Vespa, Linnaeus, 1758

Smith-Pardo, Allan H., Carpenter, James M. & Kimsey, Lynn, 2020, The Diversity of Hornets in the Genus Vespa (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Vespinae), Their Importance and Interceptions in the United States, Insect Systematics and Diversity 4 (3), No. 2, pp. 1-27 : 3-4

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1093/isd/ixaa006

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3847020

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/51438154-7E5C-FF9A-FCBD-11733AD1FB62

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Vespa
status

 

Keys to the Queens and Workers of the Species of Vespa of the World

1 Posterior ocelli about as close to compound eye as to each other ( Fig. 2c View Figs ) ................................................. binghami du Buysson

- Posterior ocelli closer to each other than to compound eye ( Fig. 2d View Figs )..................................................................................2

2 Apical margin of clypeus with medial tooth between laterally produced margins ( Fig. 2e View Figs ) .............................. analis Fabricius

- Apical margin of clypeus without medial tooth between laterally produced margins ( Fig. 2f View Figs ) ............................................3

3 Gena more than 1.7× medial width of compound eye in side view ( Fig. 3a View Figs ), interocellar distance much less than the distance from ocelli to the vertex..........................................................4

- Gena less than 1.7× medial width of compound eye ( Fig. 3b View Figs ), interocellar distance as long or almost as long as the distance from ocelli to the vertex .........................................................5

4 Metasomal terga 3–6 black, or at most with narrow apical band on tergum 3 ( Fig. 3c View Figs ) ............................ soror du Buysson

- Metasomal segments 3–6 with orange apical band, tergum 6 mostly orange (as in Fig. 3d View Figs ) ....................... mandarinia Smith

5 Punctures on sides of tergum 2 large, separated by less than one puncture width ( Fig. 4a View Figs ); pronotal carina barely interrupted by pronotal fovea ( Fig. 4c View Figs ) ..........................................................6

- Punctures on sides of metasomal tergum 2 small, separated by more than one puncture diameter ( Fig. 4b View Figs ); pronotal carina widely interrupted by pronotal fovea ( Fig. 4d View Figs )........................7

6 Clypeus mostly black ( Fig. 4e View Figs ); metasomal terga mostly black or at most with yellow apical band on tergum 1 ( Fig. 5a View Figs ) ............................................................................ fervida Smith

- Clypeus yellow ( Fig. 4f View Figs ); metasomal terga 1–5 often with apical yellow band ( Fig. 5b View Figs ) ............................... luctuosa de Saussure

7 Pretegular carina complete ( Fig. 7a View Figs ); clypeus medially with coarse or large punctures, separated by one puncture diameter or less ( Fig. 6c View Figs ) .......................................................................8

- Pretegular carina incomplete ( Fig. 7b View Figs ); middle of clypeus with small punctures separated more than one puncture diameter ( Fig. 6d View Figs )................................................................................16

8 Apical margin of clypeus produced into two acute triangular projections ( Fig. 8a View Figs )................................................................9

- Apical margin of clypeus produced into two broadly rounded projections ( Fig. 8b View Figs )..............................................................11

9 Vertex black ( Fig. 8c View Figs ) and first three metasomal terga primarily orange-yellow ( Fig. 7a View Figs ) .................... philippinensis de Saussure

- Vertex orange ( Fig. 8d View Figs ) or light brown, if black then orangeyellow coloration restricted to first two metasomal terga ( Fig. 7c View Figs ), or first three metasomal terga black, with at most narrow distal orange-yellow band ( Fig. 7d View Figs ) ..........................10

10 Metasomal terga never entirely black; metasomal tergum 2 with broad orange-yellow band extending one-third or more across tergum ( Fig. 7c and d View Figs )............................... ducalis Smith

- Metasomal terga all black ( Fig. 7f View Figs ), or metasomal tergum 2 orange-yellow ( Fig. 7e View Figs ), or tergum 2 black with narrow, distal orange-yellow band that extends much less than one-third of tergal width ( Fig. 7b View Figs ).………..........……… tropica (Linnaeus)

11 Metasomal terga 2, 5 and 6 reddish brown or dark brown; tergum 3 and usually tergum 4 mostly yellow, with basal reddish brown band extending medially and two small, lateral reddish brown spots ( Fig. 9a and b View Figs )................. orientalis Linnaeus

- Metasomal terga coloration not as above .............................12

12 Metasomal segment 1 0.5× as long as or longer than width in dorsal view ( Fig. 9c View Figs ) .............................................................13

- Metasomal segment 1 less than 0.5× as long as wide in dorsal view ( Fig. 9d View Figs )........................................................................14

13 Scutellar punctures small and separated two puncture diameters ( Fig. 10a View Figs ); metasomal tergum 2 mostly black ( Fig. 10c View Figs ) ........................................................... mocsaryana du Buysson

- Scutellar punctures large and contiguous or separated by 1 puncture diameter or less ( Fig. 10b View Figs ); metasomal tergum 2 usually reddish brown ( Fig. 10d View Figs ), or if metasomal tergum is mostly black then the vertex is also black..... affinis (Linnaeus)

14 Clypeus strongly bulging medially, strongly convex in side view ( Fig. 11a View Figs ) ............................................... fumida van der Vecht

- Clypeus not bulging medially, flat or gently curved in side view ( Fig. 11b View Figs )..............................................................................15

15 Metasomal segments 3–5 mostly yellow ( Fig. 11c View Figs ); vertex orange-yellow to red ....................................... crabro Linnaeus

- Metasomal segments 3–5 mostly dark brown or black, some segments with narrow distal yellow band ( Fig. 11d View Figs ); vertex reddish to dark brown ........................................ dybowskii André

16 Clypeus ( Fig. 12a View Figs ) and metanotum with dark markings ................................................................ multimaculata Pérez

- Clypeus and metanotum without black markings ( Fig. 12b and d View Figs )..........................................................................................17

17 Clypeus yellow with black markings ( Fig. 12a View Figs ), or if without markings then metanotum entirely yellow (as in Fig. 12c and d View Figs ) ................................................................ bellicosa de Saussure

- Clypeus yellow to brown, without black markings ( Fig. 12b View Figs ); metanotum coloration variable ( Fig. 12d and e View Figs ) ...................18

18 Scutellum and metanotum entirely or primarily yellow ( Fig. 12d View Figs ) and vertex black............................. bicolor Fabricius

- Scutellum and metanotum not primarily yellow ( Fig. 12e View Figs ), or if primarily yellow then vertex only partly black......................19

19 Scutal punctures small, separated by 2–3 puncture diameters ( Fig. 13a View Figs ); metasomal terga 2–5 entirely black..... basalis Smith

- Scutal punctures large, separated by 1 puncture diameter or less ( Fig. 13b View Figs ); metasomal terga 2–5 not entirely black ...............20

20 Clypeal punctation uniformly distributed ........ simillima Smith

- Clypeal punctation irregularly distributed, with impunctate areas .....................................................................................21

21 Side of prothorax close to spiracle smooth ( Fig. 13c View Figs ); vertex not black; mesothorax and propodeum with same coloration; terga 2 and 5 black or mostly black................................ vivax Smith

- Side of prothorax close to spiracle rugose ( Fig. 13d View Figs ); without above color combination ………..………...… velutina Lepeletier

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Vespidae