Caracladus leberti ( Roewer, 1942 )

Frick, Holger & Muff, Patrick, 2009, Revision of the genus Caracladus with the description of Caracladus zamoniensis spec. nov. (Araneae, Linyphiidae, Erigoninae), Zootaxa 1982, pp. 1-37 : 13-16

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.185321

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4426008

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/FB3EE035-9711-FFD8-ECA9-2D02FC91FF56

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Caracladus leberti ( Roewer, 1942 )
status

 

Caracladus leberti ( Roewer, 1942)

( Figs 29–39 View FIGURES 29 – 36 View FIGURES 37 – 39 )

Erigone kochii Lebert, 1877: 195 , name preoccupied by O. P.-Cambridge, 1872.

Plaesiocraerus kochi, Simon 1884: 770 , figs 675–678.

Diplocephalus kochi, Lessert 1910: 152 , fig. 93.

Plaesiocraerus leberti, Roewer 1942: 696 , replacement name for Erigone kochii Lebert, 1877 .

Caracladus leberti, Thaler 1973: 45 , figs 10–18 (transferred from Plaesiocraerus = Diplocephalus ); Heimer and Nentwig 1991: 124, figs 351.1–351.5.

Type material. HOLOTYPE: Switzerland: Vaud: Lausanne, Cery , close to psychiatric clinic   GoogleMaps , ca. 600 m [46 ° 32 ' 50 '' N, 6 ° 36 ' 20 '' E], 2 ♂ xii, ( Lebert   GoogleMaps 1877). The whereabout of Lebert’s collection and consequently the type material is unknown to the authors .

Examined material. France: Rhône-Alpes: Haute-Savoie, Sallanches, Nant-Cruy, ca. 900 m [45 ° 55 ' 10 '' N, 6 ° 37 ' 10 '' E], 5 ♀ 06.vii. 1952, leg. A. Comellini ( MHNG) (Comellini unpubl.). Liechtenstein: Unterland: Bendern, Brunnaböchl, stone pit, 460 m [47 ° 11 ' 21.39 '' N, 9 ° 32 ' 24.66 '' E], 1 ♀ 24.vii. 2008, west exposed slope with beech and ash on debris, in leaf litter with moss, leg., det. and coll. H. Frick ( SP _0436). Switzerland: Basel: Reichenstein, ca. 450 m [47 ° 29 ' 48 '' N, 7 ° 37 ' 44 '' E], x., leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 a) ( Schenkel 1918); Oberdorf, Wintenberg, ca. 650 m [47 ° 23 ' 20 '' N, 7 ° 44 ' 40 '' E], 10 % 14 & x., leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 a) ( Schenkel 1923); close to Dornach, Ingelstein, ca. 550 m [47 ° 28 ' 22 '' N, 7 ° 38 ' 16 '' E], x., leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 a) ( Schenkel 1918); Eggfluhberg southern slope, ca. 500 m [47 ° 26 ' 50 '' N, 7 ° 35 '0'' E], xi, leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 a) ( Schenkel 1923); Huzmannsfluh and Falkenfluh, ca. 600 m [47 ° 26 ' 30 '' N, 7 ° 36 ' 50 '' E], x./xii, leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 a) ( Schenkel 1923). Val a is: Fiesch, Binneggen, 1300 m [46 ° 23 '07'' N, 8 °08' 13 ''E], 7 ♀ 22.vii. 1925, leg. E. Schenkel ( NMB 1601 b) (Schenkel unpubl.).

Unexamined literature records and unpublished records. Austria: Tyrol: Innsbruck, Igls, Grünwalderhof, ca. 1000 m [47 ° 12 ' 42 '' N, 11 ° 25 '01'' E], 1 ♀ 17.vi. 1970, spruce forest, rocky moss, leg. and coll. K. Thaler (Thaler 1973). Innsbruck, Lanser Kopf, ca. 880 m [47 ° 14 ' 50 '' N, 11 ° 25 ' 10 '' E], 4 ♀ 17.iv. 1963 – 07.v.1964, 1♀ 01.iv.1962, 1♀ 08.iv. 1962, leg. and coll. K. Thaler (Thaler 1973). Vorarlberg: Göfis, Spiegelstein, 650–700 m [47 ° 13 ' 53 '' N, 9 ° 38 ' 10 '' E], 2 ♂ 1 ♀ 26.x. 1990 – 08.xi. 1991, leg. and coll. W. Breuss (Breuss 1994); Möggers, Ramsach, 870 m [47 ° 33 ' 49 '' N, 9 ° 47 ' 42 '' E], 06.viii. 1987 – 12.viii. 1988, spruce-fir forest ( Steinberger & Meyer 1993); Nenzing, Trinahalda, 870 m [47 ° 11 ' 10 '' N, 9 ° 42 ' 10 '' E], 06.viii. 1987 – 12.viii. 1988, spruce-fir-beech forest with rough blocks of debris ( Steinberger & Meyer 1993).

France: Alpes Maritimes: Saint-Martin-Lantosque, Saint-Martin-Vésubie, Venançon, ca. 1000 m [44 °03' 10 '' N, 7 ° 15 ' 10 '' E], in moss of spruce forests ( Simon, 1884). Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: Hautes-Alpes ( Simon 1914). Rhône-Alpes: Haute-Savoie, Chamonix, path from la Joux to Argentière (small south exposed balcony) [45 ° 58 ' 50 '' N, 6 ° 55 ' 30 '' E], 1 % 02.ix. 1995, spruce forest, in soil, coll. J.-C. Ledoux (Ledoux unpubl.); Isère, Massiv de la Chartreuse, le Sappey, le Bourg-d'Oisans, ca. 750 m [45 °03' 10 '' N, 6 °01' 50 '' E], in moss of spruce forests ( Simon 1884). Italy: Trentino: Bruneck, Amaten, ca. 1000 m [46 ° 48 ' 50 '' N, 11 ° 57 ' 40 '' E], 1 % 23.iii. 1962, leg. and coll. K. Thaler (Thaler 1973); Burgstall, ca. 440 m [46 ° 36 ' 40.44 '' N, 11 ° 11 ' 49.96 '' E], 1 % 01.ii.–09.iii. 2007, on sweet cherry in SW-exposed pubescent oak forest, leg. S. Ballini (Ballini unpubl.); Lana, ca. 550 m [46 ° 36 ' 26.93 '' N, 11 °07' 24.5 '' E], 2 ♂ 07.xii. 2006 – 29.i. 2007, sweet chestnut forest, leg. S. Ballini (Ballini unpubl.). Switzerland: Basel: Pfeffingen, ca. 400 m [47 ° 27 ' 33 '' N, 7 ° 35 ' 25 '' E], ( Schenkel 1918). Geneva: Geneva, ca. 400 m [46 ° 12 ' N, 6 °08' E], ( Cambridge 1912). Ticino: Val Vergeletto (valley of V.) [no coordinates available for distribution map], leg. P. Pronini (Pronini unpubl.; Maurer & Hänggi 1990). Valais: Col de la Forclaz, Northern slope, 1100 m [46 °04' 50 '' N, 6 ° 59 ' 30 '' E], 8 ♂ 16 ♀ ix. 1983, Norway spruce forest edge in mossy litter ( Müller 1985); Lavigny, ca. 500 m [46 ° 30 ' 4 '' N, 6 ° 24 ' 14 '' E], v., x., xi., ( Lessert 1904); St-Livres, 600 m [46 ° 30 ' 34 '' N, 6 ° 22 ' 58 '' E], xii, forest ( Lessert 1907).

Diagnosis. Males: Characteristic male cephalic lobe ( Thaler 1973) with a small upwards and forwards facing bump between the PME ( Figs 33–35 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ). Thaler (1973) noted that the tegulum, suprategular apophysis, embolic division, vulva and chaetotaxy are similar to C. avicula . However, the embolus is rather robust and straight in C. leberti ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ) whereas it is thin and whip-like in C. avicula ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 17 – 24 ). Its tailpiece is much shorter than in C. avicula and the marginal suprategular apophysis can clearly be seen ( Figs 29, 30 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ).

Females: The dorsal plate of the epigyne is nearly triangular ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 37 – 39 ) and has a small copulatory opening compared to C. avicula ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 25 – 28 ). The form of the copulatory pouches are barely visible in ventral view and the copulatory duct is much more robust in C. leberti ( Fig 39 View FIGURES 37 – 39 ) than in C. avicula ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 25 – 28 ).

Description. Male ( NMB 1601 a): Total length: 1.62 mm. Cephalothorax: honey brown (138 U); broadly oval; 0.83 mm long without cephalic lobe, 0.85 mm long with cephalic lobe ( Fig. 35 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ); 0.62 mm wide. Cephalic lobe: frontally steeply declining, rounded protuberance between and lateral to the PME ( Thaler 1973), lobe at PME 0.23 mm wide dorsally; fine, short pubescence with some long hairs; broad lateral sulci ( Thaler 1973). Eyes: PME upmost on the cephalic lobe ( Fig. 34 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ); AME projecting forward; long, upwards facing hairs between AME ( Fig. 35 View FIGURES 29 – 36 ). Clypeus: directed obliquely backwards. Sternum: very fine brown (469 U) pigmentation on yellow (124 U) ground, dark brown (469 U) on the margins; 0.50 mm long; 0.46 mm wide. Chelicerae: honey brown (138 U); fine and dense stridulatory striae. Legs: yellow (122 U); tibia III–IV with one dorsal proximal macroseta (0- 0-1 - 1), 1.1–1.3 times longer than diameter of tibia; Tm I: 0.57. Pedipalp: patella three times longer than wide; tibial apophysis directing distally with retrolaterally curved tip; paracymbium simple; tegulum with short and long protegular papillae on protegulum; suprategular apophysis with marginal suprategular apophysis and pointed distal suprategular apophysis; embolic membrane slender without papillae; radix simple without any processes other than the short radical tailpiece and a strongly sclerotised embolus. Abdomen: light brown (125 U); booklung covers yellow (122 U), scaly.

Female ( NMB 1601 a): Total length: 1.51 mm. Cephalothorax: honey brown (138 U); 0.77 mm long, 0.57 mm wide. Eyes: posterior eyes separated by their diameter. Sternum: very fine brown (469 U) pigmentation on yellow (124 U) ground, dark brown (469 U) on the margins, 0.49 mm long, 0.45 mm wide; coxa separated by their diameter. Chelicerae: honey brown (138 U); promargin with six big teeth; retromargin with five to six denticles; stridulatory striae fine and dense. Legs: yellow (122 U); formula 4 - 1-2 - 3; tibia I–IV with one dorsal proximal macroseta (1 - 1 - 1 - 1); Tm I: 0.48. Epigyne: copulatory opening at anterior end of trapezoid dorsal plate ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 37 – 39 ). Vulva: receptacula globular, incoming dorsally; copulatory duct faces forward/laterad, then aborad and finally mediad/aborad where they are stronger sclerotised ( Figs 38, 39 View FIGURES 37 – 39 ; Thaler 1973). Abdomen: light brown (125 U).

Variation. The measurements are based on alcohol material from NMB (1601 a: 5 ♂ 5 ♀).

Males (n= 5, means in brackets): The coloration is variable. E.g. Thaler (1973) describes the abdomen as blackish and the legs as brownish whereas our specimens were much brighter presumably due to the long storage in alcohol. Total length 1.55–1.68 mm (1.61 mm). Cephalothorax: 0.81–0.85 mm (0.83 mm) long without cephalic lobe, 0.84–0.89 mm (0.86 mm) long with cephalic lobe; 0.62–0.69 mm (0.65 mm) wide. Cephalic lobe: at PME 0.22–0.24 mm (0.23 mm) wide dorsally. Legs: Tm I: 0.56–0.59 mm (0.58 mm).

Females (n= 5, means in brackets): The colorations are variable. Total length 1.34–1.79 mm (1.59 mm). Cephalothorax: 0.72–0.81 mm (0.76 mm) long; 0.55–0.62 mm (0.59 mm) wide. Legs: Tm I: 0.48–0.66 mm (0.57 mm).

Distribution. Several records along the Northern Alpine Arch from the foreland of the Alps up to alpine valleys in the Western and Central Alps ( Fig. 59 View FIGURE 59 ). Occasional records also in the Southern Alps.

Habitat. Altitudes between 650 m ( Breuss 1994) and 1100 m ( Müller 1985), unpublished records from 440 m (Ballini pers. comm. and Frick) to 1300 m (Schenkel, specimen from NMB). Occurs in moss and litter of light spruce and pine forests ( Simon 1884; Thaler 1973; Maurer & Hänggi 1990). Ballini (unpubl.) also found specimens in tree eclectors in an oak, Quercus pubescens and a sweet chestnut, Castanea sativa , forest in the Southern Alps.

Phenology. Adult specimens were found throughout the year. However, they seem to be winter active ( Thaler 1973) with a peak between September and April (e.g. Thaler 1973; Müller 1985).

Remarks. The close relationship of C. leberti with the other species of Caracladus is highly supported by the cladistic analysis on species level ( Fig. 63 View FIGURE 63 ), although males of C. leberti do not have the typical cephalic lobe with thick hairs anterior to the PME. Thaler (1973) correctly placed this species to Caracladus according to the close resemblance of the male and female genitals.

MHNG

Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

NMB

Zimbabwe, Bulawayo, Natural History Museum of Zimbabwe

AME

USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Linyphiidae

Genus

Caracladus

Loc

Caracladus leberti ( Roewer, 1942 )

Frick, Holger & Muff, Patrick 2009
2009
Loc

Caracladus leberti

Heimer 1991: 124
Thaler 1973: 45
1973
Loc

Plaesiocraerus leberti

Roewer 1942: 696
1942
Loc

Diplocephalus kochi

Lessert 1910: 152
1910
Loc

Plaesiocraerus kochi

Simon 1884: 770
1884
Loc

Erigone kochii

Lebert 1877: 195
1877