae, more abundant on abdomen, and very long and thin brown to black setae ( Figure 3A View Figure 3 ). Antennae and legs also covered by very long, thin setae.

Head short, anteriorly declivent, inserted on pronotum centrally, with impressed median line Antenniferous tubercles well-defined, swollen. Antennomeres I–III cylindrical, IV fusiform; I thicker than others, curved outward; II widening to apex, thicker than III and IV; IV wider at middle, slightly thicker than III. Eyes small and globose, roughly faceted, the posterior region not touching the pronotum ( Figure 3B View Figure 3 ). Rostrum slightly passing middle of mesosternum; article I distinctly passing bucculae, longer than II and IV; III about three times longer than IV.

Pronotum divided in anterior and posterior lobes; a row of subcircular punctuations adjacent to anterior margin; lateral margins divergent to the slightly elevated humeri, convergent and thicker up to the rounded posterior angle; anterior lobe short, slightly swollen centrally, without median carina, separated from posterior lobe by a transversal row of rough punctuations; posterior lobe with median carina slightly elevated, narrow, and with numerous subcircular punctuations, these larger toward posterior angle ( Figure 3B View Figure 3 ). Thoracic sternites without tubercles or elaborated sculpturing. Mesoacetabulum with a deep circular punctuation on inner ventral area ( Figure 3C View Figure 3 ).

Abdomen with lateral margins rounded, wider on segment V. Abdominal connexiva divergent up to tergite V, convergent to end of body, elevated at about 45 ◦, without acute projections after tergite VIII. Abdominal tergites I–IV connected by pairs of lateral projections on intersegmental areas; last tergite with posterior margin slightly concave.

Legs robust and relatively long. Fore trochanter with some spine-like setae on ventral apex. Venter of fore femur with a small apical depression and rows of spine-like setae, the most dorsal ones longer. Tibiae with a ventral row of strong black spinules each, the spinules more robust and densely grouped on fore tibia ( Figure 3D View Figure 3 ); fore tibia with grasping combing very evident on distal sixth, composed by a curved row of straight black spinules ( Figure 3D View Figure 3 ); venter of mid tibia with a decreasing row of erect black setae on apical half. Hind femur not incrassate.

Abdominal tergite VIII wide, with rounded margins. Proctiger without central projections, with lateral lobes developed into small spines ( Figure 3E View Figure 3 ). Parameres symmetrical, narrow, elongated, strongly curved, almost touching each other on apex; apex with a small ventrally directed hook ( Figure 3F,G View Figure 3 ).

Apterous female ( Figure 3H View Figure 3 )

BL 2.98; HL 0.41; HW 0.59; ANT I 0.40, ANT II 0.26, ANT III 0.44, ANT IV 0.41; INT 0.26; EYE 0.15; PL 0.64; PW 0.91; FORELEG: FEM 0.76, TIB 0.69, TAR I 0.05, TAR II 0.06, TAR III 0.23; MIDLEG: FEM 1.14, TIB 1.11, TAR I 0.08, TAR II 0.25, TAR III 0.30; HINDLEG: FEM 1.03, TIB 1.05, TAR I 0.09, TAR II 0.13, TAR III 0.26.

Similar to male, with body wider and more rounded, and slightly lighter colour, especially on venter. Pronotum of more uniform colour. Posterior margin of

abdominal tergites III–IV, and centre of V–VII brown; VIII yellowish brown. Bands on femora and tibiae more evident than in males; small brown macula present on venter of femora. Grasping comb absent. Abdominal segment VIII on the same plane as VII, with lateral margins divergent and posterior margin rounded. Genital segments exposed, globose, dark yellow.

Type material

Brazil: Espírito Santo – Conceição da Barra , poça [18 ◦ 38 ′ 02.5 ′′ S, 39 ◦ 48 ′ 50.4 ′′ W], 15 April 2008, (J.A. Rúdio and F.F. Salles): 1 apterous male [HOLOTYPE], 1 apterous female [PARATYPE] ( UFES); 1 May 2009 (F.F.F. Moreira): 1 apterous male [PARATYPE] ( DZRJ) GoogleMaps   .


Known only from the short type series, collected in a pool approximately 500 m long, formed along a river branch, and located on the side of dirt road ES-422. Most of the local vegetation was replaced by eucalyptus, and only a few trees surrounded one side of the pool. The specimens were collected in association with hydrophytes of the genus Eleochares, which were abundant along the pool margins.


The term capixaba   refers to natives of the State of Espírito Santo, where the type series of the species was collected   .


Specimens of P. capixaba   sp. nov. can be diagnosed by the body and legs densely covered by long thin setae ( Figure 3A View Figure 3 ); antennomere III longer than I; absence of tubercles on thoracic sternites ( Figure 3C View Figure 3 ) (the mesoacetabulum is produced on the inner portion of the ventral surface, but not developed into a tubercle like in members of Platyvelia Polhemus and Polhemus, 1993   ); trochanters and femora without spines, tibiae with a ventral row of black acute spinules throughout their length ( Figure 3D View Figure 3 ); male proctiger without central projections, and the shape of the male paramere ( Figure 3F,G View Figure 3 ).

Based on original descriptions, P. capixaba   sp. nov. is similar to P. capillata (Drake and Harris, 1933)   , P. cognata (Drake and Harris, 1933)   , P. conata ( Hungerford, 1929)   and P. confusa ( Hungerford, 1929)   . Paravelia capillata   displays dark brown colouration, sometimes with a blackish pronotum, and legs without bands, which is different from P. capixaba   sp. nov. Parameres of both species are also different, with only that of P. capillata   bearing an apical expansion. Representatives of P. cognata   have BL 5.5 mm, being distinctly larger than P. capixaba   sp. nov., and present antennomere III shorter than I.

Specimens of P. conata   bear a conate projection on the pronotum, not seen elsewhere in the genus, and are almost black, much darker than P. capixaba   sp. nov. They also display two light bands on tibiae, whereas in P. capixaba   sp. nov. only one band is visible. The male paramere can also be used to distinguish both species, being twisted before the middle and with a basal expansion in P. conata   . Finally, in the case of P. confusa   , males bear divergent protuberances on last abdominal sternite, which are absent in P. capixaba   sp. nov., and male parameres in the former species are wider and shorter.


Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo