Andricus pseudocurvator Tang & Melika

Tang, Chang-Ti, Melika, George, Yang, Man-Miao, Nicholls, James A. & Stone, Graham N., 2011, New species of oak gallwasps from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), Zootaxa 2865, pp. 37-52 : 42-46

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.277420


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Andricus pseudocurvator Tang & Melika

new species

Andricus pseudocurvator Tang & Melika , new species

Figs 20–38 View FIGURES 20 – 27 View FIGURES 28 – 32 View FIGURES 33 – 38

Type material. HOLOTYPE female: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Quercus serrata , leg. Chang- Ti Tang, 04.III. 2010. adult em. 11.III. 2010. PARATYPES: 12 females and 18 males: 5 male paratypes: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 01.III. 2010. adult em. 08.III. 2010; 6 male paratypes: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 01.III. 2010. adult em. 09.III. 2010; 4 female and 2 male paratypes: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang- Ti Tang, 01.III. 2010. adult em. 10.III. 2010; 1 female paratype: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 01.III. 2010. adult em. 12.III. 2010; 6 female and 1 male paratypes: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 04.III. 2010. adult em. 12.III. 2010; 4 male paratypes: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 04.III. 2010. adult em. 14.III. 2010; 1 female paratype: TAIWAN, Nantou County, Renai Township, ex Q. serrata , leg. Chang-Ti Tang, 18.III. 2010. adult em. 24.III. The female holotype, 4 female and 7 male paratypes are deposited in NMNS, 3 female and 3 male paratypes in PDL, 1 female and 1 male in USNM, 4 female and 7 male paratypes in NCHU.

Etymology. The shape, structure and location of the gall is very similar to that induced by a Western Palaearctic species, Andricus curvator Hartig , thus the species was named as “curvator-like” -- pseudocurvator .

Diagnosis. Andricus pseudocurvator most closely resembles A. formosanus . In Andricus pseudocurvator head anteriorly black, malar area with striae, frons smooth shiny or very delicately alutaceous, distance between antennal toruli slightly larger than diameter of torulus; 2 nd metasomal tergite in females occupying 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 length of metasoma in dorsal view, prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium 6.0 times longer than broad; male predominantly black, while in A. formosanus head anteriorly, especially lower face, brown, malar area without striae, frons with distinct alutaceous sculpture, distance between toruli distinctly shorter than diameter of torulus; 2 nd metasomal tergite occupying 2 / 3 length of metasoma in dorsal view, prominent part of ventral spine of hypopygium around 3.0 times longer than broad; male light brown. Andricus pseudocurvator also differs distinctly from A. moriokae Monzen , known from Japan, which more closely resembles A. formosanus .

Description. SEXUAL FEMALE. Head black (in some paratypes very dark brown); antenna yellowish brown, with dark brown F 8 –F 11; mandibles, palpi labialis and maxilaris dirty yellow; mesosoma black, metasoma dark brown, legs light brown, with basally darker coxae.

Head alutaceous, with some white setae, more dense in lower face; 2.0 times broader than long from above, 1.3 times broader than high and as broad as mesosoma in anterior view. Gena alutaceous, not broadened behind eye, nearly 0.5 times cross diameter of eye; malar area alutaceous, with some delicate striae extending to eye margin, 0.4 times height of eye. Inner margins of compound eyes nearly parallel. POL nearly 1.4 times OOL; OOL 2.5 times length of lateral ocellus and 1.5 times LOL; all ocelli ovate, same size and shape. Transfacial distance 1.3 times height of eye; diameter of antennal toruli nearly equal to distance between them, distance between torulus and inner margin of eye 1.2 times diameter of torulus; lower face alutaceous, with dense white setae, median elevated area alutaceous. Clypeus quadrangular, nearly 2.0 times broader than high, slightly emarginate, without median incision ventrally, alutaceous to glabrous, with very small elevated central area; anterior tentorial pit distinct, large, epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal line distinct, deep. Frons smooth, shiny, delicately alutaceous, with small smooth shiny impression below median ocellus, with some white setae; interocellar area with stronger surface sculpture. Vertex and occiput delicately alutaceous to smooth, shiny. Postocciput and postgena smooth, shiny, with some setae; posterior tentorial pit large, ovate, deep; height of occipital foramen nearly equal to height of postgenal bridge; hypostomal carina emarginate, continuing into postgenal sulcus. Antenna with 11 flagellomeres (in some paratype females indistinct suture present and antenna seems to be with 12 flagellomeres); slightly longer than mesosoma; pedicel slightly longer than broad; F 1 1.2 times F 2, 2.0 times longer than pedicel and nearly equal to length of scape; F 2 –F 8 progressively shorter; F 8 –F 10 nearly equal in length; F 11 2.2 times longer than F 10 (if a suture present, than F 12 equal to F 11); placodeal sensilla present on F 3 –F 11, absent on F 1 –F 2.

Mesosoma 1.2 times longer than high. Pronotum coriaceous to alutaceous, with parallel, very delicate striae posterolaterally, with dense white setae; propleuron brown, alutaceous, shiny, with smooth area in center, concave in mediocentral part. Mesoscutum smooth, shiny, delicately alutaceous in anterior third, with some white setae; slightly broader than long (largest width measured across mesoscutum at the level of the base of tegulae). Notauli complete, deep, distinctly impressed, slightly converging and broadened at posterior and anterior ends; anterior parallel and parapsidal lines inconspicuous; median mesoscutal line absent, parascutal carina broad. Mesoscutellum trapezoid, broader posteriorly, slightly longer than broad, overhanging metanotum, uniformly dull rugose, with irregular strong rugae, areas between rugae smooth, shiny; scutellar foveae distinct, deep, transversely ovate, broader than high, with smooth, shiny bottom, with distinct elevated narrow smooth median carina, separating foveae. Mesopleuron and speculum smooth, shiny, without setae, except dense patch of setae on posteroventral quarter of speculum; with impressed, transverse foveae along acetabular carina; dorsal axillar area smooth, shiny, with dense white setae; lateral axillar area smooth, shiny, with some setae; subaxillular bar smooth, shiny, posteriormost part narrower than height of metanotal trough; postalar process with parallel delicate striae; metapleural sulcus reaching mesopleuron slightly above half its height. Metascutellum uniformly delicately coriaceous, metanotal trough smooth, shiny, with some short white setae; ventral impressed area nearly 2.0 times height of metascutellum; central propodeal area smooth, shiny, without or with very few irregular delicate wrinkles, lateral propodeal carinae distinct, curved outwards in posterior 1 / 4; lateral propodeal area coriaceous, with dense long, white setae. Nucha with irregular wrinkles and rugae.

Tarsal claws with basal lobe. Forewing longer than body, hyaline, with distinct, long dense cilia on margin, radial cell 3.3 times longer than broad; R 1 and Rs nearly reaching wing margin; areolet small, triangular, closed and distinct. Rs+M distinct for 2 / 3 of distance to basalis and its projection reaching basalis at middle.

Metasoma slightly longer than head+mesosoma, nearly as high as long in lateral view; 2 nd metasomal tergite occupying 1 / 3 – 1 / 2 length of metasoma in dorsal view, with some white setae laterally, all subsequent tergites without setae, smooth and shiny. Ventral spine of hypopygium long, prominent part 6.0 times longer than broad, with some white subapical setae not extending beyond apex of spine, with numerous long setae ventrally. Body length 1.9–2.1 mm (n= 3).

MALE. 1.8–1.9 mm (n= 3), similar to female but compound eye slightly larger and malar area shorter; ocelli slightly larger; antenna with 13 flagellomeres, slightly longer than body length, F 1 curved and swollen apically, 1.2 times longer than F 2 and nearly 2.5 times longer than pedicel; F 13 equal in length to F 12; placodeal sensilla present on all flagellomeres.

Gall ( Figs 37 – 38 View FIGURES 33 – 38 ). Individual galls approximately spherical, 2.4–3.6 mm in height (n= 9), and integral to leaf lamina. Galls appear as yellowish or brownish dots on leaves, cause swelling on both upper and lower surfaces of leaf, each contains single thin-walled larval chamber, 1.6–2.3 mm in diameter (n= 9). Outer wall of larval chamber attached to inner wall of surrounding gall tissue in both growing and mature galls. Galls usually occur separately on leaf and do not aggregate together. Young galls fleshy, yellowish to brownish, remaining soft as they mature.

Biology. Only the sexual generation of this species is known, inducing integral leaf galls on Q. serrata . Mature galls were collected in early March, adults emerged immediately after the galls were collected, in mid and late March.

Distribution. Currently known only from Taiwan: Nantou County, Renai Township and Taichung County, Heping Township ( Fig. 57 View FIGURE 57 ). In Taichung County, galls have been observed but no adults have been reared. It is possible that this species also occur in continental China and Japan, where Q. serrata occurs. Further research is necessary to establish the distribution of this species.

Comments. The gall of this species occurs and develops at the same time as A. songshui , on the same organ of Q. serrata . Preliminary molecular data suggest this species is allied to the Eastern Palaearctic species A. symbioticus and the Western Palaearctic species A. inflator (J.Nicholls, unpublished data).


National Museum of Natural Science


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


National Chung Hsing University