Wilson J. E. M. Costa, 2007, Taxonomic revision of the seasonal South American killifish genus Simpsonichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)., Zootaxa 1669, pp. 1-134: 130-132
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Simpsonichthys brunoi ZBK Costa, 2003: 55 ( type locality: temporary pool near the city of Vila Boa, ribeirao Canabrava floodplains, upper rio Urucuia drainage, rio Sao Francisco basin [correctly upper rio Parana drainage, rio Sao Francisco basin] 15°03’0.4”S 47°04’3.3”W; altitude 449 m, Estado de Goiás, Brazil; holotype: MCP 28576GoogleMaps ).
Brazil: Estado de Goiás, rio Tocantins drainage, rio Amazonas basin: MCP 28576, holotype, male, 29.1 mm SL; MCP 28577, 7 paratypes; UFRJ 5414, 17 paratypes; UFRJ 5413, 15 paratypes; UFRJ 5412, 8 paratypes; temporary pool near the city of Vila Boa, ribeirao Canabrava floodplains , 15°03’0.4”S 47°04’3.3”W; altitude 449 m; W. J. E. M. Costa, C. P. Bove & B. B. Costa, 25 Jan. 2002.GoogleMaps
Similar to S. flammeus and distinguished from remaining species of the S. flammeus group by having iridescent blue bars on the flanks in females (vs. blue bars absent); similar to S. flammeus and differing from all other cynolebiatins by having filamentous rays along the entire distal border of the dorsal and anal fins in males (vs. filamentous rays when present restricted to the tip of the fin); differs from S. flammeus in having fewer dorsal-fin rays in males (18-20, vs. 20-23), and a consequently shorter dorsal-fin base (34.7-38.5, vs. 39.2-42.6% SL, in adult males with 25.0-30.0 mm SL), slender body (body depth 36.1-37.5, vs. 38.9-40.3% SL, in adult males with 25.0-30.0 mm SL), melanophores concentrated on anterior portion of dorsal fin in males, forming a dark gray zone (vs. absence of dark zones on dorsal fin), and the entire opercular and dorsolateral regions of head metallic greenish blue (vs. opercular region bright blue, dorsolateral region of the head red, with blue spots on the center of scales).
Morphometric data appear in Table 7. Largest specimen examined 30.1 mm SL. Dorsal profile concave on head, convex from nape to end of dorsal-fin base, nearly straight on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile convex from lower jaw to end of anal-fin base, approximately straight on caudal peduncle. Body moderately deep, compressed, greatest body depth at level of pelvic-fin base. Eye positioned on dorsolateral portion of side of head. Snout blunt. Urogenital papilla cylindrical and short in males, pocket-shaped in females.
Tip of dorsal and anal fins gently pointed in males, rounded in females; median anal-fin rays long in females, anal fin spatula-shaped. Entire distal border of dorsal and anal fins with long filamentous rays in males, tips of longest rays reaching beyond posterior border of caudal fin. Caudal fin subtruncate in males, round in females. Pectoral fins elliptical. Posterior margin of pectoral fins reaching vertical through base of 5th anal-fin ray in males, and reaching urogenital papilla in females. Tip of each pelvic fin reaching base of 3rd anal-fin ray in males and reaching urogenital papilla in females. Pelvic-fin bases medially in close proximity. Dorsal-fin origin at vertical through urogenital papilla or base of 1st anal-fin ray. Dorsal-fin origin between neural spines of vertebrae 7 and 9 in males, and neural spines of vertebrae 10 and 11 in females. Anal-fin origin between pleural ribs of vertebrae 6 and 8 in males, and pleural ribs of vertebrae 7 and 9 in females. Dorsalfin rays 18-20 in males, 15-17 in females; anal-fin rays 20-22 in males, 18-21 in females; caudal-fin rays 24-25; pectoral-fin rays 13-14; pelvic-fin rays 6.
Frontal squamation usually E-patterned, rarely F-patterned; E-scales overlapping medially; no row of scales anterior to H-scale; two small supraorbital scales. Longitudinal series of scales 26-27; transverse series of scales 10; scale rows around caudal peduncle 12. Contact organ on each scale of ventral portion of lateral surface of body in males. Small papillate contact organs on inner surface of three dorsalmost rays of pectoral fin in males.
Cephalic neuromasts: supraorbital 14-17, parietal 4, anterior rostral 1, posterior rostral 1, infraorbital 2 + 23-25, preorbital 4, otic 2, post-otic 3, supratemporal 1, median opercular 1, ventral opercular 2, preopercular 21-22, mandibular 12-14, lateral mandibular 4-5, paramandibular 1. One to three neuromasts on each scale of lateral line. Two neuromasts on caudal-fin base.
Basihyal subtriangular, width about 45% of length; basihyal cartilage about 30% of total length of basihyal. Six branchiostegal rays. Second pharyngobranchial teeth 3. Gill-rakers on first branchial arch 3 + 12. Vomerine teeth absent. Dermosphenotic absent. Ventral process of posttemporal long. Total vertebrae 27- 28.
Males. Side of body metallic greenish blue, with 11-13 pale reddish brown bars. Venter pale orange. Posterolateral portion of head pale golden, with bright greenish blue spot on center of each scale. Opercular region metallic greenish blue. Iris light yellow, with dark brown bar. Dorsal fin light blue, with 6-8 brownish red bars, anterior bars parallel to fin rays, posterior bars crossing fin rays; anterior portion of dorsal fin dark gray; filaments black. Anal fin light blue, with 5-6 brownish red bars; filaments black. Caudal fin light blue, with 4-5 faint brownish red bars and bright blue distal border. Pectoral fins hyaline. Pelvic fins blue.
Females. Sides of body pale brownish gray, with faint gray bars; anterocentral portion of flank with one to three black spots, alternating with vertically elongate metallic blue spots. Venter pale golden. Opercular region pale blue. Iris light yellow, with gray bar. Unpaired fins hyaline, with faint spots; small, iridescent blue spot on posterior portion of anal fin close to caudal peduncle. Paired fins hyaline.
Ribeirão Canabrava floodplains, rio Paranã drainage, upper rio Tocantins basin, Estado de Goiás, central Brazil (Fig. 4).
Temporary pools in the Cerrado.
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