Pheidole noda F. Smith
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|Pheidole noda F. Smith|
Figs. 16a-g, 32c, 32d
Pheidole nodus F. Smith HNS , 1874: 7. Ogata 1982: 196 (description of male), Bui & Eguchi 2003: 9 (checklist), Eguchi 2004b (ecological study), Eguchi, Bui et al. 2005: 89 (checklist). Syntype(s): major, Hyogo, Japan, not examined.
Pheidole rhombinoda Mayr HNS , 1879: 678. Wheeler 1929: 3 (subspecies of noda HNS ), Santschi, 1937b: 371 (subspecies of noda HNS ), Yasumatsu, 1962: 96 (junior synonym of noda HNS ). Syntype: 1 major, "Calcutta Sm. 73" [India], NHMW, examined.
Pheidole rhombinoda var. stella Forel HNS , 1911b: 380. Wheeler 1929a: 3 (subspecies of noda HNS ). Syn.n. Syntypes: 2 majors, "Sikkim 4000 ft (Bingham)" [Sikkim, Himalaya, 1200 m alt., India], MHNG, examined, 1 (intact major) of the two syntype majors designated here as the lectotype [Fig. 32c, 32d].
Pheidole rhombinoda var. formosensis Forel HNS , 1913b: 193. Santschi 1937b: 370 (stirps of noda HNS ). Syn.n. Syntypes: 3 majors, "Kankau Erde V.12 No 721" [Kankau, Taiwan], MHNG, examined; 3 minors, "Kankau No 83", MHNG, examined; 2 queens, "Taihorin No. 41" [Taihorin, Taiwan], MHNG, examined; 3 males, "Taihorin No 28", MHNG, examined.
Pheidole rhombinoda var. taprobanae Forel HNS , 1902: 178. Forel 1913a: 662 (race/stirps of rhombinoda HNS ), Santschi 1937b: 371 (stirps of noda HNS ), Bolton 1995: 326, 331 (unsolved junior primary homonym of taprobanae F. Smith HNS 1858: 175). Syn.n. Syntypes: 2 majors & 3 minors, "Ceylon (Yerbury) 10", MNHG, examined.
Pheidole nodus st. rhombinoda var. gratiosa Santschi HNS , 1937b: 371, unavailable name. Material referable to this form: 1 major & 1 minor, "Indes Kanara Ritken." [Kanara, India], NHMB, examined.
Pheidole treubi Forel HNS , 1905: 19. Eguchi 2001a: 18 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of noda HNS ). Lectotype: major, Buitenzorg [Bogor, Java], MHNG, examined; paralectotype(s): queen(s) from the same locality (according to the original description), not examined.
Other material examined: Mainland Japan: Kagoshima: Toso, Kagoshima-shi [T. Akiyama's colony: 021102-1], Shiroyama, Kagoshima-shi [Eg02-JPN-01, -02, -03, -04], Eboshi-dake Nature Trail, 100 m alt., Hirakawa, Kagoshima-shi [Eg02-JPN-22], Hirakawa, Kagoshima-shi [Eg02-JPN-24]. S. China: Guangxi: new campus of Guangxi Normal Univ., Guilin [Eg00-GNGX-02, -03], Nonggang & Longhu, Longhu [J. Fellowes], Dayaoshan N.R., Jinxiu [J. Fellowes], Gao Zhai, 300 m alt., Xing An [Eg00-GNGX-013, -017, -018, - 019]; Guangdong: Dawuling N.R., Maoming [J. Fellowes], Nankunshan N.R., Summit Trail, Longmen [J.
Fellowes], Yangchun Baiyong N.R., Yangchun [J. Fellowes]; Hong Kong: Victoria Park, Hong Kong I. [Eg99-HK-018, -20, -21, -23, -25, -29, -30], Tai Lung Farm, Sheung Shui, New Territory [Eg99-HK-39, -40]. Taiwan: Nantou: Lienhuachi, 600 m alt. [Sk. Yamane]. Vietnam: Lao Cai: Sa Pa [K. Eguchi], Y Linh Ho (small fragment of forest), 1100 m alt., Sa Pa [Eg02-VN-207, -228], Cat Cat (along trail to Fansipan), 1300- 1400 m alt., Sa Pa [Eg02-VN-255], Sa Seng (small fragment of limestone forest), Sa Pa [Eg02-VN-283]; Bac Kan: Ba Be N.P. (22°24-25'N, 105°37-38'E), <260 m alt. [Eg04-VN-150]; Quang Ninh: Chua Yen Tu (21°09'N, 106°43'E), 520-725 m alt. [Eg04-VN-004]; Vinh Phuc: Tam Dao N.P., 800-900 m alt. [Eg99-VN- 033, -039, -40], Tam Dao N.P., 900 m alt. [VN98-SKY-03; Eg99-VN-067], Tam Dao N.P., 900-1100 m alt. [Eg99-VN-058], Tam Dao N.P., 1240 m alt. [VN98-SKY-08]; Ha Tay (misspelled as Ha Tai): Ba Vi N.P., 400 m alt. [Eg99-VN-079], Ba Vi N.P., 400-800 m alt. [Eg99-VN-123]; Ninh Binh: Cuc Phuong N.P. [Eg08vi05- 02]. Indonesia: C. Java: Kaliadem, 800-1000 m alt., G. Merapi [JV02/03-SKY-42].
Worker measurements & indices: Major (n=5). - HL 1.69-1.91 mm; HW 1.58-1.82 mm; CI 93-98; SL 1.00-1.12 mm; SI 56-65; FL 1.46-1.62 mm; FI 84-94.
Minor (n=5). - HL 0.71-0.82 mm; HW 0.57-0.66 mm; CI 80-82; SL 0.91-1.07 mm; SI 157-162; FL 1.03-1.22 mm; FI 177-185.
Major. - Head in lateral view not or hardly impressed on vertex, in full-face view relatively broadly concave posteriorly; dorsum of head sparsely bearing standing hairs which are much longer and distinctly thicker than many short decumbent-subdecumbent background hairs; frons and anterior part of vertex rugose longitudinally; posterior part of vertex and dorsal and lateral faces of vertexal lobe reticulate or rugoso-reticulate; frontal carina conspicuous; antennal scrobe inconspicuous; clypeus with a conspicuous median longitudinal carina; hypostoma without median and submedian processes, but with a pair of conspicuous lateral processes; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye as long as or longer than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome sparsely with long and thick standing hairs, in dorsal view rugose or rugoso-reticulate transversely, in lateral view with a conspicuous prominence on its posterior slope; humerus not or hardly produced laterad; the dome at the humeri narrower than at the bottom. Petiole shorter than postpetiole (excluding helcium); anterolateral part of petioler peduncle in dorsal view somewhat produced laterad; subpetiolar process absent, or at most present as a longitudinal carina; postpetiole massive. First gastral tergite weakly rugoso-punctured in its anterior 1/3 to 1/2, and shagreened to smooth in the remainder part.
Minor. - Frons and vertex smooth, or rarely shagreened; area between antennal insertion and eye often rugose sparsely and weakly, or rugoso-punctate weakly; preoccipital carina conspicuous dorsally and laterally; median part of clypeus smooth, usually (but not always) with a weak median longitudinal carina; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape extending far beyond posterolateral margin of head; maximal diameter of eye shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome largely smooth, in lateral view with a conspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus of the dome in dorso-oblique view not produced/raised; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum weakly or dimly punctured at least partly; propodeal spine small, or sometimes reduced to a tiny dent. Petiole shorter than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole massive.
Recognition: The syntype major of P. rhombinoda Mayr HNS agrees well with majors of colony Eg99-HK-40, with only a small difference: the former completely lacks a subpetiolar process but the latter has a subpetiolar process present as a very low carina. I follows the previous view (Yasumatsu 1962) that P. rhombinoda HNS is a junior synonym of P. noda HNS .
The lectotype and a paralectotype major of P. rhombinoda stella HNS agree well with majors of S. Chinese populations (e.g., Eg99-HK-25), with only the following small differences: the former has larger bodies, heads covered with background hairs which are decumbent-subdecumbent but not appressed, and petioles with a well-developed keel ventrally. Despite such differences I treated Pheidole rhombinoda stella HNS as a junior synonym of Pheidole noda HNS .
Major and minor referable to " P. noda st. rhombinoda var. gratiosa HNS " (unavailable name) agree with those of S. Chinese populations (e.g., Eg99-HK-40), with the following small diferences: in " gratiosa HNS " major's head in full-face view is more narrowly concave posteriorly; standing hairs on major's head are shorter; body color of the major and minor is lighter. I conclude that " gratiosa HNS " is just a local forms of P noda HNS . Pheidole noda HNS is distinguished among Indo-Chinese species by the combination of the following characteristics: in the major head in full-face view relatively broadly and deeply concave posteriorly; in the major dorsum of head sparsely bearing standing hairs which are much longer and distinctly thicker than background hairs; in the major posterior part of vertex and dorsal and lateral faces of vertexal lobe rugoso-reticulate; in the major subpetiolar process absent or at most present as a low carina; in the major and minor postpetiole massive. Pheidole tumida HNS is similar to P. noda HNS . At present it is impossible to separate the two by minor's morphology. However, the major of P fumida has a very large lobate subpetiolar process.
Distribution & bionomics: Widely distributed in the Manchurian subregion and Oriental region. This species occurs from open lands to relatively developed forests, and nests in the soil, under shelters on the ground, and in rotting logs. According to Eguchi (2004b) workers gather seeds of sesame and amaranthus put on the ground in S. Japan. Majors serve as repletes (e.g., Eg99-HK-21, Eg99-VN-058). In N. Vietnam this species is one of the prey of Aenictus dentatus Forel HNS (Eg04-VN-004, det. Sk. Yamane, 2005).
Austria, Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle
Switzerland, Basel, Naturhistorisches Museum
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