Cryptoheros septemfasciatus (Regan, 1908)

Juan J. Schmitter-Soto, 2007, A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species., Zootaxa 1603, pp. 1-78: 41-42

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Cryptoheros septemfasciatus (Regan, 1908)


Cryptoheros septemfasciatus (Regan, 1908) 

Figures 5, 12

Cichlosoma septemfasciatum Regan, 1908  ZBK  : 461 (original description).

Archocentrus septemfasciatus  , Allgayer 1994: 15 ( new combination).

Cryptoheros septemfasciatus  , Allgayer 2001: 16 ( new combination).

Lectotype. Herein designated as BMNH 1909.3.13.82 (Fig. 12), C. F. Underwood. Rio Iroquois , Costa Rica. The specimen, 69 mm SL, is the second largest individual in the type series, inasmuch as the largest syntype is rather deformed. 

Paralectotypes. BMNH 1909.3.13.83-91 (17, 60-100 mm TL), collected with lectotype . 

Diagnosis. No unique autapomorphies, but the only species of Bussingius  with symphysial teeth conical rather than labiolingually compressed, and a caudal blotch both on fin and peduncle (vs. either exclusively on the fin or on the peduncle). Further distinguished by bars on sides of body only medially (not dorsally) more intense; anal creases 12-16, modally 14 (vs. 10-15, modally 11-13); and lower symphysial teeth bicuspidate, with a small lingual cusp (also in Cr. altoflavus  ZBK  ).

Description. D. XVII -XVIII,9-10 (one specimen of 20 with 8 rays); A. VIII -X,7-9. Gill rakers on lower part of first arch modally 6; gill rakers trapezoidal, sometimes bifid. Scales strongly ctenoid. Predorsal scales modally 13; pored lateral-line scales (not counting overlapping scales between the two segments of the lateral line) modally 27; scales from lateral line to base of first dorsal-fin ray 2 or fewer (one specimen of 20 with 2.5); circumpeduncular scales 16-17, occasionally 18 (additional meristic data appear in Table 3).

Largest specimen examined, 82 mm SL (maximum size 100 mm SL [Conkel 1993]). Body depth 42-56% of SL; head length, 30-36% of SL; orbital diameter 23-29% of head length (further morphometric data appear in Table 4). Head profile convex in young; in adults, profile is concave-straight above orbits, convex on nape. Teeth moderately embedded; conical, pointed, slightly labiolingually compressed. Upper symphysial teeth, slightly shorter than adjacent teeth; lower symphysial teeth may also be slightly lower than adjacent teeth. Upper lip medially narrow; lower lip square or rounded at corner, slightly tapering.

Pectoral fins always reaching caudad beyond 2nd anal-fin spine, and pelvic fins extending beyond 4th analfin spine. Filamentous rays of dorsal fin reaching distal quarter of caudal fin or beyond. Up to two lateral-line pored scales on caudal fin. Usually no subsidiary scales on caudal fin. Dorsal-fin interradial scale rows, not imbricated (i.e. with no supplementary scales), up to 5 scales long.

Gut simple in juveniles, acquiring a double medial-loop in adults. Peritoneum only dorsally pigmented, mainly anteriorly. Genital papilla with contours mostly parallel as seen from rostral face, or divergent, wider before tip; pigmented overall except on tip.

No vertical bar on head; no interorbital bands; suborbital streak parallel to body axis, diffuse, blunt-ended; no stripe from snout to eye, but snout somewhat dark; opercular spot indistinct or absent, but lower opercle darker in some specimens. Eyes dark, greenish or bluish. No longitudinal stripe. Bars on side of body with no dorsal intensifications; diffuse, except for the medial darkening; 1st bar diffuse, Y- or V-shaped (inversely triangular), inclined on head; on the 3rd and often on the last bar the medial intensification forming a distinct oval spot. Bars not extending onto dorsal fin. A dorsal blotch in females, starting on 8th or 9th spine, ending on 11th or 12th. Soft dorsal and anal fins immaculate; their bases darkened. About 12 rows of light spots on sides, smaller than scales, clearer on breast; breast, fins and throat yellowish-olive. Axil of pectoral fin either dusky or with same coloration as breast; base of pectoral fin whitish. Caudal blotch more on peduncle than on fin, occasionally entirely on peduncle; always ventrally pointed, its edge diffuse.

Distribution. Atlantic Costa Rica, Río Banano to Río San Juan, at the Nicaraguan border (Fig. 5).

Remarks. Regan (1908) considered this species to be “very close to C. spilurum  ”. Misidentifications are common; many museum specimens of the other species in the subgenus are determined as Cryptoheros septemfasciatus  , especially records from Panama (e.g. ANSP 156820, reidentified as Cr. altoflavus  ZBK  ) and southern Costa Rica (e.g. ANSP 168312, reidentified as Cr. myrnae  ).