Cyptophania Banks (1931)

Mockford, Edward L. & Wynne, J. Judson, 2013, Genus Cyptophania Banks (Psocodea: ‘ Psocoptera’: Lepidopsocidae): unique features, augmented description of the generotype, and descriptions of three new species, Zootaxa 3702 (5), pp. 437-449 : 438-439

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3702.5.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C4481743-38D1-4574-AFB1-C40F736A9AE6

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6152481

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/9E7B5A57-150B-CC39-13F8-4B2140BCABFB

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cyptophania Banks (1931)
status

 

Cyptophania Banks (1931)

Pteroxaniella Karny (1932) . Synonymy Roesler (1944)

? Ptenocorium Enderlein (1931). Synonymy Thornton et al. (1972) (See discussion)

Diagnosis. Adults markedly neotenic, exhibited in following characters: brachyptery with fore wings not or barely reaching tip of abdomen ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 2 ); hind wings reduced to small button-like swellings ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ) or slender strips ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ); ocelli absent; mesocoxal interlocking mechanism absent (see Menon 1938); rasp of hind coxal organ reduced ( Figs 10 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 18 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 29 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 39–41 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ); trichobothrium-like setae of hind tibia sometimes present ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ; these are strictly nymphal structures in some macropterous Lepidopsocidae , see Discussion); paraproctal sensorium reduced to two trichobothria on basal florets ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ).

Note. Some of the neotenic characters listed above are shared by other taxa of Lepidopsocidae showing brachyptery. Thus, they are not diagnostic in the sense of being discriminatory, but they do apply to all adults of Cyptophania and are important for recognition of members of the genus.

Non-neotenic characters. Antennae longer than body, with 39–47 flagellomeres; maxillary P 4 broad, hatchetshaped at tip ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ); fore wings rounded or obtusely pointed distally; fore wings bearing slender, upright scales at least in basal region, and shorter, slender seta-like scales over most of the outer surface; tibial color banding absent; preapical denticle of pretarsal claws reduced nearly to absence; pulvillus wide, blade-like ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 42 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ); collar of spermathecal duct with a non-terminal entry orifice, a short to medium length cap, and a distal appendage ( Figs 13 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 23, 24 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 33 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 44–46 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ); spermathecal sac with a sword- or scythe-shaped sclerite, here called the spermathecal cutter ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 34 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 47 View FIGURES 36 – 48 , 48); spermathecal gland stalked, either reticulate ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 47, 48 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ) or spongiform ( Figs 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 34 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ); ovipositor valvulae with v 1 relatively well-sclerotized ( Figs 12 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 26, 32 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 43 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ), but embedded among sclerotic strands in a membrane; telson lobes: epiproct semicircular with scattered setae; paraproct ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ) about 3 X as long dorso-ventrally as its greatest width, slightly bowed inward on median surface, two trichobothria of sensorium near upper surface, scattered setae in middle, and large, acuminate spine on median surface.

Characters for species discrimination. In the present study, we find the characters discussed below as important for separation of species.

Presence or absence, and relative distinctness of whorls of microtriches on antennal flagellomeres beyond f 1. Of the species studied, all showed at least a few microtriches, probably forming whorls on some median flagellomeres, but one species, C. pakaratii n.sp., shows very distinct whorls on all flagellomeres beyond f 1 ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ).

Details of the lacinial tip ( Figs 8 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 17 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 28 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 36–38 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ). This character is of very limited value, as its variation within species is not understood, and its orientation in slide preparations is variable. Further observations on it will be necessary.

Fore wing showing venation or not. In some species, venation is obvious in a slide preparation of the fore wing (see Banks, 1931, Pl. vii, Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 2 ), whereas in others, none can be seen. This may be an aspect of variation in neotenic development (see Discussion).

Fore wing with a mottled color pattern ( Figs 9 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 16 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 35 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ) or not ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ), and nature of the pattern when present.

Nature of the hind wing: either a button-like swelling ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ), a minute flap of cuticle (not figured), or a short strip ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ). This may be another aspect of variation in neotenic development (see Discussion).

Extent of development of the hind coxal rasp ( Figs 10 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 18 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 29 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 39–41 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ). This may be yet another aspect of variation in neotenic development (see Discussion).

Presence or absence of two trichobothrium-like setae on the hind tibia ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ). These structures can become dislodged, but their button-like basal tubercles are readily identified, being very different from the basal structures of other setae and scales in their region.

Hind tibial spurs striated ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) or not ( Fig. 31 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ). In all but one of the species examined, the two large hind tibial spurs, as well as the smaller ones, showed distinct longitudinal striations. One species, C. australica n.sp., showed smooth spurs.

Presence or absence of ctenidia on the hind t 1. In C. hirsuta a longitudinal row of ctenidia is present on the hind t 1, each ctenidium associated with a particular seta ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ). These structures are not seen in any of the other species studied. This is another aspect of variation in the extent of neotenic development.

Presence or absence of a row of pigment spots associated with the spiracles on the preclunial abdominal segments. These spots are present in one and absent in the others of the species studied.

Sclerotization and pigmentation of one or two abdominal tergites before the clunium. Differences are noted in the descriptions for the species studied.

Ovipositor valvulae. The major valvula seems to show no useful characters. The smaller, inner valvula, here designated v 1, shows some variation in its extent of sclerotization.

Details of the spermathecal cutter ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 34 View FIGURES 26 – 35 , 47 View FIGURES 36 – 48 , 48). The knife-like blade in the spermathecal sac, here called the spermathecal cutter, shows variation in relative length, thickness, and curvature among species. Some variation probably involves differences in orientation in the slide preparation.

Nature of the spermathecal gland. The spermathecal gland in Cyptophania is always stalked. Branches from the stalk may serve to anchor a reticulate pattern ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , 47, 48 View FIGURES 36 – 48 ) or produce a sponge-like mass ( Figs 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 , 34 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ).

Nature of the collar of the spermathecal duct. The collar is always longer than wide, with a non-terminal entrance orifice and a subapical appendage. The relative length to width, position of the orifice, and nature of the appendage differ among species. One species has a sclerotized ‘pen’ running much of the length of the collar before the orifice ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ).

In addition to the above characters, the number of flagellomeres may be important, but the flagellum is delicate, often incomplete, and so, this character is frequently not observable. There may also be useful male characters, but since males are known for only one species, they cannot be evaluated here.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Psocodea

Family

Lepidopsocidae

Loc

Cyptophania Banks (1931)

Mockford, Edward L. & Wynne, J. Judson 2013
2013
Loc

Pteroxaniella

Karny 1932
1932
Loc

Ptenocorium

Enderlein 1931
1931