Crematogaster montenigrinus , Karaman, M., 2008

Karaman, M., 2008, Two new species of the Crematogaster scutellaris group, Crematogaster gordani, sp. nov. and C. montenigrinus sp. nov. (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Crna Gora (Montenegro) with key of, Natura Montenegrina, Podgorica 7, pp. 5-24: 14-19

publication ID

21728

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/04561E10-81CC-650C-6928-5B6C4D600A09

treatment provided by

Donat

scientific name

Crematogaster montenigrinus
status

sp. nov.

Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  sp. nov. (Figures 13-16; Plate 1: G-I)

Type species: Formica scutellaris Olivier  HNS  , 1792

Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti atratula Zimmermann  HNS  , 1934: 24; Crematogaster scutellaris  HNS  smidti(sic!) var. atratula Santschi  HNS  , 1937: 311; Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula Bolton  HNS  , 1995: 148.

Material examined: 2 workers, Opatovo (Boka Kotorska Bay), August 18, 1985, leg. M. G. Karaman; 1 worker, West Mouth of Bojana River (Velika Plaža, Ulcinj), July 16, 2004, leg. M. G. Karaman.

Type material: Holotype (1 worker marked by 02-08) and paratype (1 worker marked by 957P) are deposited in Natural History Museum of Montenegro, Podgorica.

Crematogaster schmidti Mayr  HNS  , 1853, genitalia of male in profile, Tivat, October

09, 1977.

Deposition of additional paratype: KARAMAN's Collection in Podgorica (Crna Gora) (1 worker marked by M-254H)

Diagnosis: Head is, in frontal view, without sculpture, smooth and shining. Thorax finely sculptured, covered with sparse, appressed silvery hairs. Propodeal spines are long, acute, with gently upcurved tips, length of spines is about 2,5 times as long as their basal width. On mesonotum appears distinct longitudinal keel. Whole body, including appendages, dark brown to black. Base of gaster, around the joint edge, is brighter, rest of abdomen is black.

Description:

HOLOTYPE, WORKER (Figs. 13-15; Plate 1: G-I):

Total lenght: 3 mm. Head is, in frontal view, without sculpture, smooth and shining, covered with silvery appressed pubescence, these hairs are separated at their bases by a distance equal as length of hairs. Antennal scape is covered with dense, appressed hairs. Mandibles are paler than rest of the head, longitudinally striated, bearing 3-4 teeth each.

Sculpture of thorax weak, covered with sparse, appressed silvery hairs. Propodeal spines are long, acute, with tips gently upcurved, length of spines is about 2,5 times as long as their basal width. On mesonotum appears distinct longitudinal keel. Mesopropodeal furrow deeply impressed. Petiole trapezoid, like that in other species of scutellaris  HNS  complex.

Abdominal segments entirely covered with longitudinally oriented, appressed, long silvery hairs whose bases are separated by distance equal as half length of a hair.

Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  sp. nov., head of worker in

dorsal view.

Colour: Whole body, including appendages, dark brown to black. Base of gaster, around the joint edge, is brighter, rest of abdomen is black. Total length, measurement of 3 workers: 2.9-3.1 mm.

Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  sp. nov., petiole and postpetiole of worker in dorsal view.

differential diagnosis

Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  , sp. nov. belongs to C. scutellaris  HNS  group of species. Total body length of workers of this species is smallest in compare with other workers of this group in south Europe. Body colour is generaly dark brown to black, as in C. laestrygon  HNS  and C. algirica  HNS  . But C. montenigrinus  HNS  has distinctly longer propodeal spines (compare with C. laestrygon  HNS  ) and smaller total body lenght (compare with C. algirica  HNS  ). Workers of Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  has weaker sculptured thorax than those in C. schmidti  HNS  . Longitudinal keel less prominent compare with that in C. schmidti  HNS  and C. gordani  HNS  .

ETYMOLOGY

The name of the species is derived from the place where Zimmermann (1934) and we collected samples: Montenegro (Crna Gora).

REMARKS

Crematogaster scutellaris schmidti atratula  HNS  described by ZIMMERMAN (1934), has remained uninvestigated ever since. Apart from a citation by SANTSCHI (1937), BOLTON (1995) and JOHNSON (2007), no other data of this taxon appear in the literature.

The original description was based upon workers collected near the Monastery Sveta Savina, Herceg Novi, on the Adriatic coast of Crna Gora (Montenegro). Original description given by Zimmermann:

„Das ganze Tier fast gleichmäßig dunkelschwarzbraun, nahezu schwarz, Gaster kaum dunkler, Fühler und Beine nur wenig heller als Kopf und Thorax, somit sehr bedeutend dunkler als die Form jonia, bei der auch die dunkelsten Stücke, die wir gesehen haben, einen beträchtlichen Farbenunterschied zwischen Gaster und Vorderkörper aufweisen. Oberflächenskulptur des Kopfes, Form des Thorax und der Dornen wie bei C. scutellaris schmidti  HNS  , die Oberseite des Thorax ebenso wie bei dieser kräftig längsgerunzelt; auf dem Mesonotum ein deutlicher Mittelkiel. - Die neue Form unterscheidet sich von C. scutellaris schmidti  HNS  , bezw. jonia aber auch durch ihre Größe: sie ist beträchtlich und konstant kleiner als diese, nämlich 3'0 - 3'4 mm lang, während C. scutellaris schmidti  HNS  , bezw. jonia 3'5 - 4'0 mm."

SANTSCHI (1937) mentioned this species in his key to the workers of scutellaris  HNS  group of species: „- Tête et thorax brun rouge plus ou moins foncé. Balkans, Egée... sp. scutellaris  HNS  smidti var. ionia For.  HNS  ; - ou noirâtre, Dalmatie... var. atratula Zimm.  HNS  "

BOLTON (1995) mentioned that Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula Zimmermann  HNS  , 1935 (sic!):21 (w.) YUGOSLAVIA is unavailable name, in accordance with ICZN rules. Finally, Crematogaster scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. atratula  HNS  has been treated as junior synonim of C. schmidti  HNS  (JOHNSON, 2007).

We collected the material of this taxon from coast of Montenegro, establishing distinct taxonomical differences from other species of this group. By this way, we established new species Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  sp. nov. (ICZN articles 23.3.5; 45.5.1) (ICZN, 2000).

COMMENTS AND DISCUSSION

Body of workers of Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  is by colour similar to that of Crematogaster auberti  HNS  , dark brown to black. Clear distinction between these taxa is prominent keel on alitrunk, present in C. montenigrinus  HNS  , missing in C. auberti  HNS  . Similar body colour appears also in C. laestrygon  HNS  , but in this species propodeal spines are smaller than these in C. montenigrinus  HNS  .

Variety nigra  HNS  ( C. scutellaris var. nigra Krausse  HNS  , 1912), is described from Sardinia, with only one sentence in original description: «Diese neue schwarzköpfige Varietät entdeckte ich bei». EMERY (1916) mentioned that Krausse had collected entirely black workers mixed with workers provided with red heads and concluded that it might be colour variety, only (C. scutellaris var  HNS  . (aberr.?) nigra  HNS  ). In his key to the worker caste from Italy, he mentioned that the sculpture of var. nigra  HNS  is the same as that in C. scutellaris  HNS  . BARONI-URBANI (1971) considered var. nigra  HNS  as synonym of C. scutellaris  HNS  .

C. laestrigon var. maura Forel  HNS  , 1909, was found in Algeria and originaly described as Crematogaster auberti r. laestrygon var. maura  HNS  . The workers of this variety is with smaller propodeal spines than those in C. montenigrinus  HNS  , propodeum is only bituberculate («Les épines du métanotum sont presque dentiformes», FOREL, 1909). Worker body size is distinctly longer (L= 4.0 - 4.8 mm) than that in C. montenigrinus  HNS  (2.9-3.1 mm).

C. laestrygon var. atlantis Santschi  HNS  , 1937, described from Algeria and Tunisia, is with body dark brown to black in workers. Its propodeal spines are smaller than those in montenigrinus  HNS  . SANTSCHI, in his original description, mentioned that those spines in workers of var. atlantis  HNS  are shorter than those in C. laestrygon  HNS  .

The smallest workers in C. scutellaris  HNS  complex (L= 2.7-3.2 mm) appear in C. scutellaris var. alii Forel  HNS  , 1907. F O R E L, in his original description, observes that body colour of var. alii  HNS  likes that in C. schmidti  HNS  (base of gaster is redish brown, rest of gaster is brown). Propodeal spines are shorter than those in C. schmidti  HNS  , and longer than those in C. jehovae  HNS  .

Other species, races and varietes of genus Crematogaster  HNS  with trapezoidal petiole and propodeal keel on alitrunk cited for Europe, Near East, Mediterraneann or North Africa, can not be confused with Crematogaster montenigrinus  HNS  , as follow:

C. scutellaris subsp. schmidti var. hybrida Emery  HNS  , 1916, described from Italy, are with body colour intermediate between C. scutellaris  HNS  and C. schmidti  HNS  . It is unavailable name (AGOSTI & COLLINGWOOD, 1987);

C. scutellaris var. medispina Forel  HNS  , 1905, described from Trieste (Italy) is a junior synonym of C. schmidti  HNS  (EMERY, 1922);

C. laestrigon var. diminuta Santschi  HNS  , 1910, described from Tunisia: workers are 3 mm long, black coloured, with small propodeal teeth (like that in var. maura  HNS  );

C. laestrigon var. striaticeps Forel  HNS  , 1909, from Algeria, has dark coloured workers provided with keel, their occiput and pronotum are striated (in C. montenigrinus  HNS  are smooth).

C. scutellaris r. tenuispina Forel  HNS  , 1902, from Algeria and Sahara: workers alitrunk is redish-yellow, gaster is brown.