Cynipidae,

Shachar, Einat, Melika, George, Inbar, Moshe & Dorchin, Netta, 2018, The oak gall wasps of Israel (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) - diversity, distribution and life history, Zootaxa 4521 (4), pp. 451-498: 456-457

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4521.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A4FD6137-25B0-43D5-845B-B4FDF4E9F5D7

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/AC1F87FE-FFE1-FF80-FF61-FE98FA26B347

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cynipidae
status

 

Key to galls of Israeli oak Cynipidae  on Quercus boissieri 

1. Bud galls............................................................................................ 2

- Leaf, acorn, or catkin gall.............................................................................. 18

2. Spherical gall with or without spines or protuberances........................................................ 9

- Gall not spherical..................................................................................... 3

3. Gall composed of several distinct, elongate or tapered lobes ( Figs 15–17View FIGURES 11–16View FIGURES 17–22)......................................... 4

- Gall not composed of distinct, elongate lobes ( Figs 21View FIGURES 17–22, 23–26View FIGURES 23–28).................................................. 5

4. Irregularly shaped gall up to 65 mm in diameter, composed of long, tapered, delicate lobes of varying length, pale green when young, brown and woody when mature................ Andricus coriarius (Hartig)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Figs 15–16View FIGURES 11–16)

- Gall usually composed of 3 thick, widely splayed lobes........................................................................................... Andricus coriariformis Melika, Challis & Stone  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 17–22)

5. Scaly, artichoke-like brown gall, up to 13 mm wide and 20 mm long, in apical buds. Tip of gall tightly closed when young, open when mature............................. Andricus foecundatrix (Hartig)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Figs 23–24View FIGURES 23–28)

- Gall different from above............................................................................... 6

6. Cylindrical, velvety, light brown gall in apical bud, narrowest at mid part......................................................................................... Andricus tomentosus (Trotter)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 23–28)

- Gall different from above............................................................................... 7

7. Gall with very long and pointed, sometimes curved apex, widest basally. Brown and woody. Very rare....................................................................... Andricus solitarius (Fonscolombe)  , asexual (fall) generation

- Gall different from above............................................................................... 8

8. Rigid, pentagon-shaped gall, 5–15 mm in diameter, composed of 5 velvety units. Green when young, brown when mature. Rare.......................................... Andricus megatruncicolus Melika  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 17–22)

- Carambola-shaped gall, with 3–4 distinct longitudinal ridges, 5–7 mm long, 3–5 mm wide. Green when young, pale brown when mature.................................................. Andricus  sp. 3, sexual (spring) generation ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 23–28)

9. Gall entirely composed of distinct lobes forming spherical structure ( Figs 9–11View FIGURES 5–10View FIGURES 11–16)................................... 10

- Gall is spiny or smooth sphere, not composed of discrete lobes ( Figs 5–6View FIGURES 5–10, 13–14View FIGURES 11–16, 18–20, 22View FIGURES 17–22)......................... 12

10. Gall composed of short and thick, pyramidal lobes, 20–40 mm in diameter, pinkish and spongy............................................................................. Andricus curtisii (Müller)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 11View FIGURES 11–16)

- Gall composed of long tapered extensions................................................................. 11

11. Gall up to 6 mm in diameter, green to purple, sticky and flexible when young, light brown and woody when mature. On lower branches close to the ground.............................. Andricus hystrix Kieffer  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 5–10)

- Gall up to 20 mm in diameter, with longitudinal ridges between lobes. Bright green and sticky when young, light brown and woody when mature................................. Andricus grossulariae Giraud  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 5–10)

12. Irregularly spherical gall, up to 20 mm in diameter, smooth, wrinkly, without spines or projections, pale brown................................................................. Biorhiza pallida Olivier  , sexual (spring) generation ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 17–22)

- Gall completely or partially covered by spines or projections.................................................. 13

13. Projections or spines distributed uniformly on entire gall surface............................................... 14

- Projections or spines usually confined to specific part of gall, not covering entire surface............................ 15

14. Gall more than 25 mm in diameter, densely covered by brittle, slightly curved, thin and blunt spines up to 10 mm in length. Shiny green and sticky when young, pale brown and woody when mature............................................................................................... Andricus cecconii Kieffer  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5–10)

- Gall usually much smaller, covered by straight, blunt, short spines, up to 6 mm in length. Light green or red and sticky when young, brown and woody when mature..................... Andricus lucidus (Hartig)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 5–10)

15. Big gall, more than 18 mm in diameter.................................................................... 16

- Smaller gall, up to 15 mm in diameter.................................................................... 17

16. Gall up to 30 mm in diameter, bearing 2–3 mm long projections, often joined by shallow ridges. Pale green when young, very pale brown and extremely hard when mature. Very common.................................................................................... Andricus sternlichti Bellido, Pujade-Villar & Melika  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 17–22)

- Gall of up to 40 mm in diameter, with circle of tiny spines around widest part. Green, soft, fleshy and sticky when young, deep plum-like purple and rigid when mature.............. Andricus quercustozae (Bosc)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Figs 13–14View FIGURES 11–16)

17. Gall without stalk, with apical ‘crown’, resembling blueberry. On branch tips, mostly in clusters. Green when young, brown and very hard when mature............................. Andricus moreae (Graeffe)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 17–22)

- Gall carried on long stalk, with very short apical projections up to 1.2 mm long, pale brown. Only on Mt. Hermon....................................................................... Andricus  sp. 1, asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 17–22)

- Leaf or catkin gall.................................................................................... 20

19. Gall densely covered by long, curved, tapered and branching spines up to 30 mm long. Pink and sticky when young, pale brown and woody when old. Only on Mt. Hermon..... Andricus caputmedusae (Hartig)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Figs 7–8View FIGURES 5–10)

- Gall evenly covered by short spines up to 3 mm long, green when young, very pale brown to white with purple spines when mature. Very rare...................................... Andricus chodjaii Melika  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 11–16)

20. Catkin gall.......................................................................................... 21

- Leaf gall............................................................................................ 22

21. Spherical gall, up to 8 mm in diameter, fleshy, shiny, light green with purple ‘veins’......................................................................... Neuroterus quercusbaccarum (Linnaeus)  , sexual (spring) generation ( Fig. 27View FIGURES 23–28)

- Clustered galls, each 2 mm in diameter, light brown to yellow, densely covered by whitish, short, hairs............................................................................... Andricus  sp. 2, sexual (spring) generation ( Fig. 28View FIGURES 23–28)

22. Elongate gall, 5–15 mm long, usually with acute tip, soft and green when young, hard and reddish-brown when mature. Very rare; only on Mt. Hermon.................................. Cynips cornifex Hartig  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 29–34)

- Circular, spherical or ovoid galls......................................................................... 23

23. Flat, blister-like gall between upper and lower epidermis of leaf, 3 mm in diameter, paler green than leaf............................................................. Neuroterus numismalis (Geoffroy)  , sexual (spring) generation ( Fig. 30View FIGURES 29–34)

- Gall on underside surface of leaf. Different from above....................................................... 24

24. Small, ovoid gall attached to main leaf vein, 1.5–3 mm long, up to 2 mm wide, accompanied by two thin, leafy ‘wings’. Yellowish-green and shiny when young, with purple or red dots when mature......................................................................................... Neuroterus anthracinus (Curtis)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 31View FIGURES 29–34)

- Circular or spherical gall, different from above............................................................. 25

25. Gall is entire sphere, clustered or solitary ( Figs 32–33View FIGURES 29–34)...................................................... 26

- Gall is half sphere, ring-shaped or flat, usually in clusters ( Figs 34–36View FIGURES 29–34View FIGURES 35–40).......................................... 27

26. Gall is fleshy, firm sphere, 15–25 mm in diameter, light green with white dots when young, yellowish with white dots when old, usually in clusters................................. Cynips quercus (Fourcroy)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 29–34)

- Gall is crinkled sphere, 4–6 mm in diameter, green when young, light brown when old, not in clusters........................................................................... Cynips divisa Hartig  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 33View FIGURES 29–34)

27. Fleshy dome or doughnut-shaped gall.................................................................... 28

- Flat, thin gall, sometimes with raised margins, up to 7 mm in diameter, usually in clusters. Pale green to dark pink or purple................................................... Neuroterus albipes (Schenck)  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 34View FIGURES 29–34)

28. Dome-shaped gall, 3 mm high above leaf surface, up to 6 mm in diameter, pale green when young, with dark pink rim or completely pink when mature....................... Neuroterus quercusbaccarum  , asexual (fall) generation ( Figs 35–36AView FIGURES 35–40)

- Doughnut-shaped gall, up to 2 mm above leaf surface and 3 mm in diameter, with central pit, silky brown.................................................................... Neuroterus numismalis  , asexual (fall) generation ( Fig. 36BView FIGURES 35–40)