Ulmara conjuncta St Laurent
St. Laurent, Ryan A., 2016, Revisions of the genera Lurama Schaus, 1928 and Ulmara Schaus, 1928 (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea, Mimallonidae) with the descriptions of three new Ulmara species and a new genus, ZooKeys 611, pp. 57-92: 74-78
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|Ulmara conjuncta St Laurent|
Taxon classification Animalia Lepidoptera Mimallonidae
Ulmara conjuncta St Laurent sp. n. Figs 17-19, 25, 28; Map 2
Holotype, ♂. ECUADOR: Loja: ECUADOR: Loja. N Loja, road to Cuenca, 2220 m, 25 March 1993, Jan Hillman. Disturbed forest and pastures/ St Laurent diss.: 4-5-16:4/ HOLOTYPE ♂ Ulmara conjuncta St Laurent, 2016 [handwritten red label] ( CMNH).
Paratypes, 23 ♂, 1 ♀. ECUADOR: Carchi: 2 ♂, El Angel Ecol. Reserve, road Tulcan-El Chical, 0°48'46"N, 78°00'40"W, 3300 m: 14.XI.2012, leg. Victor Sinyaev, Expedition Ron Brechlin (MWM). 2 ♂, 70 km Road El Chical-Tulcan, 0°50'29"N, 78°03'25"W, 2440 m: 22.XI.2012, leg. Sinyaev & Romanov, expedition Ron Brechlin (MWM). 5 ♂, El Angel Ecol. Reserve, 0°46'14"N, 78°03'27"W, 2785 m: 9-11.XI.2012, leg. Victor Sinyaev, expedition Ron Brechlin (MWM). 1 ♂, Road El Chical to Carolinae, 0°50'20"N, 78°13'39"W, 2360 m: 20.XI.2012, leg. Sinyaev & Romanov, Expedition Ron Brechlin (MWM). Azuay: 2 ♂, Cochabamba, Pan de Agucar, 2°46'18"S, 79°26'52"W, 2840 m: 11.XII.2012, leg. Sinyaev & Romanov, expedition Ron Brechlin (MWM). Pichincha: 2 ♂, Camping Bella Vista, 0°00'41"S, 78°41'17"W, 2230 m: leg. V. Siniaev & Romanov (MWM). Napo: 1 ♂, Cordillera Huacamayos [Cordillera Guacamayos], Estero Chico, virgin humid forest, 2650 m: 5.VIII.1996, J. Hillman, St Laurent diss.: 4-8-16:1 ( CMNH). 1 ♂, Cordillera Huacamayos [Cordillera Guacamayos], San Isidro, Rio Aliso, 00-37-36S, 77-57-12W, deforested hacienda, 2250 m: 3.VIII.1996, Jan Hillman ( CMNH). 1 ♂, Cordillera Huacamayos [Cordillera Guacamayos], San Fernando de Sierra Azul, disturbed montane forest, 2350 m: 4.VIII.1996, Jan Hillman ( CMNH). 1 ♂, Rte Pifo to Baeza, km 52, 2600 m: 2-3.II.1975, H. Descimon, C. Herbulot, C. Lemaire, P. Thiaucourt, N. Venedictoff, Brit. Mus. 1975-140, Ulmara rotunda Dognin det. J.E. Chainey, 2003, NHMUK010355071 ( NHMUK). 1 ♂, 6 km SE of Cosanga, 0°37'14"S, 77°54'08"W, 2240 m: 22.I.2012, leg. R. Brechlin & Siniaev (MWM). Morona-Santiago: 1 ♂, Rte Gualaceo to Méndez, km 41, 2400 m: 10-11.I.1975, H. Descimon, C. Herbulot, C. Lemaire, P. Thiaucourt, N. Venedictoff, St Laurent diss.: 4-15-16:3, Brit. Mus. 1975-140, Ulmara rotunda Dognin det. J.E. Chainey, 2003, NHMUK010355072 ( NHMUK). 1 ♂, 9 km W Plan de Milagro to Gualaceo, 3°00'04"S, 78°30'49"W, 2375 m: 6-7.III.2013, leg. Ackermann, Käch & Dr. R. Brechlin (MWM). 2 ♂, Road Gualaceo-Plan de Milagro, 3°01'24"S, 78°35'06"W, 2157 m: 21.XI.2011, leg. V. Siniaev & O. Romanov (MWM). Loja: 1 ♀, Road between Loja-Zamora, 3°58'45"S, 79°08'28"W, 2700 m: 22.II.2012, leg. R. Brechlin & V. Siniaev, St Laurent diss.: 4-19-16:1 (MWM). - All paratypes with the following yellow label: PARATYPE ♂/♀ Ulmara conjuncta St Laurent, 2016.
This new species is most similar to Ulmara rotunda in external appearance, but can be distinguished from it by the more southerly distribution, darker, nearly black ground color, smaller size overall, lack of a brown inner edging along the postmedial line of the fore and hindwings, and the near absence of the postmedial line on the ventrum of the wings. The male genitalia also offer good characters for differentiation: in Ulmara conjuncta the gnathos is fused mesally, giving rise to a thin plate-like extension, smaller, more rounded valves, and the sharply downwardly bent phallus, which is much thinner overall and more elongated at the ventral apex. Other characters, such as the setae-covered sclerotizations on the ventrum of VIII, also differ, but are less readily useful in recognizing Ulmara conjuncta .
Male.Head: As for genus. Thorax: As for genus. Legs: As for genus. Forewing dorsum: Forewing length: 19-19.5 mm, avg.: 19.3 mm, wingspan: 36-37 mm, n=5. As for genus, except ground color nearly black, postmedial line located about one-third wing length away from wing margin, line usually obscured due to dark surrounding ground color and absence of lighter brown edging along inner side, overall with faint metallic-blue sheen, especially antemedially; postmedial line strongly notched between Rs4 and costa. Forewing ventrum: As for genus. Hindwing dorsum: Coloration as for forewing dorsum, antemedial line absent, discal mark absent, outer margin of wing weakly serrate. Hindwing ventrum: As for genus. Abdomen: As for genus, but slightly darker and less robust. Genitalia: (Fig. 25) n= 3. Vinculum somewhat box-like, ventrally with reduced saccus; saccus weakly attached to VIII, forming paired, setae-covered, downwardly-angled sclerotizations, not splayed beyond width of vinculum. Uncus simple, highly truncated apically with wide triangular base. Gnathos fused, extended mesally as thin plate that may be notched mesally. Valves small, subtriangular, edges somewhat curled, with single tooth projecting from saccular edge near apex of valve, tooth variable in length. Transtilla with weakly-sclerotized, inward-facing setae-covered extensions; setae very fine. Setae pointed outward directly over phallus. Diaphragm forms small balloon-like sac expanded inward into abdomen; sac covered in fine, inward-facing setae surrounding phallus. Phallus short, anterior half moderately to sharply bent downward, ventral apex heavily sclerotized into elongated point; vesica small, sac-like, weakly scobinate with some evidence of diverticula; base of phallus narrower than apical half, in same plane as apical half, not bent. Female.Head: As for male but antennae much smaller overall, pectinations particularly shorter, labial palpus slightly reduced. Thorax: As for male. Legs: As for male, but vestiture thinner. Forewing dorsum: Forewing length: 21.5 mm, avg.: 21.5 mm, wingspan: 41 mm, n= 1. As for male, but more elongated, slightly narrower, discal mark reduced. Forewing ventrum: Somewhat similar to dorsum but much lighter, grayer, maculation reduced; antemedial line absent, postmedial line less distinct. Hindwing dorsum: Coloration as for forewing dorsum, antemedial line absent. Hindwing ventrum: Following same pattern as forewing ventrum. Frenulum as multiple bristles. Abdomen: See generic description. Genitalia: See generic description.
(Map 2). This species is known from northern and southern Ecuador, with records lacking from the center of the country. Ulmara conjuncta is another Andean species, and is found at elevations ranging from 2157-3300 m.
This species is named for the complete, connected ( conjuncta Latin), gnathos, a character unique to this species in the genus.
Ulmara conjuncta , although similar to Ulmara rotunda , is easily distinguished by both distribution and all characters given in the diagnosis. According to the data on the labels of a number of specimens collected by Jan Hillman, this species can be collected in "virgin humid forests" as well as “disturbed” forests, pastures, and "deforested haciendas."
This is the only species in the genus with a well-defined gnathos, which, when present, is an important character for distinguishing similar species within genera in Mimallonidae (pers. obs).
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