Camponotus maculatus Camponotus oasium Forel Camponotus oertzeni Forel Camponotus sanctus Forel Camponotus thoracicus Camponotus turkestanicus Emery Camponotus turkestanus Andre Camponotus vogti Forel Camponotus xerxes Forel Cardiocondyla Cardiocondyla elegans Emery Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel Cardiocondyla Cataglyphis aenescens Cataglyphis bellicosus Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi Cataglyphis emeryi Cataglyphis foreli Cataglyphis frigidus persicus Cataglyphis lividus Cataglyphis niger Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi Cataglyphis nodus Cataglyphis ruber Cataglyphis setipes Crematogaster antaris Forel Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky Crematogaster inermis Mayr Crematogaster schmidti Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky Crematogaster subdentata Mayr Dorylus Formica cunicularia Latreille Formica lusatica Seifert Formica rufibarbis Fabricius Formica sanguinea Latreille Lasius alienus Lasius brunneus Lasius emarginatus Lasius lasioides Lasius neglectus Van Loon Lasius platythorax Seifert Lasius turcicus Santschi Lepisiota bipartita Lepisiota dolabellae Lepisiota semenovi Leptothorax acervorum Liometopum microcephalum Messor caducus Messor concolor Santschi Messor dentatus Santschi Messor denticulatus Santschi Messor ebeninus Santschi Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky Messor intermedius Santschi Messor meridionalis Messor minor Messor rufotestaceus Messor semirufus Messor structor Messor structor platyceras Crawley Monomorium abeillei Andre Monomorium destructor Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi Monomorium nitidiventre Emery Monomorium pharaonis Monomorium salomonis Myrmica bergi Ruzsky Myrmica sabuleti Meinert Pachycondyla sennaarensis Paratrechina flavipes Paratrechina longicornis Paratrechina vividula Pheidole pallidula Pheidole sinaitica Mayr Pheidole teneriffana Forel Plagiolepis pallescens Forel Plagiolepis taurica Santschi Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith Ponera Solenopsis cf. fugax Solenopsis cf. latro Forel Tapinoma erraticum Tapinoma karavaievi Emery Temnothorax iranicus Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852) Tetramorium Tetramorium Tetramorium davidi Forel Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky Tetramorium inerme Mayr Tetramorium

Paknia, O., Radchenko, A. & Alipanah, H., 2008, A preliminary checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Iran., Myrmecologische Nachrichten 11, pp. 151-159: 154-159

publication ID

21820

persistent identifier

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scientific name

Camponotus maculatus Camponotus oasium Forel Camponotus oertzeni Forel Camponotus sanctus Forel Camponotus thoracicus Camponotus turkestanicus Emery Camponotus turkestanus Andre Camponotus vogti Forel Camponotus xerxes Forel Cardiocondyla Cardiocondyla elegans Emery Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel Cardiocondyla Cataglyphis aenescens Cataglyphis bellicosus Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi Cataglyphis emeryi Cataglyphis foreli Cataglyphis frigidus persicus Cataglyphis lividus Cataglyphis niger Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi Cataglyphis nodus Cataglyphis ruber Cataglyphis setipes Crematogaster antaris Forel Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky Crematogaster inermis Mayr Crematogaster schmidti Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky Crematogaster subdentata Mayr Dorylus Formica cunicularia Latreille Formica lusatica Seifert Formica rufibarbis Fabricius Formica sanguinea Latreille Lasius alienus Lasius brunneus Lasius emarginatus Lasius lasioides Lasius neglectus Van Loon Lasius platythorax Seifert Lasius turcicus Santschi Lepisiota bipartita Lepisiota dolabellae Lepisiota semenovi Leptothorax acervorum Liometopum microcephalum Messor caducus Messor concolor Santschi Messor dentatus Santschi Messor denticulatus Santschi Messor ebeninus Santschi Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky Messor intermedius Santschi Messor meridionalis Messor minor Messor rufotestaceus Messor semirufus Messor structor Messor structor platyceras Crawley Monomorium abeillei Andre Monomorium destructor Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi Monomorium nitidiventre Emery Monomorium pharaonis Monomorium salomonis Myrmica bergi Ruzsky Myrmica sabuleti Meinert Pachycondyla sennaarensis Paratrechina flavipes Paratrechina longicornis Paratrechina vividula Pheidole pallidula Pheidole sinaitica Mayr Pheidole teneriffana Forel Plagiolepis pallescens Forel Plagiolepis taurica Santschi Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith Ponera Solenopsis cf. fugax Solenopsis cf. latro Forel Tapinoma erraticum Tapinoma karavaievi Emery Temnothorax iranicus Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852) Tetramorium Tetramorium Tetramorium davidi Forel Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky Tetramorium inerme Mayr Tetramorium
status

 

Camponotus maculatus  HNS  (Fabricius, 1782) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. cognatus  HNS  (Smith, F. 1858)

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus oasium Forel  HNS  , 1890

Southeast Iran

C. maculatus r. oasium  HNS 

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Camponotus oertzeni Forel  HNS  , 1889

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus sanctus Forel  HNS  , 1904

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus thoracicus  HNS  (Fabricius, 1804) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. dichrous  HNS 

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus turkestanicus Emery  HNS  , 1887 *

NE.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus turkestanus Andre  HNS  , 1882

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus vogti Forel  HNS  , 1906

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Camponotus xerxes Forel  HNS  , 1904 * #

North Iran

C. maculatus r. xerxes  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko

Cardiocondyla  HNS  brachyceps Seifert, 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla elegans Emery  HNS  , 1869

North Iran.

Det. Seifert, Radchenko

SEIFERT (2003), Taylor (2006), HMIM 

Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel  HNS  , 1913

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel  HNS  , 1890

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert  HNS  , 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel  HNS  , 1913

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel  HNS  , 1892

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla  HNS  unicalis Seifert, 2003 #

W.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cataglyphis aenescens  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

North and Northeast Iran

Myrmecocysttus cursor r. tancrei  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko, Taylor

FOREL (1904a)  , PAKNIA & KAMI (2007)  , Taylor (2006)  , HMIM 

Cataglyphis altisquamis  HNS  (Andre, 1881)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Cataglyphis bellicosus  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1924) #

North Iran

Myrmecocystus bicolor ssp. bellicosus  HNS 

Radchenko

KARAVAIEV (1924), IZK, ZMMU 

Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery  HNS  , 1925

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis emeryi  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis foreli  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1903)

Northeast Iran

Myrmecocystus altiquamis r. foreli  HNS  .

Det.. Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), ZMGU 

Cataglyphis frigidus persicus  HNS  (Emery, 1906) #

South Iran

Myrmecosystus frigidus var. persica  HNS  .

Det.. Emery

EMERY (1906)

Cataglyphis lividus  HNS  ( André, 1881)

Northeast, North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus albicans r. lividus  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis niger  HNS  ( André, 1881)

North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus viaticus r. niger  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

West and Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU, HMIM 

Cataglyphis nodus  HNS  (Brulle, 1833)

North and South Iran

Cataglyphis bicolor var. nodus Menozzi  HNS  (1927).

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis ruber  HNS  (Forel, 1903)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis setipes  HNS  (Forel, 1894)

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), HMIM 

Crematogaster antaris Forel  HNS  , 1894

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Crematogaster schmidti  HNS  (Mayr, 1853)

North Iran

C. scutellaris ssp. schmidti  HNS 

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Crematogaster subdentata Mayr  HNS  , 1877

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Dorylus  HNS  sp. *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Alipanah

HMIM 

Formica cunicularia Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran

Formica glauca Ruzsky  HNS  , 1896.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Formica lusatica Seifert  HNS  , 1997

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Formica rufibarbis Fabricius  HNS  , 1793

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley, Anaraki

CRAWLEY (1920b), Anaraki (1981),

Formica sanguinea Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lasius alienus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

CRAWLEY (1920b), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lasius brunneus  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley

CRAWLEY (1920b)

Lasius emarginatus  HNS  (Oliver, 1792)

Northwest and North Iran

L. emarginatus var  HNS  . nigro- emarginatus  HNS  .

Det. Seifert

CRAWLEY (1920b), ZMGU 

Lasius lasioides  HNS  (Emery, 1869)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990 *

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius platythorax Seifert  HNS  , 1991

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Lasius turcicus Santschi  HNS  , 1921

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Radchenko

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lepisiota bipartita  HNS  (Smith, F., 1861)

East and North Iran

Acantholepis frauenfeldi r. bipartita  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

FOREL (1904a), HMIM 

Lepisiota dolabellae  HNS  (Forel, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lepisiota semenovi  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1905)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Tahmasebi & Alipanah (2000), HMIM 

Leptothorax acervorum  HNS  (Fabricius, 1793)

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Liometopum microcephalum  HNS  (Panzer, 1798)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Messor caducus  HNS  (Victor, 1839)

North, Northwest and South Iran.

Det. Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), z, ZMMU 

Messor concolor Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Messor dentatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor denticulatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Arnoldi (1977), HMIM 

Messor ebeninus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky  HNS  , 1929

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Messor intermedius Santschi  HNS  , 1927 *

S

Messor semirufus var. intermedius  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Messor meridionalis  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Messor minor  HNS  ( André, 1883)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

HMIM 

Messor rufotestaceus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

S, SWest Iran

Det. Radchenko, Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), ZMGU, HMIM 

Messor semirufus  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest Iran

M. barbarus r. semirufus  HNS  .

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Messor structor  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest and North Iran

M. platyceras var. rubella  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), HMIM 

Messor structor platyceras Crawley  HNS  , 1920 #

Northwest Iran

M. platyceras Crawley  HNS 

Crawley (1920a)

Monomorium abeillei Andre  HNS  , 1881

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium destructor  HNS  (Jerdon, 1851) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi  HNS  , 1928

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Monomorium nitidiventre Emery  HNS  , 1893

South Iran

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Monomorium salomonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758)

South Iran

M. salmonis  HNS  var.?

Menozzi

MENOZZI (1927)

Myrmica bergi Ruzsky  HNS  , 1902

North and Northwest Iran

M. bergi var. fortior  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), IZK 

Myrmica sabuleti Meinert  HNS  , 1861

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  (Mayr, 1862) *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Paknia

Tirgari & Paknia (2005), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), w, ZMGU 

Paratrechina flavipes  HNS  (F. Smith, 1874) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Paratrechina longicornis  HNS  (Latreille, 1802) *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Schultz

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), HMIM, ZMGU 

Paratrechina vividula  HNS  (Nylander, 1846) *

Southeast Iran

Prenolepis vividula  HNS 

Det. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Pheidole pallidula  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

Northwest Iran

Ph. pallidula subsp. arenarum var. orientalis  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

Crawley (1920a), f, HMIM 

Pheidole sinaitica Mayr  HNS  , 1862

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Pheidole teneriffana Forel  HNS  , 1893 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), ARDEH (1994), p, ZMGU, HMIM 

Plagiolepis pallescens Forel  HNS  , 1889

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Plagiolepis taurica Santschi  HNS  , 1920

North Iran

Plagiolepis vindobonensis Lomnicki  HNS  , 1925.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith  HNS  , 1858 *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Radchenko

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), HMIM, ZMMU, ZMGU 

Ponera  HNS  sp.

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Solenopsis cf. fugax  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Solenopsis cf. latro Forel  HNS  , 1894

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tapinoma erraticum  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North and South Iran

T. erraticum subsp. nigerrimum  HNS 

Det. Radchenko, Taylor

Crawley (1920a), Taylor (2006), ZISP, ZMGU 

Tapinoma karavaievi Emery  HNS  , 1925 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Radchenko

HMIM, ZMGU 

Temnothorax iranicus  HNS  (Radchenko, 1994) #

North Iran

Leptothorax iranicus  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1994a), ZMMU, IZK 

Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852)  HNS 

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

North and South Iran.

Det. Cook

Crawley (1920a), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  chefketi Forel, 1911 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium davidi Forel  HNS  , 1911

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky  HNS  , 1903

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Tetramorium inerme Mayr  HNS  , 1877

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Tetramorium  HNS  sp. *

North Iran

T. moravicum  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Steiner & al. 2006, Csosz & al. 2007). However, based on distribution maps of Tetramorium  HNS  ants in the western Palearctic(see Schlick-Steiner & al. 2006) we left this species in the list as Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  . The situation is similar with the old records of Lasius  HNS  species (see Seifert 1992), that need to be reviewed by modern keys. Nevertheless this work is beyond the scope of the present paper, so we included these species in our preliminary list without revision.

The record of Dorylinae  HNS  is the first record of this subfamily after the new clarification of this subfamily by Bolton(2003).

Distribution of records

Regarding the geographical distribution of the species records that had been examined in this study, we found a mismatching between the area of the locations that had been studied and the respective number of species that had been found there: e.g., 34 species of a total of 109 species were collected in natural or disturbed habitats of Tehran province, though the territory of this province is less than 2 % of the territory of the country. Fifteen species were recorded from the Caspian forest region in the north of Iran that covers only 4 % of the country. Eight species were found in Zagros Mountains forest-steppe ecoregion (about 20 % of entire area of the country). From the south of Iran altogether 34 species were reported. In contrast, there are only a few records from the wide Elburz Range forest-steppe and the Eastern Anatoloian Mountains in the north and northwest of Iran, or from eastern parts and the centre of the country that lie in the vast Central Persian desert basin. There are no species records at all from the Eastern Iran mountain woodlands, the Kopet Dag woodlands, Kopet Dag semi desert, Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe, and the desert and semi-desert areas in the centre and the east of Iran that comprise more than 50 % of the area of the country.

Discussion

Although the first reports on Iranian ants were published more than 100 years ago, the ant fauna of this country remains poorly known. Most of the records are from the north of Iran, but many of these samples were collected in disturbed environments near human settlements that comprise only a few percent of the country's surface area. There are only a few species reports from the extensive natural habitats of the north, for example from the Caspian deciduous forests. The latter should have a rich ant fauna due to old geological age of that forest region: it has been covered with forests since the late Tertiary period (Zohary 1973). As a result, Tertiarian elements could have survived, as it is known for the adjacent Talysh and Zuvand districts in south-eastern Azerbaijan (Arnoldi 1930, 1948).

Among the other regions that have been investigated only cursorily is the Nubo-Sindian desert and semi desert ecoregion in the south and the southeast of the country. These areas are particularly interesting faunistically, as they are close to the boundaries of the Oriental and Afrotropical zoogeographic regions. Four important ecoregions that comprise a large part of the Irano-Anatolian biodiversity

hotspot have not been studied at all. These are the Eastern Anatolian Mountains, Elburz forest-steppe, Kopet Dag woodlands and forest-steppe, and Zagros Mountains forest-steppe. For comparison, the well studied myrmecofauna of the Turkmenistan's part of the Kopet Dag is one of the richest local ant fauna in Central Asia (Dlussky & Zabelin1985, Dlussky & al. 1990).

This scarcity of data, especially from the border regions, does not permit to make a proper zoogeographical analysis of the Iranian ant fauna at present. However, in the future, when sufficient material will have been sampled, the Iranian myrmecofauna needs to be compared with those of the adjacent regions, e.g., Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Arabian Peninsula. Similarly, the presence of North African elements in Iran (e.g., Camponotus fellah Dalla Torre  HNS  , 1893 or Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862) demonstrates a relation of the Iranian and North African desert faunas that has to be confirmed by more intensive sampling.

The Iranian ant fauna includes eight "tramp" species, which have been introduced by humans to many countries and in some cases have gained a worldwide distribution (see also McGlynn 1999, Paknia 2006, Paknia & Kami 2007): Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990, Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758), M. destructor  HNS  (Jerdon, 1851), Pheidole teneriffana Forel  HNS  , 1893, Paratrechina longicornis  HNS  (Latreille, 1802), P. flavipes  HNS  (Smith, F., 1874), P. vividula  HNS  (Nylander, 1846) and Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  (Mayr, 1862).

Almost half of the recorded species in the Iranian checklist belong to the genera Camponotus  HNS  , Messor  HNS  and Cataglyphis  HNS  . Similar faunistic patterns are found in other arid Asian regions, e.g., Turkmenistan (Dlussky & al. 1990) and Saudi Arabia (Collingwood 1985, Collingwood& Agosti 1996). The main reason for the high diversity of these genera are the environmental conditions in Iran that comprise mainly arid and semi arid areas, the preferred habitats of Messor  HNS  , Cataglyphis  HNS  and many Camponotus  HNS  species (Dlussky 1981, Dlussky & al. 1990, Höll- dobler & Wilson 1990, Andersen & Clay 1996, Andersen& spain 1996).

The second reason for the dominance of those three genera in ant collections may be artificial: their members are large and can be easily collected by anyone. In the majority of the former studies, "direct hand collecting" was the main method. For this reason small-sized and cryptic ants (e.g., Leptanillinae  HNS  , Amblyoponinae  HNS  , Dacetini  HNS  , etc.) are under-represented in the investigated material. Furthermore, social parasites are also missing in the presented species list of Iran. To overcome this sampling bias and to establish a reliable species list, thorough investigations of ant diversity in all parts of Iran are urgently needed. They should be conducted by standard sampling methods, like direct collecting from ant nests, pitfall traps, bait trapping and litter extraction with Winkler collectors (see Agosti & Alonso

2000).

At last, we have to emphasize that the Iranian ant fauna seems to be one of typically Palaearctic character. If we exclude the introduced species mentioned above, native members of only four tropical (Oriental or Afrotropical) genera are found in Iran: Aenictus dlusskyi Arnoldi  HNS  , 1968, Anochetus evansi Crawley  HNS  , 1922, Dorylus  HNS  sp., and Polyrhachis lacteipennis Smith, F., 1858. This dominance of

Palaearctic ant genera will probably persist in a more comprehensive species list to be presented in the future.

Acknowledgements

We thank Hamidreza Hajiqanbar for collecting and sending the material of two ant species, Crematogaster bogojawlenskii and Tetramorium inerme that were new to Iran. We thank Dr. Bernhard Seifert for his taxonomic comments, Dr. Cedric A. Collingwood for the identification of many specimens and Dr. Dubovikov for checking Forel's vouchers in ZISP. We are indebted to John Fellowes, an anonymous referee and the editors for their useful suggestions towards the improvement of our paper. We thank Doug Johns and Bryson Voirin for language correction of the first and the second versions of the text, respectively.

Zusammenfassung

Nach einer umfassenden Durchsicht der Literatur und der Untersuchung von Material aus eigenen Aufsammlungen sowie aus Museen und Forschungsinstituten verschiedener europäischer Länder, präsentieren wir die erste Artenliste der Ameisen des Iran: 110 Arten aus 26 Gattungen und sechs Unterfamilien der Formicidae  HNS  ( Formicinae  HNS  , Myrmicinae  HNS  , Ponerinae  HNS  , Dolichoderinae  HNS  , Dorylinae  HNS  und Aenictinae  HNS  ) wurden bislang gefunden. Die meisten der hier gelisteten Arten wurden im Norden des Landes gesammelt, zumeist in anthropogen beeinflussten Gebieten in der Nähe von Siedlungen. Eine Unterfamilie ( Dorylinae  HNS  ), zwei Gattungen( Ponera  HNS  Latreille, 1804 und Dorylus  HNS  Fabricius, 1793), sowie sieben Arten der Formicidae  HNS  ( Aphaenogaster gibbosa  HNS  (Latreille, 1798), A. kurdica Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905, Messor minor  HNS  (Andre, 1883), Tapinoma karavaievi Emery  HNS  , 1925, Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852), Tetramorium inerme Mayr  HNS  , 1877, und Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905) wurden erstmalig für den Iran registriert. Die artenreichsten Gattungen des Iran sind Camponotus  HNS  Mayr, 1861 mit 19 Arten sowie Cataglyphis  HNS  Foerster, 1850 mit 14 und Messor  HNS  Forel, 1890 mit 13 Arten. Zoogeographisch gesehen dominieren paläarktische Elemente im Iran, allerdings wurden auch verschiedene Arten der Orientalis und Afrotropis gefunden. Viele Landesteile wurden bislang kaum oder gar nicht untersucht und der Artenreichtum der Formicidae  HNS  des gesamten Iran dürfte wesentlich größer sein.

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Camponotus oasium Forel  HNS  , 1890

Southeast Iran

C. maculatus r. oasium  HNS 

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Camponotus oertzeni Forel  HNS  , 1889

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus sanctus Forel  HNS  , 1904

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus thoracicus  HNS  (Fabricius, 1804) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. dichrous  HNS 

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus turkestanicus Emery  HNS  , 1887 *

NE.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus turkestanus Andre  HNS  , 1882

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus vogti Forel  HNS  , 1906

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Camponotus xerxes Forel  HNS  , 1904 * #

North Iran

C. maculatus r. xerxes  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko

Cardiocondyla  HNS  brachyceps Seifert, 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla elegans Emery  HNS  , 1869

North Iran.

Det. Seifert, Radchenko

SEIFERT (2003), Taylor (2006), HMIM 

Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel  HNS  , 1913

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel  HNS  , 1890

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert  HNS  , 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel  HNS  , 1913

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel  HNS  , 1892

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla  HNS  unicalis Seifert, 2003 #

W.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cataglyphis aenescens  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

North and Northeast Iran

Myrmecocysttus cursor r. tancrei  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko, Taylor

FOREL (1904a)  , PAKNIA & KAMI (2007)  , Taylor (2006)  , HMIM 

Cataglyphis altisquamis  HNS  (Andre, 1881)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Cataglyphis bellicosus  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1924) #

North Iran

Myrmecocystus bicolor ssp. bellicosus  HNS 

Radchenko

KARAVAIEV (1924), IZK, ZMMU 

Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery  HNS  , 1925

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis emeryi  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis foreli  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1903)

Northeast Iran

Myrmecocystus altiquamis r. foreli  HNS  .

Det.. Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), ZMGU 

Cataglyphis frigidus persicus  HNS  (Emery, 1906) #

South Iran

Myrmecosystus frigidus var. persica  HNS  .

Det.. Emery

EMERY (1906)

Cataglyphis lividus  HNS  ( André, 1881)

Northeast, North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus albicans r. lividus  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis niger  HNS  ( André, 1881)

North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus viaticus r. niger  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

West and Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU, HMIM 

Cataglyphis nodus  HNS  (Brulle, 1833)

North and South Iran

Cataglyphis bicolor var. nodus Menozzi  HNS  (1927).

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis ruber  HNS  (Forel, 1903)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis setipes  HNS  (Forel, 1894)

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), HMIM 

Crematogaster antaris Forel  HNS  , 1894

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Crematogaster schmidti  HNS  (Mayr, 1853)

North Iran

C. scutellaris ssp. schmidti  HNS 

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Crematogaster subdentata Mayr  HNS  , 1877

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Dorylus  HNS  sp. *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Alipanah

HMIM 

Formica cunicularia Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran

Formica glauca Ruzsky  HNS  , 1896.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Formica lusatica Seifert  HNS  , 1997

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Formica rufibarbis Fabricius  HNS  , 1793

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley, Anaraki

CRAWLEY (1920b), Anaraki (1981),

Formica sanguinea Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lasius alienus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

CRAWLEY (1920b), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lasius brunneus  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley

CRAWLEY (1920b)

Lasius emarginatus  HNS  (Oliver, 1792)

Northwest and North Iran

L. emarginatus var  HNS  . nigro- emarginatus  HNS  .

Det. Seifert

CRAWLEY (1920b), ZMGU 

Lasius lasioides  HNS  (Emery, 1869)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990 *

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius platythorax Seifert  HNS  , 1991

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Lasius turcicus Santschi  HNS  , 1921

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Radchenko

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lepisiota bipartita  HNS  (Smith, F., 1861)

East and North Iran

Acantholepis frauenfeldi r. bipartita  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

FOREL (1904a), HMIM 

Lepisiota dolabellae  HNS  (Forel, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lepisiota semenovi  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1905)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Tahmasebi & Alipanah (2000), HMIM 

Leptothorax acervorum  HNS  (Fabricius, 1793)

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Liometopum microcephalum  HNS  (Panzer, 1798)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Messor caducus  HNS  (Victor, 1839)

North, Northwest and South Iran.

Det. Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), z, ZMMU 

Messor concolor Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Messor dentatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor denticulatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Arnoldi (1977), HMIM 

Messor ebeninus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky  HNS  , 1929

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Messor intermedius Santschi  HNS  , 1927 *

S

Messor semirufus var. intermedius  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Messor meridionalis  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Messor minor  HNS  ( André, 1883)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

HMIM 

Messor rufotestaceus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

S, SWest Iran

Det. Radchenko, Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), ZMGU, HMIM 

Messor semirufus  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest Iran

M. barbarus r. semirufus  HNS  .

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Messor structor  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest and North Iran

M. platyceras var. rubella  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), HMIM 

Messor structor platyceras Crawley  HNS  , 1920 #

Northwest Iran

M. platyceras Crawley  HNS 

Crawley (1920a)

Monomorium abeillei Andre  HNS  , 1881

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium destructor  HNS  (Jerdon, 1851) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi  HNS  , 1928

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Monomorium nitidiventre Emery  HNS  , 1893

South Iran

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Monomorium salomonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758)

South Iran

M. salmonis  HNS  var.?

Menozzi

MENOZZI (1927)

Myrmica bergi Ruzsky  HNS  , 1902

North and Northwest Iran

M. bergi var. fortior  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), IZK 

Myrmica sabuleti Meinert  HNS  , 1861

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  (Mayr, 1862) *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Paknia

Tirgari & Paknia (2005), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), w, ZMGU 

Paratrechina flavipes  HNS  (F. Smith, 1874) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Paratrechina longicornis  HNS  (Latreille, 1802) *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Schultz

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), HMIM, ZMGU 

Paratrechina vividula  HNS  (Nylander, 1846) *

Southeast Iran

Prenolepis vividula  HNS 

Det. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Pheidole pallidula  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

Northwest Iran

Ph. pallidula subsp. arenarum var. orientalis  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

Crawley (1920a), f, HMIM 

Pheidole sinaitica Mayr  HNS  , 1862

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Pheidole teneriffana Forel  HNS  , 1893 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), ARDEH (1994), p, ZMGU, HMIM 

Plagiolepis pallescens Forel  HNS  , 1889

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Plagiolepis taurica Santschi  HNS  , 1920

North Iran

Plagiolepis vindobonensis Lomnicki  HNS  , 1925.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith  HNS  , 1858 *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Radchenko

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), HMIM, ZMMU, ZMGU 

Ponera  HNS  sp.

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Solenopsis cf. fugax  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Solenopsis cf. latro Forel  HNS  , 1894

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tapinoma erraticum  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North and South Iran

T. erraticum subsp. nigerrimum  HNS 

Det. Radchenko, Taylor

Crawley (1920a), Taylor (2006), ZISP, ZMGU 

Tapinoma karavaievi Emery  HNS  , 1925 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Radchenko

HMIM, ZMGU 

Temnothorax iranicus  HNS  (Radchenko, 1994) #

North Iran

Leptothorax iranicus  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1994a), ZMMU, IZK 

Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852)  HNS 

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

North and South Iran.

Det. Cook

Crawley (1920a), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  chefketi Forel, 1911 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium davidi Forel  HNS  , 1911

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky  HNS  , 1903

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Tetramorium inerme Mayr  HNS  , 1877

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Tetramorium  HNS  sp. *

North Iran

T. moravicum  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Steiner & al. 2006, Csosz & al. 2007). However, based on distribution maps of Tetramorium  HNS  ants in the western Palearctic(see Schlick-Steiner & al. 2006) we left this species in the list as Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  . The situation is similar with the old records of Lasius  HNS  species (see Seifert 1992), that need to be reviewed by modern keys. Nevertheless this work is beyond the scope of the present paper, so we included these species in our preliminary list without revision.

The record of Dorylinae  HNS  is the first record of this subfamily after the new clarification of this subfamily by Bolton(2003).

Distribution of records

Regarding the geographical distribution of the species records that had been examined in this study, we found a mismatching between the area of the locations that had been studied and the respective number of species that had been found there: e.g., 34 species of a total of 109 species were collected in natural or disturbed habitats of Tehran province, though the territory of this province is less than 2 % of the territory of the country. Fifteen species were recorded from the Caspian forest region in the north of Iran that covers only 4 % of the country. Eight species were found in Zagros Mountains forest-steppe ecoregion (about 20 % of entire area of the country). From the south of Iran altogether 34 species were reported. In contrast, there are only a few records from the wide Elburz Range forest-steppe and the Eastern Anatoloian Mountains in the north and northwest of Iran, or from eastern parts and the centre of the country that lie in the vast Central Persian desert basin. There are no species records at all from the Eastern Iran mountain woodlands, the Kopet Dag woodlands, Kopet Dag semi desert, Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe, and the desert and semi-desert areas in the centre and the east of Iran that comprise more than 50 % of the area of the country.

Discussion

Although the first reports on Iranian ants were published more than 100 years ago, the ant fauna of this country remains poorly known. Most of the records are from the north of Iran, but many of these samples were collected in disturbed environments near human settlements that comprise only a few percent of the country's surface area. There are only a few species reports from the extensive natural habitats of the north, for example from the Caspian deciduous forests. The latter should have a rich ant fauna due to old geological age of that forest region: it has been covered with forests since the late Tertiary period (Zohary 1973). As a result, Tertiarian elements could have survived, as it is known for the adjacent Talysh and Zuvand districts in south-eastern Azerbaijan (Arnoldi 1930, 1948).

Among the other regions that have been investigated only cursorily is the Nubo-Sindian desert and semi desert ecoregion in the south and the southeast of the country. These areas are particularly interesting faunistically, as they are close to the boundaries of the Oriental and Afrotropical zoogeographic regions. Four important ecoregions that comprise a large part of the Irano-Anatolian biodiversity

hotspot have not been studied at all. These are the Eastern Anatolian Mountains, Elburz forest-steppe, Kopet Dag woodlands and forest-steppe, and Zagros Mountains forest-steppe. For comparison, the well studied myrmecofauna of the Turkmenistan's part of the Kopet Dag is one of the richest local ant fauna in Central Asia (Dlussky & Zabelin1985, Dlussky & al. 1990).

This scarcity of data, especially from the border regions, does not permit to make a proper zoogeographical analysis of the Iranian ant fauna at present. However, in the future, when sufficient material will have been sampled, the Iranian myrmecofauna needs to be compared with those of the adjacent regions, e.g., Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Arabian Peninsula. Similarly, the presence of North African elements in Iran (e.g., Camponotus fellah Dalla Torre  HNS  , 1893 or Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862) demonstrates a relation of the Iranian and North African desert faunas that has to be confirmed by more intensive sampling.

The Iranian ant fauna includes eight "tramp" species, which have been introduced by humans to many countries and in some cases have gained a worldwide distribution (see also McGlynn 1999, Paknia 2006, Paknia & Kami 2007): Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990, Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758), M. destructor  HNS  (Jerdon, 1851), Pheidole teneriffana Forel  HNS  , 1893, Paratrechina longicornis  HNS  (Latreille, 1802), P. flavipes  HNS  (Smith, F., 1874), P. vividula  HNS  (Nylander, 1846) and Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  (Mayr, 1862).

Almost half of the recorded species in the Iranian checklist belong to the genera Camponotus  HNS  , Messor  HNS  and Cataglyphis  HNS  . Similar faunistic patterns are found in other arid Asian regions, e.g., Turkmenistan (Dlussky & al. 1990) and Saudi Arabia (Collingwood 1985, Collingwood& Agosti 1996). The main reason for the high diversity of these genera are the environmental conditions in Iran that comprise mainly arid and semi arid areas, the preferred habitats of Messor  HNS  , Cataglyphis  HNS  and many Camponotus  HNS  species (Dlussky 1981, Dlussky & al. 1990, Höll- dobler & Wilson 1990, Andersen & Clay 1996, Andersen& spain 1996).

The second reason for the dominance of those three genera in ant collections may be artificial: their members are large and can be easily collected by anyone. In the majority of the former studies, "direct hand collecting" was the main method. For this reason small-sized and cryptic ants (e.g., Leptanillinae  HNS  , Amblyoponinae  HNS  , Dacetini  HNS  , etc.) are under-represented in the investigated material. Furthermore, social parasites are also missing in the presented species list of Iran. To overcome this sampling bias and to establish a reliable species list, thorough investigations of ant diversity in all parts of Iran are urgently needed. They should be conducted by standard sampling methods, like direct collecting from ant nests, pitfall traps, bait trapping and litter extraction with Winkler collectors (see Agosti & Alonso

2000).

At last, we have to emphasize that the Iranian ant fauna seems to be one of typically Palaearctic character. If we exclude the introduced species mentioned above, native members of only four tropical (Oriental or Afrotropical) genera are found in Iran: Aenictus dlusskyi Arnoldi  HNS  , 1968, Anochetus evansi Crawley  HNS  , 1922, Dorylus  HNS  sp., and Polyrhachis lacteipennis Smith, F., 1858. This dominance of

Palaearctic ant genera will probably persist in a more comprehensive species list to be presented in the future.

Acknowledgements

We thank Hamidreza Hajiqanbar for collecting and sending the material of two ant species, Crematogaster bogojawlenskii and Tetramorium inerme that were new to Iran. We thank Dr. Bernhard Seifert for his taxonomic comments, Dr. Cedric A. Collingwood for the identification of many specimens and Dr. Dubovikov for checking Forel's vouchers in ZISP. We are indebted to John Fellowes, an anonymous referee and the editors for their useful suggestions towards the improvement of our paper. We thank Doug Johns and Bryson Voirin for language correction of the first and the second versions of the text, respectively.

Zusammenfassung

Nach einer umfassenden Durchsicht der Literatur und der Untersuchung von Material aus eigenen Aufsammlungen sowie aus Museen und Forschungsinstituten verschiedener europäischer Länder, präsentieren wir die erste Artenliste der Ameisen des Iran: 110 Arten aus 26 Gattungen und sechs Unterfamilien der Formicidae  HNS  ( Formicinae  HNS  , Myrmicinae  HNS  , Ponerinae  HNS  , Dolichoderinae  HNS  , Dorylinae  HNS  und Aenictinae  HNS  ) wurden bislang gefunden. Die meisten der hier gelisteten Arten wurden im Norden des Landes gesammelt, zumeist in anthropogen beeinflussten Gebieten in der Nähe von Siedlungen. Eine Unterfamilie ( Dorylinae  HNS  ), zwei Gattungen( Ponera  HNS  Latreille, 1804 und Dorylus  HNS  Fabricius, 1793), sowie sieben Arten der Formicidae  HNS  ( Aphaenogaster gibbosa  HNS  (Latreille, 1798), A. kurdica Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905, Messor minor  HNS  (Andre, 1883), Tapinoma karavaievi Emery  HNS  , 1925, Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852), Tetramorium inerme Mayr  HNS  , 1877, und Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905) wurden erstmalig für den Iran registriert. Die artenreichsten Gattungen des Iran sind Camponotus  HNS  Mayr, 1861 mit 19 Arten sowie Cataglyphis  HNS  Foerster, 1850 mit 14 und Messor  HNS  Forel, 1890 mit 13 Arten. Zoogeographisch gesehen dominieren paläarktische Elemente im Iran, allerdings wurden auch verschiedene Arten der Orientalis und Afrotropis gefunden. Viele Landesteile wurden bislang kaum oder gar nicht untersucht und der Artenreichtum der Formicidae  HNS  des gesamten Iran dürfte wesentlich größer sein.

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Radchenko, A.G. 1996a: The ants of the genus Plagiolepis Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  HNS  ) of the Central and Southern Palaearctic. - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 75: 178-187. (in Russian)

RADCHENKO, A.G. 1996b: Key to the ants of the genus Camponotus  HNS  from Asian Palaearctic. - Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 75: 1195-1203. (in Russian; English translation: Entomological Review(Washington) 76: 430-437)

Radchenko, A.G. 1997a: A review of ants of the subgenera Tanaemyrmex, Colobopsis, Myrmamblis, Myrmosericus, Orthonotomyrmex and Paramyrmamblis of the genus Camponotus  HNS  MAYR (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  HNS  ) of the Asian part of Palaearctic. - Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 76: 806-815. (in Russian)

Radchenko, A.G. 1997b: A review of ants of the genus Cataglyphis  HNS  Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  HNS  ) from Asia. - Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye 76: 424-442. (in Russian)

Radchenko, A.G. 1998: A key to the identification of the ants of the genus Cataglyphis  HNS  Foerster (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  HNS  ) of Asia. - Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie 77: 502-508. (in Russian)

Radchenko, A.G. & Alipanah, H. 2004: The first record of the subfamily Aenictinae  HNS  (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  HNS  ) from Iran. - Vestnik Zoologii 38: 75-78.

Schlick-Steiner, B.C., Steiner, F.M., Moder, K., Seifert, B., Sanetra, M., Dyreson, E., Stauffer, C. & Christian, E. 2006: A multidisciplinary approach reveals cryptic diversity in Western Palearctic Tetramorium  HNS  ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  HNS  ). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 259-273.

Schultz, R., Radchenko, A. & Seifert, B. 2006: A critical check-list of the ants of Kyrgyzstan (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  HNS  ). - Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 201-208.

Seifert, B. 1992: A taxonomic revision of the Palaearctic members of the ant subgenus Lasius  HNS  s. str. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae  HNS  ). - Abhandlungen und Berichte des Naturkundemuseums Görlitz 66: 1-67.

Seifert, B. 2003: The ant genus Cardiocondyla  HNS  (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae  HNS  ) - a taxonomic revision of the C. elegans, C. bulgarica, C. batesii, C. nuda, C. shuckardi, C. stambuloffii, C. wroughtonii, C. emeryi, and C. minutior species groups. - Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien B 104: 203-338.

Steiner, F.M., Schlick-Steiner, B.C. & Moder, K. 2006: Morphology-based cyber identification engine to identify ants of the Tetramorium  HNS  caespitumlimpurum complex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae  HNS  ). - Myrmecologische Nachrichten 8: 175-180.

Tahmasebi, G. & Alipanah, H. 2000: New report of Lepisiota semenovi  HNS  (Hym.: Formicidae  HNS  ) in Iran. - Journal of Entomological Society of Iran 22: 83-84. (in Persian)

Tarbinsky, Y.S. 1976: The ants of Kirghizia. - Ilim Press, Frunze, 217 pp. (in Russian)

Taylor, B. 2006: Ants of Iran. - <http:llwww.nottingham.ac. ukl~plzfglantslants_of_iranllist_2005.htm>, retrieved on 9 January2008.

Terayama, M. & Choi, B.M. 1994: Ant faunas of Taiwan, Korea, and Japan. - Ari 18: 36. (in Japanese)

Tirgari, S. & Paknia, O. 2004: Additional records for the Iranian Formicidae  HNS  fauna. - Zoology in the Middle East 32: 115-116.

Tirgari, S. & Paknia, O. 2005: First record of ponerine ant ( Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  ) in Iran and some notes on its ecology. - Zoology in the Middle East 34: 67-70.

Wu, J. & Wang, C. 1995: The ants of China. - China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing, 214 pp. (in Chinese)

Zohary, M. 1973: Geobotanical foundations of the Middle East. - Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, 738 pp.

Camponotus oertzeni Forel  HNS  , 1889

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus sanctus Forel  HNS  , 1904

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus thoracicus  HNS  (Fabricius, 1804) *

East Iran

C. maculatus r. dichrous  HNS 

Det.. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Camponotus turkestanicus Emery  HNS  , 1887 *

NE.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus turkestanus Andre  HNS  , 1882

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Camponotus vogti Forel  HNS  , 1906

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Camponotus xerxes Forel  HNS  , 1904 * #

North Iran

C. maculatus r. xerxes  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko

Cardiocondyla  HNS  brachyceps Seifert, 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla elegans Emery  HNS  , 1869

North Iran.

Det. Seifert, Radchenko

SEIFERT (2003), Taylor (2006), HMIM 

Cardiocondyla fajumensis Forel  HNS  , 1913

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla mauritanica Forel  HNS  , 1890

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla persiana Seifert  HNS  , 2003 #

South Iran

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla sahlbergi Forel  HNS  , 1913

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla stambuloffii Forel  HNS  , 1892

Northwest Iran.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cardiocondyla  HNS  unicalis Seifert, 2003 #

W.

Det. Seifert

SEIFERT (2003)

Cataglyphis aenescens  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

North and Northeast Iran

Myrmecocysttus cursor r. tancrei  HNS 

Det.. Radchenko, Taylor

FOREL (1904a)  , PAKNIA & KAMI (2007)  , Taylor (2006)  , HMIM 

Cataglyphis altisquamis  HNS  (Andre, 1881)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Cataglyphis bellicosus  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1924) #

North Iran

Myrmecocystus bicolor ssp. bellicosus  HNS 

Radchenko

KARAVAIEV (1924), IZK, ZMMU 

Cataglyphis bucharicus Emery  HNS  , 1925

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis cuneinodis Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis emeryi  HNS  (Karavaiev, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis foreli  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1903)

Northeast Iran

Myrmecocystus altiquamis r. foreli  HNS  .

Det.. Radchenko

FOREL (1904a), ZMGU 

Cataglyphis frigidus persicus  HNS  (Emery, 1906) #

South Iran

Myrmecosystus frigidus var. persica  HNS  .

Det.. Emery

EMERY (1906)

Cataglyphis lividus  HNS  ( André, 1881)

Northeast, North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus albicans r. lividus  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis niger  HNS  ( André, 1881)

North and South Iran

Myrmecocystus viaticus r. niger  HNS  .

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

FOREL (1904a)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, HMIM, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis nigripes Arnoldi  HNS  , 1964

West and Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU, HMIM 

Cataglyphis nodus  HNS  (Brulle, 1833)

North and South Iran

Cataglyphis bicolor var. nodus Menozzi  HNS  (1927).

Det.. Collingwood, Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927)  , ALIPANAH & al. (2000)  , ARDEH (1994)  , p, ZMGU 

Cataglyphis ruber  HNS  (Forel, 1903)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), ZMMU 

Cataglyphis setipes  HNS  (Forel, 1894)

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

RADCHENKO (1997b), HMIM 

Crematogaster antaris Forel  HNS  , 1894

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Crematogaster bogojawlenskii Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Crematogaster schmidti  HNS  (Mayr, 1853)

North Iran

C. scutellaris ssp. schmidti  HNS 

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Crematogaster sorokini Ruzsky  HNS  , 1905

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Crematogaster subdentata Mayr  HNS  , 1877

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Dorylus  HNS  sp. *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Alipanah

HMIM 

Formica cunicularia Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran

Formica glauca Ruzsky  HNS  , 1896.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Formica lusatica Seifert  HNS  , 1997

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Formica rufibarbis Fabricius  HNS  , 1793

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley, Anaraki

CRAWLEY (1920b), Anaraki (1981),

Formica sanguinea Latreille  HNS  , 1798

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lasius alienus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

CRAWLEY (1920b), ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lasius brunneus  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest Iran.

Det. Crawley

CRAWLEY (1920b)

Lasius emarginatus  HNS  (Oliver, 1792)

Northwest and North Iran

L. emarginatus var  HNS  . nigro- emarginatus  HNS  .

Det. Seifert

CRAWLEY (1920b), ZMGU 

Lasius lasioides  HNS  (Emery, 1869)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990 *

North Iran.

Det. Schultz, Seifert

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Lasius platythorax Seifert  HNS  , 1991

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Lasius turcicus Santschi  HNS  , 1921

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Radchenko

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Lepisiota bipartita  HNS  (Smith, F., 1861)

East and North Iran

Acantholepis frauenfeldi r. bipartita  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

FOREL (1904a), HMIM 

Lepisiota dolabellae  HNS  (Forel, 1911)

North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Lepisiota semenovi  HNS  (Ruzsky, 1905)

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Tahmasebi & Alipanah (2000), HMIM 

Leptothorax acervorum  HNS  (Fabricius, 1793)

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Liometopum microcephalum  HNS  (Panzer, 1798)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Messor caducus  HNS  (Victor, 1839)

North, Northwest and South Iran.

Det. Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), z, ZMMU 

Messor concolor Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Messor dentatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor denticulatus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Arnoldi (1977), HMIM 

Messor ebeninus Santschi  HNS  , 1927

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Messor incorruptus Kuznetsov-Ugamsky  HNS  , 1929

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Messor intermedius Santschi  HNS  , 1927 *

S

Messor semirufus var. intermedius  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Messor meridionalis  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest and North Iran.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Messor minor  HNS  ( André, 1883)

West Iran

Det. Radchenko

HMIM 

Messor rufotestaceus  HNS  ( Förster, 1850)

S, SWest Iran

Det. Radchenko, Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), ZMGU, HMIM 

Messor semirufus  HNS  ( André, 1883)

Southwest Iran

M. barbarus r. semirufus  HNS  .

Det. Crawley

Crawley (1920a)

Messor structor  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

Northwest and North Iran

M. platyceras var. rubella  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), HMIM 

Messor structor platyceras Crawley  HNS  , 1920 #

Northwest Iran

M. platyceras Crawley  HNS 

Crawley (1920a)

Monomorium abeillei Andre  HNS  , 1881

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium destructor  HNS  (Jerdon, 1851) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Radchenko

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Monomorium kusnezovi Santschi  HNS  , 1928

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ALIPANAH (2004), HMIM 

Monomorium nitidiventre Emery  HNS  , 1893

South Iran

Det. Taylor

Taylor (2006), ZMGU 

Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

South Iran

Det. Radchenko

MENOZZI (1927), ZMGU 

Monomorium salomonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758)

South Iran

M. salmonis  HNS  var.?

Menozzi

MENOZZI (1927)

Myrmica bergi Ruzsky  HNS  , 1902

North and Northwest Iran

M. bergi var. fortior  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Crawley (1920a), IZK 

Myrmica sabuleti Meinert  HNS  , 1861

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Pachycondyla sennaarensis  HNS  (Mayr, 1862) *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Paknia

Tirgari & Paknia (2005), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), w, ZMGU 

Paratrechina flavipes  HNS  (F. Smith, 1874) *

Southwest Iran.

Det. Collingwood

Alipanah & DEZHAKAM (2000), HMIM 

Paratrechina longicornis  HNS  (Latreille, 1802) *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Schultz

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), HMIM, ZMGU 

Paratrechina vividula  HNS  (Nylander, 1846) *

Southeast Iran

Prenolepis vividula  HNS 

Det. Forel

FOREL (1904a)

Pheidole pallidula  HNS  (Nylander, 1849)

Northwest Iran

Ph. pallidula subsp. arenarum var. orientalis  HNS  .

Det. Collingwood

Crawley (1920a), f, HMIM 

Pheidole sinaitica Mayr  HNS  , 1862

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Pheidole teneriffana Forel  HNS  , 1893 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Collingwood, Cook

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), ARDEH (1994), p, ZMGU, HMIM 

Plagiolepis pallescens Forel  HNS  , 1889

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (2000), HMIM 

Plagiolepis taurica Santschi  HNS  , 1920

North Iran

Plagiolepis vindobonensis Lomnicki  HNS  , 1925.

Det. Ward, Collingwood or Munsee

ARDEH (1994), HMIM 

Polyrhachis lacteipennis F. Smith  HNS  , 1858 *

South and Southeast Iran.

Det. Cook, Radchenko

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), HMIM, ZMMU, ZMGU 

Ponera  HNS  sp.

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Solenopsis cf. fugax  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Solenopsis cf. latro Forel  HNS  , 1894

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tapinoma erraticum  HNS  (Latreille, 1798)

North and South Iran

T. erraticum subsp. nigerrimum  HNS 

Det. Radchenko, Taylor

Crawley (1920a), Taylor (2006), ZISP, ZMGU 

Tapinoma karavaievi Emery  HNS  , 1925 *

North and South Iran.

Det. Radchenko

HMIM, ZMGU 

Temnothorax iranicus  HNS  (Radchenko, 1994) #

North Iran

Leptothorax iranicus  HNS 

Det. Radchenko

Radchenko (1994a), ZMMU, IZK 

Temnothorax parvulus (Schenck, 1852)  HNS 

North Iran.

Det. Radchenko

ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758) *

North and South Iran.

Det. Cook

Crawley (1920a), PAKNIA & KAMI (2007), ZMGU 

Tetramorium  HNS  chefketi Forel, 1911 *

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium davidi Forel  HNS  , 1911

North Iran.

Det. Collingwood

ALIPANAH & al. (1995), HMIM 

Tetramorium ferox Ruzsky  HNS  , 1903

South Iran

Det. Cook

Tirgari & PAKNIA (2004), ZMGU 

Tetramorium inerme Mayr  HNS  , 1877

Northeast Iran.

Det. Radchenko

IZK 

Tetramorium  HNS  sp. *

North Iran

T. moravicum  HNS  .

Det. Radchenko

Steiner & al. 2006, Csosz & al. 2007). However, based on distribution maps of Tetramorium  HNS  ants in the western Palearctic(see Schlick-Steiner & al. 2006) we left this species in the list as Tetramorium  HNS  cf. caespitum  HNS  . The situation is similar with the old records of Lasius  HNS  species (see Seifert 1992), that need to be reviewed by modern keys. Nevertheless this work is beyond the scope of the present paper, so we included these species in our preliminary list without revision.

The record of Dorylinae  HNS  is the first record of this subfamily after the new clarification of this subfamily by Bolton(2003).

Distribution of records

Regarding the geographical distribution of the species records that had been examined in this study, we found a mismatching between the area of the locations that had been studied and the respective number of species that had been found there: e.g., 34 species of a total of 109 species were collected in natural or disturbed habitats of Tehran province, though the territory of this province is less than 2 % of the territory of the country. Fifteen species were recorded from the Caspian forest region in the north of Iran that covers only 4 % of the country. Eight species were found in Zagros Mountains forest-steppe ecoregion (about 20 % of entire area of the country). From the south of Iran altogether 34 species were reported. In contrast, there are only a few records from the wide Elburz Range forest-steppe and the Eastern Anatoloian Mountains in the north and northwest of Iran, or from eastern parts and the centre of the country that lie in the vast Central Persian desert basin. There are no species records at all from the Eastern Iran mountain woodlands, the Kopet Dag woodlands, Kopet Dag semi desert, Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe, and the desert and semi-desert areas in the centre and the east of Iran that comprise more than 50 % of the area of the country.

Discussion

Although the first reports on Iranian ants were published more than 100 years ago, the ant fauna of this country remains poorly known. Most of the records are from the north of Iran, but many of these samples were collected in disturbed environments near human settlements that comprise only a few percent of the country's surface area. There are only a few species reports from the extensive natural habitats of the north, for example from the Caspian deciduous forests. The latter should have a rich ant fauna due to old geological age of that forest region: it has been covered with forests since the late Tertiary period (Zohary 1973). As a result, Tertiarian elements could have survived, as it is known for the adjacent Talysh and Zuvand districts in south-eastern Azerbaijan (Arnoldi 1930, 1948).

Among the other regions that have been investigated only cursorily is the Nubo-Sindian desert and semi desert ecoregion in the south and the southeast of the country. These areas are particularly interesting faunistically, as they are close to the boundaries of the Oriental and Afrotropical zoogeographic regions. Four important ecoregions that comprise a large part of the Irano-Anatolian biodiversity

hotspot have not been studied at all. These are the Eastern Anatolian Mountains, Elburz forest-steppe, Kopet Dag woodlands and forest-steppe, and Zagros Mountains forest-steppe. For comparison, the well studied myrmecofauna of the Turkmenistan's part of the Kopet Dag is one of the richest local ant fauna in Central Asia (Dlussky & Zabelin1985, Dlussky & al. 1990).

This scarcity of data, especially from the border regions, does not permit to make a proper zoogeographical analysis of the Iranian ant fauna at present. However, in the future, when sufficient material will have been sampled, the Iranian myrmecofauna needs to be compared with those of the adjacent regions, e.g., Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, and Arabian Peninsula. Similarly, the presence of North African elements in Iran (e.g., Camponotus fellah Dalla Torre  HNS  , 1893 or Crematogaster inermis Mayr  HNS  , 1862) demonstrates a relation of the Iranian and North African desert faunas that has to be confirmed by more intensive sampling.

The Iranian ant fauna includes eight "tramp" species, which have been introduced by humans to many countries and in some cases have gained a worldwide distribution (see also McGlynn 1999, Paknia 2006, Paknia & Kami 2007): Lasius neglectus Van Loon  HNS  , Boomsma & Andrasfalvy, 1990, Monomorium pharaonis  HNS  (Linnaeus, 1758), M. destructor  HNS