Protonemura jurassica Reding, Bolard & Vinçon,

Reding, Jean-Paul G., Bolard, Audrey & Vinçon, Gilles, 2017, A new species of Protonemura Kempny, 1898 (Plecoptera: Nemouridae) from the French and Swiss Jura Mountains, Zootaxa 4276 (4), pp. 554-568: 555-567

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4276.4.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4342D552-5264-4A6A-92D7-691E29E9493C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03AD87AA-FFB0-DD2B-30EC-90DCFD91FE52

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Protonemura jurassica Reding, Bolard & Vinçon
status

sp. n.

Protonemura jurassica Reding, Bolard & Vinçon  sp. n.

( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 –16)

Protonemura brevistyla ( Ris, 1902)  pro parte

Morphological diagnosis. A medium-sized Protonemura  species. Males and females macropterous. Body length of males 5 to 6 mm, females 7 to 8 mm. Cervical gills medium-sized, with one slight pre-apical constriction of the two central gills. Sclerotized stem of the median lobe of the paraprocts of adult males ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3) ciliated on both sides and much longer and slender than that of P. brevistyla  , whose name aptly refers to this aspect (Figs. 17 and 19; Ris 1902: 432, fig. 3). Paraprocts of adult females acuminated at apex (Fig. 7).

Type material. Holotype male: FRANCE: Jura Mountains, Doubs Department, Karstic spring of Loue River , Ouhans (25), 47° 0.645115' N, 6° 17.97486' E, 529 m a.s.l., 21.03.2013, leg. Audrey Bolard, deposited in the MZL (catalogue number: GBIFCH00284217).GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: same locality, same date, 4m, 4f, leg. A. Bolard, deposited in the MZL (catalogue number: GBIFCH00284216). 

Additional specimens are stored in the collections of Jean-Paul G. Reding (RC), Gilles Vinçon (GVC), Audrey Bolard (BC) and the Museum of Zoology, Lausanne ( MZL).

L=mature larvae or nymphs; m=adult male; f=adult female

1. SWITZERLAND, Jura Mountains, Chasseron Region, Areuse River Basin, Canton of Neuchâtel, Rhine 

tributaries:

1.1 Karstic spring of Fleurier Brook, Raisse, 46° 53.467116' N, 6° 34.650005' E, 760 m 0 7.09.1996, 1m; 0 6.08.2010, 1f (voucher specimen; two legs used for molecular studies); 0 3.08.2011, 22L; 12.08.2011, 5L; 0 7.07.2016, 12L (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC; 6L deposited in the MZL, catalogue number: GBIFCH00284225)

27.9.2001, 1m, 30f (leg. P. Stucki; MZL)

1.2 Karstic spring of Areuse River, La Doux, Saint-Sulpice, 46° 54.696' N, 6° 32.926' E, 805 m 0 8.07.1984, 1m (leg. W. Matthey; RC)

18.07.1997, 1m; 26.07.1998, 1f; 0 6.07.2004, 1m (voucher specimen; two legs used for molecular studies); 23.07.2010, 1f; 0 6.08.2010, 4m, 1f (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC; 2m, 1f deposited in the MZL, catalogue number: GBIFCH00284218)

2. SWITZERLAND, Jura Mountains, Lake of Neuchâtel region , Canton of Vaud, Rhine tributaries: 2.1 Karstic spring of La Raisse , near Concise , 46° 51.786533' N, 6° 45.046069' E, 430 m 29.9.2001, 1f (leg. P. Stucki; MZL)GoogleMaps 

3. SWITZERLAND, Jura Mountains, Canton of Jura, Doubs drainage basin, Rhône tributaries: 3.1 Karstic spring of Côte au Bouvier , near Soubey , 47° 18.065225' N, 7° 18.065225' E, 570 m 28.05.2013, 1f (leg. J.- P. G. Reding; RC)GoogleMaps 

4. SWITZERLAND, Jura Mountains, Canton of Bern, Suze Drainage Basin , Rhine tributaries: 4.1 Karstic spring of La Dou , near Cormoret , 47° 10.084454' N, 7° 2.474492' E, 739 m 21.04.2016, 2L; 20.04.2017, 2m, 3f, 1L (leg. J.- P. G. Reding; RC)GoogleMaps 

5. FRANCE, Jura Mountains, Doubs Department, Doubs drainage basin, Rhône tributaries:

5.1 Karstic spring of Doubs River, Mouthe (25), 46° 42.295' N, 6° 12.545' E, 945 m 18.07.1991, 2m (leg. J. Aubert; GVC)GoogleMaps 

14.07.1996, 11m, 14f; 22.07.1996, 4m, 5f; 27.08.1996, 12m, 15f; 15.10.1996, 1m, 4f; 0 4.05.2009, 8m, 1f (leg. G. Vinçon; GVC)

14.07.1996, 3m; 21.09.2009, 2m, 1f; 20.07.2010, 1f; 19.05.2016, 4m; 10.06.2016, 1L (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC)

5.2 Karstic spring of Dessoubre River, Consolation-Maisonnettes (25), 47° 9.181275' N, 6° 36.051564' E, 623 m 30.08.1996, 2f (leg. G. Vinçon; GVC)GoogleMaps 

5.3 Karstic spring of Le Val River, Pierrefontaine-les-Varans (25), 47° 12.730003' N, 6° 33.163793' E, 669 m 30.08.1996, 2f (leg. G. Vinçon; GVC)GoogleMaps 

5.4 Karstic spring of Cusançin River, Cusance (25), 47° 19.312213' N, 6° 26.254235' E, 333 m 21.07.2010, 1f (leg. J.- P. G. Reding; RC)GoogleMaps 

6. FRANCE, Jura Mountains, Doubs and Jura Department, Loue Drainage Basin, Rhône tributaries:

6.1 Karstic spring of Loue River, Ouhans (25), 47° 0.645115' N, 6° 17.97486' E, 529 m 10.09.2012, 3m, 1f, 13L; 22.10.2012, 1m (leg. A. Bolard; RC)GoogleMaps 

21.03.2013, 23m, 12f (2m, 1f deposited in the MZL, catalogue number: GBIFCH00284224); 16.04.2013, 6m, 5f; 0 2.05.2013, 3m, 4f; 22.05.2013, 3m; 30.09.2013, 1m, 6f; 25.10.2013, 1m (leg. A. Bolard; BC) 10.04.2013, 2m, 3f (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC)

6.2 Karstic spring of Moulin Miguet, Ouhans (25), 47° 1.326046' N, 6° 17.934465' E, 456 m 0 1.04.2014, 1L; 14.05.2013, 1L (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC)

6.3 Karstic spring of Lison River, near Nans-sous-Sainte-Anne (25), 46° 57.909686' N, 6° 0.68981' E, 432 m 22.05.2013, 1m, 2f (leg. A. Bolard; BC)GoogleMaps 

21.06.2016, 1f (leg. J.-P. G. Reding; RC)

6.4 Karstic spring of Furieuse River, La Doye (39), 46° 52.785549' N, 5° 54.197315' E, 572 m Verneaux 1973, sub nom. Protonemura brevistyla  , not confirmed.

Description of Protonemura jurassica  sp. n. Males ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 –6). Tergites 6, 7 and 8 with a row of spines on the central posterior margins (Fig. 6). Hypoproct bearing at its base a long and narrow vesicle with nearly parallel edges (Fig. 3). Inner lobe of paraprocts hidden by hypoproct. Median lobe with sclerotized base; the rest membranous ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2). Upper part of sclerotized base of median lobe large, with two branches, the one on the dorsal side ending in a narrow tip and the one on the ventral side in a blunt tip ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2). Sclerotized stem arising from the base of the median lobe very long, nearly reaching the apex of the membranous part of the outer lobe ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3). Sclerotized stem slender, ciliated on both sides and ending in a single, long, thorn ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3). Outer lobe of paraprocts with a well-developed membranous field flanked by a heavily sclerotized area ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2). Sclerotized part nearly straight, with an outward pointing hammer-like extension at its apex and a smaller knob in its middle (Fig. 2). Apical extension of outer lobe with three to six spines pointing inwards ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2). Epiproct long and slender in lateral view, hardly enlarged in the apical portion (Figs. 4 and 5). Lateral sclerites of epiproct thin (Fig. 5). Ventral sclerite of epiproct supporting a nearly triangular-shaped projection with a few short spines (Fig. 5). Apex of epiproct concave in lateral view (Fig. 5). Cerci well developed, voluminous and rounded, slightly shorter than the paraprocts ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3). In males and females, head without contrasting colours, uniformly dark in mature specimens and reddish brown in freshly emerged specimens. Femur of hind legs distally with a dark band in both sexes.

Females (Figs. 7 and 8). Pregenital plate of sternite 7 with a small median sclerotized area, that extends only marginally over sternite 8 (Figs. 7 and 8). Subgenital plate with a nearly rectilinear central posterior margin (Figs. 7 and 8). Lobes of the subgenital plate protruding and rounded at their lateral margins (Fig. 8). The two lobes of the subgenital plate nearly parallel and separated by a deep median depression (Figs. 7 and 8). Vaginal lobes on each side of the subgenital plate large and well visible (Figs. 7 and 8). Paraprocts medium-sized and pointed at apex (Fig. 7).

Mature larvae and nymphs ( Figs. 9 –16). General colour brown. Cervical gills of medium length, with a slight pre-apical constriction of the two central gills ( Fig. 9). Dorso-lateral pair of bristles on tergites short ( Figs. 10 and 11View FIGURE 11), generally present only on tergites 1 to 7 ( Fig. 10). Tergites and sternites of first six abdominal segments separated by a small membranous area ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11). Paraprocts of male larvae flattened at apex ( Figs. 11View FIGURE 11 and 12). Sternite 9 of male larvae triangular-shaped with a rounded tip (Fig. 13). Paraprocts of female larvae mid-sized, narrowing towards apex (Fig. 14). Subgenital plate of female larvae shaped as two small symmetrically arranged triangles with stretched tip at outer base (Fig. 15). Head dark or reddish brown, with no areas contrasting in colour (Fig. 16).

Morphological affinities. Protonemura jurassica  is morphologically similar to P. lateralis ( Pictet, 1836)  and P. brevistyla  (widely distributed in the Alps, Prealps and Carpathians), P. zhiltzovae Vinçon & Ravizza, 2005  (endemic to the Pyrenees), P. austriaca Theischinger, 1976  (eastern Austria and Germany) and P. julia Nicolai, 1983  (Julian Alps, Carinthia, Karawanken ( Graf & Hutter 2002), Slovenia and Croatia (Popijač & Sivec 2009)). Since the latter three species are unlikely to occur in the Jura Mountains, we provide a differential diagnosis only for P. lateralis  , P. brevistyla  and P. jurassica  .

Adult males. Protonemura jurassica  and P. brevistyla  . Ventral vesicle on the hypoproct of P. jurassica  long and narrow, with nearly parallel edges (Fig. 3), whereas it is shorter and wider, apically with an outward bulge, in P. brevistyla  (Fig. 17). Median lobe of the paraprocts of P. jurassica  with a long and slender sclerotized stem ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3), whereas this stem is much shorter and thicker in P. brevistyla  (Figs. 17, 19 and 20; Ris 1902: 432, fig. 3; Aubert 1959: 38, fig. 75). Sclerotized part of outer lobe of the paraprocts of P. jurassica  with a marked lateral extension at its apex ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2), whereas there is no such extension in P. brevistyla  (Figs. 18 and 19). Apex of the epiproct medially with a slight concave curvature in P. jurassica  (Figs. 4 and 5), whereas that of P. brevistyla  is nearly straight (Fig. 20; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 5o).

Protonemura jurassica  and P. lateralis  . In males and females, head below the ocelli light reddish brown, dark above, with a well-marked separation line in Protonemura lateralis  (Fig. 23), whereas the head is uniformly dark or red brown in P. jurassica  . Ventral vesicle on the hypoproct of P. jurassica  long and narrow, with nearly parallel edges (Fig. 3), whereas it is shorter and wider, apically with an outward bulge, in P. lateralis  ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24). Sclerotized base of median lobe large, with two branches, in P. jurassica  ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2), whereas this base is narrow in P. lateralis  (Fig. 26; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, Fig. 6f). Sclerotized part of outer lobe of the paraprocts of P. jurassica  with a marked lateral extension at its apex ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 and 2), whereas this extension is situated below the apex in P. lateralis  (Figs. 25 and 26; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 6f). Sclerotized stem arising from the base of the median lobe ciliated in P. jurassica  ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1, 2 and 3), whereas there is no ciliation on the stem of P. lateralis  (Figs. 25 and 26; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 6f). Apex of the epiproct medially with a slight concave curvature in P. jurassica  (Figs. 4 and 5), whereas the apex of the epiproct of P. lateralis  is narrow and acute (Fig. 25; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 6g). Ventral sclerite of epiproct of P. jurassica  with a nearly triangular-shaped projection (Figs. 4 and 5), whereas there is no such projection in P. lateralis  (Fig. 25).

Adult females. Protonemura jurassica  and P. brevistyla  . Paraprocts of medium-length and slightly pointed at apex in P. jurassica  (Fig. 7), whereas they are blunt and short in P. brevistyla  ( Fig. 21). Subgenital plate with a nearly rectilinear central posterior margin in P. jurassica  (Figs. 7 and 8), but it is regularly rounded in P. brevistyla  ( Fig. 21; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 5p). The two lobes of the subgenital plate are nearly parallel in P. jurassica  (Figs. 7 and 8), are diverging in P. brevistyla  ( Fig. 21).

Protonemura jurassica  and P. lateralis  . Lobes of the subgenital plate in P. jurassica  parallel with a small but deep median notch (Figs. 7 and 8), whereas they are oblique with a shallow and large median depression in P. lateralis  (Fig. 27). In P. jurassica  , the pregenital plate of sternite 7 with a small median sclerotized area (Figs. 7 and 8) whereas this area is much larger in P. lateralis  (Fig. 27). The paraprocts are characteristically pointed and angular in P. lateralis  (Fig. 27), but only slightly pointed in P. jurassica  (Fig. 7). Cervical gills short without apical constriction in P. lateralis  , whereas they are of medium length and with a slight apical constriction in P. jurassica  . Vaginal lobes large and well visible in P. jurassica  (Figs. 7 and 8), whereas they are small in P. lateralis  (Fig. 27; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 6h).

Female specimens of Protonemura jurassica  emerging early in spring might also be confused with P. praecox (Morton, 1894)  . The vaginal lobes of P. praecox  ( Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 4d) are much longer and more slender than those of P. jurassica  (Figs. 7 and 8). The subgenital plate of P. praecox  ( Vinçon & Ravizza 2005, fig. 4d) is also much smaller and narrower than that of P. jurassica  (Figs. 7 and 8).

Distribution and ecology. Protonemura jurassica  is restricted to karstic springs ( Figs. 28View FIGURE 28, 29View FIGURE 29 and 30View FIGURE 30) and their immediate vicinity in the Jura Mountains of France and Switzerland ( Fig. 31View FIGURE 31), between 333 m and 945 m. The flight period of P. jurassica  extends from spring to autumn. Adults of both sexes emerge from the end of March until the end of October with a pause during June. The life-cycle is similar to the seasonal univoltine wintersummer type of many Ephemeroptera  (Us –Uw, sensu Clifford 1982): one cohort of P. jurassica  overwinters as larvae and emerges early in spring, whereas the other cohort overwinters in the egg stage, to emerge later in summer and in autumn. In contrast, P. brevistyla  emerges at the end of summer and in autumn ( Aubert 1959; Vinçon & Ravizza 2005; Lubini et al. 2012b), and only very rarely in spring ( Aubert 1949: 353).

Etymology of Protonemura jurassica  . This species is named after the region in which it occurs, namely the Jura Mountains of France and Switzerland.

MZL

Musee Zoologique

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Plecoptera

Family

Nemouridae

Genus

Protonemura

Loc

Protonemura jurassica Reding, Bolard & Vinçon

Reding, Jean-Paul G., Bolard, Audrey & Vinçon, Gilles 2017
2017
Loc

Protonemura jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

Protonemura jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

P. jurassica

Reding, Bolard & Vincon 2017
2017
Loc

Protonemura brevistyla (

Ris 1902
1902
Loc

P. brevistyla

Ris 1902
1902
Loc

P. brevistyla

Ris 1902
1902
Loc

P. brevistyla

Ris 1902
1902
Loc

P. brevistyla

Ris 1902
1902
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

Protonemura lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836
Loc

P. lateralis

Pictet 1836
1836