Pheidole fervens F. Smith,
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|Pheidole fervens F. Smith|
Pheidole fervens F. Smith HNS , 1858: 176. Ogata 1982: 197 (description of male), Eguchi 2001b: 53-55 (redescription of major & minor), Eguchi 2004: 197-198 (taxonomic remarks). Syntypes: 1 major & 2 minors, "SING 33" [Singapore], BMNH, examined.
Pheidole javana Mayr HNS , 1867: 98. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens HNS ), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation). Lectotype: major: "Batavia" [Jakarta, Java], NHMW, examined; paralectotypes: 2 majors, same data as lectotype, NHMW, examined.
Pheidole (Pheidole) oceanica var. nigriscapa Santschi HNS , 1928a: 48. Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Syntype: 1 minor, "SAMOAN IS. Apia. 3.iii.24. P.A.Buxton. 627.", NHMB, examined; syntype(?): 1 major, "Apia, Samoa oct 1911. (leg. H. Swole)", NHMB, examined.
Pheidole oceanica subsp. nigriscapa var. tahitiana Santschi HNS , 1928b: 516 (unavailable name). Wilson & Taylor 1967: 45 (material referable to P. fervens HNS ). Material referable to this form: minor, Tahiti, not examined.
Pheidole amia Forel HNS , 1912a: 60-61. Bolton 1995: 316 (catalogue), Eguchi 2004: 197 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Lectotype: major, "Takao Formosa Sauter XI 7-0" [= Kaohsiung, Taiwan], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 3 minors, "Takao Formosa (Sauter) 26", MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. desucta Wheeler HNS , 1929a: 2. Eguchi 2001b: 53 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Back Liang, China", MCZC co-type 20659, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, 2 minors & 3 queens, same data as lectotype, MCZC co-type 20659, examined.
Pheidole javana var. dharmsalana Forel HNS , 1902: 184, 198. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Lectotype: major, "Dharmsala" [India], MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. dolenda Forel HNS , 1912a: 60. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Lectotype: major, "Akau, Formosa", MHNG, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major & 3 minors, same data as lectotype, MHNG, examined.
Pheidole javana var. soror Santschi HNS , 1937b: 369. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym offervens). Lectotype: major, "Hokuto Formose K. Sato 731" [= Taiwan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 4 minors, same data as lectotype, NHMB, examined.
Pheidole nodus st. azumai Santschi HNS , 1941: 274. Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Lectotype: major, "Japon. Osaka Tennooji 26II39 M. Azuma." [= Tennooji, Osaka, Japan], NHMB, examined; paralectotypes: 2 minors, same data as holotype, NHMB, examined.
Solenopsis pungens F. Smith HNS , 1861: 48-49. Donisthorpe 1932: 469 (combination in Pheidologeton HNS ), Bolton1995: 328 (combination in Pheidole HNS ), Eguchi 2004: 198 (lectotype designation, junior synonym of fervens HNS ). Lectotype: major, "Menado" [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined; paralectotypes: 1 major, same data as lectotype, OXUM, examined; 1 minor, "Men. 18." [= Menado Sulawesi, Indonesia], OXUM, examined.
Other material examined: Mainland Japan: Kagoshima: Toso, Kagoshima City [T. Akiyama's colony: 021105-1]. Ryukyus: Okinoerabu-jima I.: Azufu, [Litter shift-3 (A. Shimono)]; Iriomote-jima I. [K. Eguchi's colony 96-JPN-001, -003]. Taiwan: Nantou: Hori [S. Kubota's sample: 81-A-T16]; Kaohsiung: Meishankou [S. Kubota's sample: 80-E-K6]. S. China: Macau: Taipa I. [Eg99-MAC-01, -02], Hac-Sa, Coloane I. [K. Eguchi]; Hong Kong: Victoria Park, Hong Kong I. [K. Eguchi]. Vietnam: Thai Nguyen: My Yen Commune Forest (edge of secondary forest), 21°35'N, 105°36'E, Na Hau Village [Eg01-VN-143, -149, -150]; Ha Noi: urban area [T.V. Bui's colony: BTV04-HN-01, -14, -15, -16]. Thailand: Bangkok: Campus of Kasetsart Univ. [Eg01- TH-583, -584], Bang Khean Distr. (residential area) [TH03-SKY-103]; Chanthaburi: Yay-am Dist. [Eg01-TH- 66B]. E. Malaysia: Sabah: Tawau Hills Park [Eg96-BOR-009, -021]; Sarawak: Niah N.P. [Sk. Yamane]. Indonesia: W. Sumatra: Maninjau, [SNS col.], Sako, nr. Tapan [SNS col.], Sukarami, Padang [M. Kawamura's colony: 9/28a (1999)], Ulu Gadut, nr. Padang [SNS col.]; W. Java: Bogor [M. Kawamura's colony: 153 (1998)]; E. Java: Air Panas Cargar, 1600 m alt., Bumiaji, Batu [JV02/03-SKY-71, -72, -73, -75, -80], Sumberbrantas, 1600 m alt., Tulungrejo, Batu [F. Yamane]. Philippines: Palawan: Pupok, Napsan, in a cottage [H. Fukuda]. Tonga: Eua Is.: Eua Forest Res. [J. Wetterer]. Samoa: Apia [H. Swole, NHMB]. USA: California: Los Angeles[M.J. Martinez, MCZC].
Worker measurements & indices: Major (n=5). - HL 1.31-1.56 mm; HW 1.22-1.44 mm; CI 92-97; SL 0.84-0.95 mm; SI 66-70; FL 1.12-1.27 mm; FI 88-94.
Minor (n=5). - HL 0.65-0.73 mm; HW 0.54-0.60 mm; CI 81-84; SL 0.77-0.87 mm; SI 138-153; FL 0.81-0.93 mm; FI 149-163.
Major. - Head in lateral view not or hardly impressed on vertex; posterior concavity of head in full-face view usually shallow; frons and anterior part of vertex rugose longitudinally; posterior part of vertex and dorsal face of vertexal lobe rugoso-reticulate, with interspaces weakly punctured; frontal carina conspicuous; antennal scrobe inconspicuous or shallowly impressed; clypeus without a median longitudinal carina; median and submedian processes of hypostoma absent or present but inconspicuous; lateral processes conspicuous; antenna with a 3-segmented club; maximal diameter of eye almost as long as or shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome in dorsal view largely smooth, or sparsely sculptured with weak transverse rugulae, in lateral view with a low to conspicuous mound on its posterior slope; humerus not produced; the dome much narrower at the humeri than at the bottom; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured, sometimes overlain with weak rugulae; propodeal spine narrowly based, usually slightly curved apically. Petiole longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive. First gastral tergite smooth and shining entirely, or sometimes shagreened around its articulation with postpetiole.
Minor. - Frons and vertex smooth and shining, or rarely shagreened or very weakly rugoso-punctate; area between antennal insertion and eye weakly rugoso-punctate; preoccipital carina conspicuous dorsally and laterally; median part of clypeus smooth, without a median longitudinal carina; antenna with a 3-segmented club; scape extending far beyond posterolateral margin of head; maximal diameter of eye much shorter than antennal segment X. Promesonotal dome largely smooth and shining, but sometimes weakly rugoso-punctate dorsolaterally, in lateral view with a low or inconspicuous mound on its gentle posterior slope; humerus of the dome in dorsal-oblique view not produced; mesopleuron, metapleuron and lateral face of propodeum well punctured; propodeal spine elongate-triangular, directing upward. Petiole (a little) longer than postpetiole (excluding helcium); postpetiole not massive.
Recognition: This medium-sized species with general habitus is similar to Pheidole binghamii Forel HNS , P. elongicephala HNS sp.n., P. indica Mayr HNS , P. ochracea HNS sp.n. and P. plagiaria F. Smith HNS among Indo-Chinese species. P. fervens HNS is well separated from P. indica HNS which has the following characteristics: eye relatively large (maximal diameter of eye much longer than antennal segment X in the major, and as long as or a little longer than X in the minor); in the major propodeal spine is relatively broadly based (see Eguchi 2004).
Posterior margin of head in full-face view is more deeply and narrowly concave in the major of P. binghamii, HNS P. elongicephala HNS and P. ochracea HNS than in that of P. fervens HNS , and sculpture on dorsum of vertexal lobe is usually stronger in the major of the former three.
The major of P fervens HNS is separated from that of P. plagiaria HNS which has the following characteristics: posterior margin of head in full-face view deeply concave; the rugulae running almost transversely along posterior margin of vertexal lobe.
Distribution & bionomics: Known from N. Vietnam, Manchurian subregion (southern part only), Oriental region, Austro-Malayan subregion, W. Pacific and West coast of N. America. In the Indo-Malayan subregion this species is one of the prevailing Pheidole HNS species in semiurban and rural areas.
United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]
Austria, Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien
Switzerland, Basel, Naturhistorisches Museum
Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle
USA, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology
United Kingdom, Oxford, University Museum of Natural History
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