Enyalioides sophiarothschildae , Torres-Carvajal, Omar, Venegas, Pablo J. & de Queiroz, Kevin, 2015
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Taxon classification Animalia Squamata Hoplocercidae
Enyalioides sophiarothschildae Proposed standard English name: Rothschild’s woodlizards
Enyalioides sophiarothschildae Proposed standard Spanish name: lagartijas de palo de Rothschild
Holotype. CORBIDI 647 (Fig. 8), an adult male from Río Lejía in the trail La Cueva-Añazco Pueblo, - 6.83655°S; - 77.48603°W (DD), 1700 m, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Región San Martín, Perú, collected on 2 February 2008 by P.J. Venegas.
Paratypes (2). PERU: Región San Martín: Provincia Mariscal Cáceres: MUSM 21883-84, adult males, El Dorado, - 6.76666°S; - 77.54500°W, 1600m, collected on 5 December 2003 by P.J. Venegas.
Enyalioides sophiarothschildae can be distinguished from other species of Enyalioides , except for Enyalioides laticeps , by having caudal scales that are relatively homogeneous in size on each caudal segment; in all other species of Enyalioides , the dorsal and lateral caudals increase in size posteriorly on each caudal segment, and the largest (posteriormost) caudals on each segment are mucronate or have some kind of projection ( Torres-Carvajal et al. 2011). Enyalioides sophiarothschildae differs from Enyalioides laticeps (character states in parentheses) in color patterns: gular region in males white with a black medial patch scattered with turquoise scales (orange or dirty cream with longitudinal brown, reddish-brown, bluish, or orange streaks, and a large brown or black medial blotch at the level of the gular fold); chest in males grayish white with a turquoise tone (usually an orange tone); labials and chin immaculate white (cream or green in many tones, but never immaculate white).
Description of holotype.
Male (Fig. 8); SVL = 135 mm; TL = 223 mm; maximum head width = 28.4 mm; head length = 34.7 mm; head height = 24.3 mm; dorsal head scales uni- or multicarinate, projected dorsally; parietal eye present; 3-4 scales immediately posterior to superciliaries conical, dorsolaterally projected, and slightly larger than adjacent scales; temporal scales small, multicarinate, separated from each other by tiny granular scales; no distinctly enlarged pretympanic scales; superciliaries 13; canthals six; postrostrals three; supralabials 10 if counted to a point below middle of eye; rostral (3.14 mm wide × 1.47 mm high) slightly wider than adjacent supralabials; single longitudinal row of lorilabials between suboculars and supralabials at level of middle of eye, two longitudinal rows of lorilabials anterior to this point; loreal region composed of small, smooth, and juxtaposed scales, some of which are separated from each other by tiny granular scales; nasal at level of supralabials III–IV; left and right infralabials nine if counted to a point below middle of eye; mental (2.77 mm wide × 2.60 mm high) slightly wider and 1.5 times higher than adjacent infralabials; postmentals two; gulars ventrally projected and separated from each other by skin covered with tiny granular scales; gular fold complete midventrally, extending dorsally and posteriorly to form antehumeral fold; neck with several oblique folds, and a dorsolateral row of enlarged scales; distal part of oblique fold immediately anterior to antehumeral fold with approximately 10 enlarged scales similar in size to gulars, but more than twice the size of adjacent fold scales.
Vertebral crest strongly projected and decreasing in size posteriorly, with vertebrals on neck at least four times higher than those between hind limbs; crest bifurcates posteriorly and extends onto tail less than ¼ its length; body flanks between fore and hind limbs with slight dorsolateral and ventrolateral longitudinal folds; scales on dorsolateral folds similar in size to adjacent scales; dorsal and flank scales small, keeled, imbricate, more or less homogeneous in size, and separated from each other by skin covered with tiny granular scales; ventral scales imbricate, smooth or slightly keeled, rectangular or rhomboid, with a posterolateral mucron; ventrals more than twice the area of dorsals.
Limb scales keeled dorsally and smooth or slightly keeled ventrally; scales on dorsal and posterior surfaces of thighs heterogeneous in size, with most scales less than half the size of those on anterior and ventral surfaces, separated from each other by skin covered with tiny granular scales; subdigitals on finger IV 17; subdigitals on toe IV 25; femoral pores on each side four; tail laterally compressed and gradually tapering posteriorly; caudal scales strongly keeled and imbricate, not gradually increasing in size posteriorly on lateral and dorsal aspects of each caudal segment; caudals larger ventrally than dorsally; individual caudal segments three scales long ventrally and six scales long dorsally.
Color in life of holotype
(Fig. 8). Head dark green with large black blotch between the eye and the tympanum; loreal region, nasal scale, labials and chin white; white blotch on posterior end of mandible; neck greenish brown dorsally and dark brown laterally, with a white rhomboidal blotch extending longitudinally from tympanum to scapular region; dorsal body background dark brown with scattered green scales and pale spots; limbs dark brown with green transverse bands; tail dark green with scattered dark brown marks; vertebral crest with intermixed green and dark brown scales; gular region white with a black posteromedial patch bearing scattered turquoise scales; chest grayish white with a turquoise tone anteriorly; belly grayish white with scattered, faint, pale brown blotches; ventral surface of limbs grayish white, with a longitudinal faint turquoise stripe along the thighs; tail grayish white; iris silver peripherally and dark brown centrally, with dark brown reticulations; silver ring around pupil.
Variation in meristic and morphometric characters of Enyalioides sophiarothschildae are presented in Table 2. One male paratype (MUSM 21883) differs from the holotype in having some scattered dark brown blotches on the throat.
Distribution and ecology.
Enyalioides sophiarothschildae is known from the northeastern slopes of the Cordillera Central in Peru between 1600-1700 m (Fig. 3). This species is only known from two adjacent localities, the trail to La Cueva-Añasco Pueblo in the drainage of the Lejía river and El Dorado in the drainage of the Blanco river, both tributaries of the Huallabamba river in the northern part of the Huallaga river basin. This area corresponds to the Selva Alta (400-1000 m) and Yungas (300-2300 m) ecoregions ( Brack 1986; Peñaherrera del Aguila 1989).
Individuals of Enyalioides sophiarothschildae were found active by day in primary forest. The holotype was found crossing a trail and tried to hide between the roots of a big tree when approached for capture. One of the paratypes climbed up a tree three meters above the ground when approached. The other paratype was found sitting on a big root.
The specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case and is a patronym honoring Sophia Rothschild in recognition of her financial support for the improvement of the herpetological collection of CORBIDI through the BIOPAT Program.
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