Spindasis syama lamuae, Hsu & Liang, 2020

Hsu, Yu-Feng & Liang, Jia-Yuan, 2020, On systematic status of Spindasis syama Horsfield, [1829] in Taiwan and the Philippines (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Aphnaeini), Zootaxa 4763 (4), pp. 485-500 : 491-494

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4763.4.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:55742DFF-8E4F-420B-BA5D-BEF31468D109

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3804841

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03D36468-822B-BA4C-7DA1-22E1FE51F8BB

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Spindasis syama lamuae
status

ssp. nov.

Spindasis syama lamuae   ssp. nov.

( Figs. 9–16 View FIGURES 9–12 View FIGURES 13–16 , 25–29 View FIGURES 25–29 )

Aphnaeus syama var. leechi   ; Matsumura (not Swinhoe), 1919: Thousand insects of Japan (Additamenta) 3: 609. pl., 48, 4, 5. (mis-identification)

Aphnaeus syama formosana   ; Seitz 1927 (not Matsumura): the Macrolepidoptera of the world: 937, pl. 156, fig. 156h; Hirayama (not Moore) 1933: Butterflies in Colour: pl. 20, Fig. 3 View FIGURES 1–7 ; pl. 21, fig. 3. (mis-identification)

Aphnaeus syama formosana   ab. nakaharai Naritomi 1941: Kontyukai 91: 618, pl. 4, Fig. 4 View FIGURES 1–7 .

Diagnosis. Ssp. lamuae   is characteristic by distal band of central symmetry system of hindwing undersides broken posteriorly at 1A+2A ( Figs. 10, 12 View FIGURES 9–12 , 14, 16 View FIGURES 13–16 ), whereas this band is continuous, forming a complete V-shaped band in the other subspecies ( Figs. 18, 20 View FIGURES 17–20 ). The appearance of ssp. lamuae   is most similar to ssp. sepulveda Fruhstorfer, 1912   of continental China ( Figs. 17–20 View FIGURES 17–20 , 30–34 View FIGURES 30–34 ) in wing patterns, sharing the feature of distal band of central symmetry system of forewing undersides in touch with parafocal elements. Ssp. lamuae   demonstrates profound seasonal variation, with the markings on wing undersides of individuals emerged in dry/cooler months reduced and turning reddish ( Figs. 12 View FIGURES 9–12 , 16 View FIGURES 13–16 ). By contrast, seasonal variation is absent in ssp. sepulveda   , with individuals emerged from all seasons possessing black spots and bands ( Figs. 18, 20 View FIGURES 17–20 ); posterior margin of costa on valva is smooth in lamuae ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 25–29 ), whereas it is unevenly serrate in ssp. sepulveda   ( Fig. 32 View FIGURES 30–34 ).

Type materials. Holotype. ♂, KAOHSIUNG Co [= KAOHSIUNG CITY]: Meinong, Shuangxi , 150m, 8. II. 2006, Coll. Y. F. Hsu ( NHM).  

Paratypes. JILONG CITY: 1♀, Longgang Trail, 2. IX. 2006, Coll. Y. F. Hsu; 1♀, same locality, 26. IX. 2006 (Y. F. Hsu). TAIPEI Co. [= NEW TAIPEI CITY]: 1♂, Shiding, Ergeshan , 28. V. 2004, reared from Maesa japonica   , emgd. 10. VIII. 2004, HSU 04 View Materials F53 (J. R. Chen & C. T. Chuang); 2♂, 1♀, Danshui , Miantianshan , 2. VIII. 1987 (Y. F. Hsu). TAOYUAN Co. [= TAOYUAN CITY]: 1♂, 1♀, Fuxing , Gaoyi , VIII. 1984 (C. L. Lee). YILAN Co.: 1♂, Datong , Qilan , 5. VIII. 1988 (C. F. Li). NANTOU Co.: 3♂, Yuchi , Lianhuachi , 22. V. 1989 (C. F. Li); 1♀, Puli , 15. VIII. 1989 (C. F. Li); 1♂, Yuchi , Lianhuachi , 700m, 8. X. 2002 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, Renai, Huisun, ca 700m, 14. XI. 2004 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♀, same locality, 22. X. 2005 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, 1♀, same locality, 16. X. 2010 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♀, Renai, Nanshanxi, ca 900m, 1. IX. 2007 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, 1♀, Renai, Wushe, 26. VII. 2016 (J. Y. Liang) (genitalia preparation JYL446, 447). HUALIAN Co.: 1♀, Xiulin, Lushui, 11. VIII. 1988 (C. F. Li). JIAYI Co.: 1♂, Fanlu, Chukou, ca 350m, 10. X. 2005 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♀, Fanlu, Chukou, 300m, 5. IX. 2010 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, 1♀, Alishan, Shizhuo/Dabang, 900/ 1000m, 25. IX. 2010 (Y. F. Hsu). TAINAN Co. [= TAINAN CITY]: 1♂, Guanziling, 400m, 17. IX. 2002 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, Baihe, Zhentoushan, 25. X. 2002 (Y. F. Hsu); 2♂, Xinhua, 24. IX. 2010 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, 1♀, same locality, 29. III. 2013 (Y. F. Hsu). KAOHSIUNG Co. [= KAOHSIUNG CITY]: 1♂, Liugui, 1. II. 1983 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, same locality, 26. III. 1989 (D. X. Lee); 1♂, same locality, 200m, 31. XII. 2006 (Y. F. Hsu); 5♂, Liugui, Nanfengshan, 17. VI. 1989 (Y. F. Hsu); 3♀, Meinong, Shuangxi, 150m, 8. II. 2006 (Y. F. Hsu), 2♂, same locality, 22. I. 2007 (Y. F. Hsu). PINGDONG Co.: 1♀, Wutai, Wutoushan, 9. IV. 1999 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, same locality, 1200m, 4. IV. 2002 (Y. F. Hsu, C. C. Lu & C. L. Huang); 1♀, Wutai, 400m, 8. II. 2006 (C. C. Lu); 1♂, 2♀, Wutai, Yichangshan, 1100/ 1400m, 15/ 16. III. 2009, reared from Ardisa crenata   with Crematogaster laborisa   , emgd. 9. IV/ 9. V. 2009, HSU 09 View Materials C26 (Y. F. Hsu & H. C. Huang); 2♂, Sandimen, 250m, 10. II. 2007 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, Fangliao, Yuquan, 26. II. 2006 (Y. F. Hsu); 1♂, same locality, 19. III. 2006 (Y. F. Hsu), 1♂, Chunri, Dahanshan, 20. I. 2011, reared from Psidium guajava   , emgd. 17. IV. 2011, HSU 11 View Materials A14 (J. H. Lin); 2♂, same locality, 27. IV. 2011 (J. H. Lin)   . Paratypes deposited in NHM, NMNS, and NTNU.

Bionomics. Female butterfly oviposits on foliage (twig or leaf) of hostplant ( Fig. 43, 44 View FIGURES 43–46 ) in the presence of associated ants. Larvae are phytophagous but tended by Crematogaster   ants on regular basis ( Lin 2011). The larvae devour leaves by scratching epidermis and mesophyll. Larvae conceal themselves gregariously in shelters construct- ed by tying dry leaves while not feeding ( Figs. 45 View FIGURES 43–46 ). Pupation is taken place within the larval shelters ( Figs. 46 View FIGURES 43–46 ).

Hostplants. Plants oviposited by females or utilized by immatures in the wild included Maesa japonica   ( Primulaceae   ) (04F53, oviposition), Ardisia crenata   ( Primulaceae   ) (09C26, 09J46, larvae), A. cornudentata morrisonensis   ( Primulaceae   ) (09H10, oviposition; 10H20, larvae), A. cornudentata cornudentata   ( Primulaceae   ) (09K4, 10H27, 10J52, 11D33, larvae), Mallotus japonica   ( Euphorbiaceae   ) (10G26, larva) and Smilax odortissima   (Smilaceae)(10J41, larvae).

Myrmecophily. This butterfly is obligatorily associated with Crematogester amia   (09C26, 09H10, 10G26, 10H20, 10J41) and C. popohana   (09K4, 10H27, 10J52, 11D33) in the wild, but larvae may complete development without presence of ants in laboratory ( Lin 2011).

Etymology. The subspecific name lamuae refers to a comic character Lam (Lamu) created by a famous manga artist Rumiko Takahashi. The patterns of wing undersides recall the graphic design of the bikini Lam wears.

Remarks. Seitz (1927) states that S. syama   in Taiwan is diagnosable by having the ground color of wing undersides being white, but examined specimens and illustrations of literature all have yellow or creamy yellow ground color on wing undersides.

NHM

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]

NHM

University of Nottingham

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

NMNS

National Museum of Natural Science

NTNU

National Taiwan Normal University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Lycaenidae

Genus

Spindasis

Loc

Spindasis syama lamuae

Hsu, Yu-Feng & Liang, Jia-Yuan 2020
2020
Loc

Aphnaeus syama var. leechi

Matsumura (not Swinhoe), 1919
Loc

Aphnaeus syama formosana

Seitz 1927
Hirayama (not Moore) 1933
Loc

Aphnaeus syama formosana

Aphnaeus syama formosana ab. nakaharai Naritomi 1941
Kontyukai 91: 618