Scotopteryx kurmanjiana , Rajaei Sh., Hossein & Laszlo, Gyula M., 2014
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Taxon classification Animalia Lepidoptera Geometridae
Scotopteryx kurmanjiana sp. n. Figs 1, 2, 5
Holotype ♂, Turkmenistan, SW Kopetdagh, Garrygala env. 1994.xi.15-30, Leg. Miatleuski J., slide No.: LG 1747 (ZSM). Paratype: 1 ♂, Iran, Prov. Khorasan, Kopet-Dagh Mts, 80 km NE of Qucan [Quchan], 1900 m, 37°28' N, 58°34' E, 30.x.2000, leg. B. Benedek & Gy. Fábián, slide No. LG 1746 (coll. Gy. M. László).
(Figs 1, 2). Male: Wingspan 28-33 mm (Length of forewing: 16-18 mm). Antenna bipectinate from base to tip, except 2-3 distal segments, rami moderately long, black, dorsally unscaled, arising ventrally from the proximal end of the flagellum segments. Head, thorax and abdomen covered with mixed brown-white scales. Frons broad, slightly protruding, lower part smoothly covered with very small dark brown scales, upper margin covered with mix of whitish and pale brown scales; vertex with large white and pale brown scales. Chaeto semata transversally extended. Palpi short and narrow, acute at tip, just reaching beyond the clypeus. Haustellum almost completely reduced. Index of spurs: 0-2-4. Forewings elongated, apex and tornus rounded; apical patch absent; ground colour pale greyish-brown; basal area and medial band slightly darker, edged with dark brown. Basal line indented. Antemedial line roundly curved in the middle, with two moderately acute incisions. Medial line shadow-like, poorly visible, median area uniformly pale greyish-brown, discal spot small, blackish, sharply defined. Postmedial line wavy, roundly curved outwards in the middle. Submarginal line blurred, poorly visible. Hindwings oval, elongated, cream-brown, crossline absent, discal spot very small, poorly visible. Fringes in both wings unicolorous and consisting of a row of shorter and darker basal scales and a row of longer and lighter terminal scales. Underside pale greyish brown, generally paler than upperside, basal area and middle band darker, patterns of upper side partly visible. Underside of the hindwing even paler than that of the forewing. Abdomen long, narrow, light grey. Coremata absent.
Male genitalia (Fig. 5). Vinculum rather short and broad, gently rounded. Valva short, broad at the base, sacculus well sclerotized, slightly arched, having conspicuous, trapezoidal apical lobe. Distal margin of valva broadly rounded, setose; costal margin strongly sclerotized, slightly arcuate, with an apically rounded, finger-like apical process surpassing the distal edge of valva. Transtilla present, curved, band-like. Uncus broad at base, triangular with narrow, acute tip, curved ventrad. Anellus lobes conically elongated, distally rounded, setose. Juxta X-shaped. Phallus tubular, slightly longer than valva, gently curved, distal half covered with the densely spined part of manica, apically with a well-developed finger-like process of carina; vesica bears a bunch (over 10) of broad-based, strongly sclerotized cornuti.
(Figs 1-6). According to its morphological and genital features, Scotopteryx kurmanjiana appears to be closely related to Scotopteryx kuznetzovi but is nevertheless easily distinguishable by several characters (for the distinctive features between Scotopteryx kuznetzovi and other related Scotopteryx species see Rajaei Sh. and Stüning 2012). External features: the new species has less protruded frons in comparison with Scotopteryx kuznetzovi and in general less shiny wing surface; the transverse lines are much less sharply defined, lacking the white highlight, which is very characteristic in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi ; the median area is much paler, less contrasting in Scotopteryx kurmanjiana ; the submarginal line is inconspicuous, more or less shadow-like, whereas it is sharply defined with whitish scales in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi ; the discal spots are present in both wings while these are absent in the hindwings of Scotopteryx kuznetzovi . The apical patch of Scotopteryx kurmanjiana is indistinct while a whitish triangular patch is present in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi ; the fringes are uniformly whitish-grey, while they are chequered with dark brown in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi . Finally, the hindwing of Scotopteryx kurmanjiana is unicolorous, without transverse line or band, while a well-defined dark-grey medial band is present in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi .
The specific differences between the two species are well expressed in genitalia (see the Figs 5a and 6a): the new species has shorter and smaller apical lobe of sacculus, more sclerotized, much thinner costal margin of valva with conspicuously shorter and apically more tapering costal process, broader base of uncus, somewhat more strongly sclerotized and differently shaped juxta. The distal half of the phallus of the new species is covered with densely spined part of manica, while the spinose part of manica is only one third of the length of the phallus in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi . Finally, the vesica of Scotopteryx kurmanjiana is armed by more than 10 well-sclerotized cornuti, while the number of cornuti in Scotopteryx kuznetzovi is fewer than five.
The species is known to occur on both sides of Kopet-Dagh Mountains in NE Iran and S Turkmenistan.
The name of the species is dedicated to the Kurmanj people in northeastern Iran. This Kurdish tribe migrated from Kurdistan and settled in Khorasan-e Shomali, mainly in Quchan, Shirvan and Bojnurd.
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