Cyptophania pakaratii, Mockford, Edward L. & Wynne, J. Judson, 2013

Mockford, Edward L. & Wynne, J. Judson, 2013, Genus Cyptophania Banks (Psocodea: ‘ Psocoptera’: Lepidopsocidae): unique features, augmented description of the generotype, and descriptions of three new species, Zootaxa 3702 (5), pp. 437-449 : 445-446

publication ID

https://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3702.5.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C4481743-38D1-4574-AFB1-C40F736A9AE6

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6152485

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/4210194A-FCD5-47A4-9C5F-4407EE029478

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:4210194A-FCD5-47A4-9C5F-4407EE029478

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cyptophania pakaratii
status

n.sp.

Cyptophania pakaratii   n.sp.

Diagnosis. Antenna with distinct whorls of microtriches on flagellomeres beyond f 1 ( Fig. 15 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Ctenidia absent on hind t 1. Two tergites sclerotized and pigmented before clunium ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ). See also Key.

Male color (in alcohol 4 years). Compound eyes black. Rest of head, thorax, and appendages beige. Fore wings beige, darker along anterior margin and tip region, mottled with distinct colorless areas in basal and in distal one-third ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Preclunial abdominal segments colorless with white internal tissues showing through; persistent scales on sides brown. Terminal abdominal segments beige.

Male structural characters. Habitus ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 2 ). Antenna with up to 42 flagellomeres, with distinct whorls of microtriches from f 2 presumably to tip (but slide-mounted specimens with antennae missing beyond f 17); with a subapical whorl of long setae, some as long as their segment, on each flagellomere. Lacinial tip ( Fig. 17 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ): lateral tine with double outer denticle, one part shorter than the other, inner denticle short and blunt; median tine simple. Fore wing venation not visible. Hind coxal rasp as in female ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Sub-basal and sub-distal hind tibial trichobothrium-like setae present (as in Fig. 30 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ). Spurs of hind tibia striated. Ctenidia absent on hind t 1. Two abdominal tergites before clunium sclerotized and pigmented (as in Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 14 ). Hypandrium with straight posterior margin, rounded sides, bearing scattered setae on outer surface. Phallosome ( Figs 19, 20 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ): basal struts straight, about 2 ⅓X length of external parameres, each bending slightly inward distally to join base of external paramere; internal parameres not visible as distinct regions, probably fused to externals, the region of probable fusion (no. 1 + 2 on Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) bearing pores medio-distally; external endophallic rami (no. 3 on Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) (nomenclature of Mockford (2005 )) broadened near their bases, terminating anteriorly and posteriorly in a slender filament; internal endophallic rami (no. 4 on Fig. 20 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) each forming a well-sclerotized curved surface along inner margin of base of external ramus and terminating apically in a slender filament; membrane between internal rami bearing two longitudinal sets of spinules. Telson lobes as described for the genus.

Male measurements (µm). BL = 1954, FW = 889, F = 603, T = 848, t 1 = 350, t 2 = 62, t 3 = 66, f 1 = 44, f 2 = 45, f 3 = 46, f 4 = 53, IO = 448.6, d = 112.2, D = 205.4, IO/d = 4.00, IO/D = 2.184.

Female color (in alcohol 3 years). Compound eyes black. Rest of head, thorax, appendages, and terminal abdominal segments medium brown. Fore wings and preclunial abdominal segments as described for male.

Female structural characters. Habitus ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 14 , wings removed, appendages and persistent scales not shown). Antenna as described for male (missing beyond f 13). Lacinial tip as described for male. Fore wing venation vaguely visible at low power (40 X), basal cell absent ( Fig. 21 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Hind wings developed as small, rounded lateral swellings on metanotum. Hind coxal rasp relatively short and slender ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Basal tubercles of sub-basal and sub-distal hind tibial trichobothrium-like setae present (the setae missing). Spurs of hind tibia striated ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Ctenidia absent on hind t 1. Sclerotization of abdominal terga as described for male. Collar of spermathecal duct ( Figs 23, 24 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) with orifice in middle or slightly distal to middle, distal appendage a beak-like structure pointed apically. Cutter of spermathecal sac ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ) slender, sword-shaped, slightly over half as long as width (shorter diameter) of the sac in slide preparation. Spermathecal gland spongiform ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 15 – 25 ). Ovipositor valvulae ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 26 – 35 ) typical of the genus; v 1 relatively weakly sclerotized beyond its base. Telson lobes as described for the genus.

Female measurements (µm). BL = 2246, FW = 1329, F = 671, T = 951, hind tarsi missing, f 1 = 44, f 2 = 38, f 3 = 50, f 4 = 44, IO = 467, d = 112, D = 201, IO/d = 4.18, IO/D = 2.32.

Material examined. Chile: Rapa Nui, five lava tube caves of the Roiho Lava Flow approximately 5 km north of Hanga Roa Village, Materials were collected using timed searches of fern and moss gardens within collapsed pit entrances of the caves (cave codes Q 15 -056, Q 15 -067, Q 15 -070, Q 15 -076-078, Q 15 -074) from 30 June– 13 July 2009 and bait sampling using locally occurring tree branches and sweet potato within the deep zone (see Howarth 1980; 1982) of cave Q 15 -074 from 02–06 August 2011. All collections by JJW and associates (see Acknowledgments), holotype female (on slide and in alcohol), 7 male and 7 female paratypes (one male the allotype on slide and in alcohol) and 3 nymphs (holotype and allotype plus 4 male, 4 female paratypes and 2 nymphs to INHS, 2 male, 2 female paratypes and 1 nymph to ELM).

Etymology. The species is named for Lázaro Pakarati, a spiritual leader and principal cave explorer in Rapa Nui.

Note (distribution and conservation). Cyptophania pakaratii   n. sp. represents the second new species described from caves of the Roiho Lava Flow. The first, Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero (2008)   , was a new species of Collembola   . Both are currently known only from these caves. A surface pitfall trapping effort in 2009 (by JJW) (two sampling grids of 20 pitfall traps deployed on either side of the Roiho Flow) did not detect C. pakaratii   (J.J. Wynne, unpublished data). Additionally, this animal was not detected during any previous entomological investigations on Rapa Nui, nor did Mockford (1972) find this psocid in materials he identified from the island. Currently, C. pakaratii’s distribution appears to be limited to the fern-moss gardens within the cave entrances. In two regions of western United States, moss gardens within cave entrances have been identified as relict habitats of the last glacial maximum ( LGM) and support species now restricted to these habitats (see Benedict (1979), Northup & Welbourn (1997), Wynne (2013 )). On Rapa Nui, we suggest that this habitat and some of the species supported within it may represent relicts of a pre-disturbance ecosystem that existed prior to the arrival of the Polynesians. To best protect this animal and the fern-moss garden habitat, we recommend roping off these areas to restrict tourist access (see Northup & Welbourn (1997) for details). Also, we recommend conducting additional surveys in other caves on the island to gain further understanding of the distribution of this animal on the island.

INHS

Illinois Natural History Survey

ELM

East London Museum

LGM

Leningrad School of Mines