Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991

Zhadan, Anna, Stupnikova, Alexandra & Neretina, Tatiana, 2015, Orbiniidae (Annelida: Errantia) from Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia with notes on orbiniid phylogeny, Zootaxa 4019 (1), pp. 773-801 : 779-781

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991


Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991

( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 , 12 View FIGURE 12 A)

Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991: 48 –49, figs 73–80.

Type material. Holotype: ZMH P– 20562 (photographed).

Other material examined. AM W. 44175, MI QLD 2366 (photographed); AM W. 44175.001, tissue for molecular study; MI QLD 2340, unregistered posterior end used for molecular analysis; AM W. 44248, MI QLD 2373; AM W. 46090, MI QLD 2376 (3, 1 photographed); AM W. 46091, MI QLD 2378 (6); AM W. 46092, MI QLD 2422 (12); AM W. 46096, MI QLD 2429 (20, 1 photographed using SEM); AM W. 46097, MI QLD 2432 (3); AM W. 44940, MI QLD 2433 (6); AM W. 44942, MI QLD 2439 (3, 1 photographed).

Examination of type material. Holotype incomplete, thoracic width 0.8 mm, with flattened thorax. Eighteen thoracic chaetigers on right side and 19 thoracic chaetigers on left side. Branchiae starting from chaetiger 17. Three or four rows of hooks and one posterior row of capillary chaetae in thoracic neuropodia; thoracic neuropodia with one podal papilla, no subpodal papillae. Anterior abdominal neuropodia with very big subpodal flange and developed subpodal notch, well developed long subequal outer and inner lobes. Notopodial lobes narrow, digitiform. Branchiae longer than notopodia. In posterior abdominal segments neuropodia with shorter lobes, inner lobes round and wider than outer.

Description. (Lizard Island material) Body long, slender; thorax slightly flattened, abdomen cylindrical ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 A, 2 A). Colour in life pale yellowish-brown with red blood vessels and yellow gut content ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 A). Thoracic width up to 0.9 mm. Prostomium sharply conical with drawn out tapering tip ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B). Peristomium with pair of dorso-lateral nuchal organs ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B). Thoracic chaetigers numbering 14–20 (usually 17–19) ( Table 3 View TABLE 3 ). Branchiae starting from penultimate thoracic chaetiger ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A, Table 3 View TABLE 3 ), usually chaetiger 16–18 (13 in smallest specimen). First branchiae small and digitiform; becoming larger and triangular in anterior abdomen; then long, strap-like, markedly wider and longer than notopodia, in middle and posterior abdomen ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 G, H, 2 I). Thoracic postchaetal lobes well developed from chaetiger 1 (neuropodia) or 2 (notopodia) ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 D, E, 2 B). Notopodial lobes short and papilliform in anterior thorax; gradually increasing in length, becoming digitiform, as long as branchiae in posterior thorax ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 A–C, E–G, 2 C, D, F). Lateral organs below notopodia of all segments well developed ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B, D). Thoracic neuropodial postchaetal lobes round papilliform, in posterior thorax becoming elongated and arising from low ridge, more developed below papilla (mammiform shape) ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 C, E–G, 2 C, D, F). No subpodal or stomach papillae. Abdominal notopodial lobes narrow, lanceolate, shorter than branchiae ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 H, 2 I). Abdominal neuropodia supported one thin acicula and bilobed with subequal lobes; inner lobe rounded, slightly longer and thicker than outer one ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 H, I, 2 C, I). Parapodial flange well developed, with deep notch and round upper margin without flange papilla ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 H, I). Ciliated dorsal organs with two short ciliated strips present middorsally ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 I, J). Thoracic notopodia bearing only crenulate capillary chaetae; neuropodia with 3–4 anterior rows of hooks and one posterior row of capillaries, neuropodial lobe located on same level as capillary chaetae in middle of row ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 C, E–G, 2 B–G); hooks in anterior chaetigers slightly curved, serrated with 4 denticles; in posterior thoracic chaetigers hooks almost straight, smooth, hooded, very short in anterior row; in one or two last thoracic chaetigers hooks replaced by capillary chaetae ( Figs 1 View FIGURE 1 C, E–G, 2 B–G). In abdomen both rami bearing thin capillaries, besides forked chaetae present in notopodia ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 H) and flail chaetae in neuropodia ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 H, J). Pygidium with two long anal cirri ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 K).

Remarks. Scoloplos acutissimus was described by Hartmann-Schröder (1991) from Gladstone, Queensland and has not been recorded since this study. Re-examination of holotype revealed higher number of thoracic chaetigers (18 / 19 vs 17) than originally reported. Lizard Island material had up to 20 thoracic chaetigers ( Table 3 View TABLE 3 ). The newly collected specimens correspond well with the original description and the type material which was examined. The variability in the number of thoracic chaetigers and in the location of the first pair of branchiae was investigated for 26 specimens ( Table 3 View TABLE 3 ). The pygidium and anal cirri are described for the first time.

Type locality. Gladstone, Queensland.

Distribution. Gladstone, Lizard Island, Queensland.

Molecular analyses. The analysis of the sequence data for the 18 S rRNA, 16 S rRNA and CO 1 gene has shown (with a good support for 18 S and 16 S) that all trees include the clade that contains Scoloplos armiger , S.

acmeceps , and Leitoscoloplos pugettensis ( Figs 13–15 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 ). In CO 1 analysis this clade also included S. acutus . In the CO 1 and 16 S analyses Scoloplos acutissimus joined the Scoloplos armiger-S. acmeceps-Leitoscoloplos pugettensis clade ( Figs 14 View FIGURE 14 , 15 View FIGURE 15 ). However the analysis of the sequence data for 18 S rRNA gene ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ) showed that Scoloplos acutissimus was not included in this clade, but with low support it was likely in the same clade as representatives of the genera Nainereis , Orbinia , Leodamas , Phylo and others instead; the same clade contains Scoloplos dayi , S. normalis , Leitoscoloplos robustus and L. fragililis .


Zoologisches Museum Hamburg












Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991

Zhadan, Anna, Stupnikova, Alexandra & Neretina, Tatiana 2015

Scoloplos acutissimus Hartmann-Schröder, 1991 : 48

Hartmann-Schroder 1991: 48