Epicephala camurella Li

Li, Houhun, Wang, Zhibo & Hu, Bingbing, 2015, Four new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) associated with two species of Glochidion (Phyllanthaceae) from Hainan Island in China, ZooKeys 508, pp. 53-67: 58

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Epicephala camurella Li

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Lepidoptera Gracillariidae

Epicephala camurella Li  sp. n. Figs 7, 13, 17


Adult (Fig. 7). Forewing expanse 7.0−10.0 mm. Head white, mixed with brown scales. Labial palpus white, second and third palpomeres dark brown on outer surface, second palpomere scattered with grayish brown scales on inner surface. Antenna grayish brown to dark brown. Thorax white. Tegula brown, with a few grayish white or brown mottled white scales distally. Forewing grayish brown to brown, sometimes tinged with ochreous scales; three pairs white striae from both costal and dorsal margins at 1/3, 3/5 and 4/5 extending obliquely outward to middle and end of cell as well as to outside of cell, second dorsal stria longest and extending to 6/7; dorsal margin with a broad white band from base to tornus; a silvery-white fascia with metallic reflection from costal 6/7 to dorsal margin, nearly straight; distal 1/7 ochreous, with a central black dot, with a white dot at costa and a broad white streak along dorsal margin; cilia white from distal part of costal margin along termen to tornus except black at base and apex, grayish white to gray along dorsal margin. Hindwing gray; cilia grayish white to gray.

Male genitalia (Fig. 13). Tegumen elongately oval, sclerotized laterally. Tuba analis long and broad, more or less sclerotized, apically far exceeding caudal margin of tegumen. Costa as long as tegumen, subrectangular, slightly narrowed before rounded apex, with long dense setae ventrally; dorsal margin nearly straight; ventral margin sinuate, with a small protuberance at 2/5, with a large roundly protuberance at 3/5, bearing long strong spines distally. Sacculus broad, subtriangular, about 3/4 length of costa, narrowed at base, widened to about middle, distal half parallel except slightly concave ventrally before apex; apex truncate obliquely, with sparse short spines ventrally. Transtilla broad at base, elongate triangular, acute apically. Vinculum V-shaped, rounded on posterior margin; saccus broad digitiform, shorter than vinculum, apex obtusely acute. Phallus long and strong, about 1.5 times longer than valva, gently curved at distal 1/3, with pieces of irregular sclerites in distal 1/3; cornutus absent.

Female genitalia (Fig. 17). Ovipositor small, triangular, dentate laterally, acute apically. Apophysis posterioris 1.8 times longer than apophysis anterioris. Lamella postvaginalis developed, heavily sclerotized, deeply concave at middle caudally, forming two rhombic plates originated from caudal margin of ostium bursae, outer margin serrate, apex acute. Lamella antevaginalis a pair of sclerotized and curved carinae. Antrum sclerotized, thick and strong, as long as 8th abdominal segment. Ductus bursae membranous, about same length as antrum, with longitudinal sclerotized folds extending from base to 2/3; ductus seminalis membranous, arising anterior of ductus bursae. Corpus bursae oval, small, about 2/3 length of ductus bursae, with reticulate patches medially; signum triangular, small, placed at posterior 1/3.


This new species is similar to Epicephala frenata  Meyrick, 1908, but differs from the latter in the shape of sacculus and phallus in male genitalia as well as in the shape of sterigmatic sclerotizations in female genitalia. In the male genitalia of the new species, the apex of the sacculus is truncate obliquely and the phallus is gently curved at distal 1/3; in the female genitalia, the caudal margin of the lamella postvaginalis is deeply concave medially and the lamella antevaginalis is a pair of sclerotized and curved carinae. In the male genitalia of Epicephala frenata  (Syntype♂, BMNH, examined, genitalia slide No. 32303, dissected by Houhun Li; syntype♀, BMNH, examined, genitalia slide No. 32304, dissected by Houhun Li), the apex of the sacculus is broadly rounded and the phallus is straight; in the female genitalia, the caudal margin of the lamella postvaginalis is slightly concave and the lamella antevaginalis is absent.

Type material.

20♂, 42♀, with genitalia preparations of 20♂ and 42♀.

Holotype ♂ − CHINA: Hainan Province: Yinggeling Mountain Nature Reserves (19°01'N, 109°33'E), 450 m, 29.xii.2012, reared from host-plant Glochidion wrightii  by Zhibo Wang, genitalia slide no. WZB14043.

Paratypes − CHINA: Hainan Province: 12♂, 25♀, Yinggeling Mountain Nature Reserves (19°01'N, 109°33'E), 450 m, 06.i.-08.vi.2010, reared or collected from Glochidion wrightii  by Bingbing Hu; 2♂, same locality as holotype except the dates 11-12.iv.2011, reared from Glochidion wrightii  by Jing Zhang; 5♂, 15♀, same locality as holotype except the dates 28.xii.2012-24.i.2013, reared from Glochidion wrightii  by Zhibo Wang; 2♀, same locality except the date 12.i.2013, reared from Glochidion sphaerogynum  by Zhibo Wang (1♂, 1♀, deposited in BMNH).


China (Hainan).


Glochidion wrightii  is the primary host-plant and Glochidion sphaerogynum  ( Phyllanthaceae  ) is secondary. Larvae feed on seeds in the fruit.


The specific name is derived from the Latin camur (curved) and postfix -ella, in reference to the lamella antevaginalis being a pair of sclerotized and curved carinae in the female genitalia.