Cryptoheros spilurus ( Guenther , 1862)

Juan J. Schmitter-Soto, 2007, A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species., Zootaxa 1603, pp. 1-78: 35-37

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Cryptoheros spilurus ( Guenther , 1862)


Cryptoheros spilurus ( Guenther, 1862) 

Figures 5, 7-8

Heros spilurus Guenther, 1862  ZBK  : 289 (original description).

Cichlasoma spilurum  , Jordan & Evermann 1898: 1520 ( new combination).

Cichlasoma (Archocentrus) spilurum  , Pellegrin 1904: 167 ( new combination).

Cichlosoma spilurum  , Regan 1905: 75 (unjustified emendation).

Archocentrus spilurus  , Allgayer 1994: 15 ( new combination).

Cryptoheros spilurus  , Allgayer 2001: 14 ( new combination).

Cichlasoma spinosissimum var. immaculata Pellegrin  ZBK  , 1904: 189 (junior synonym).

Cichlosoma immaculatum  , Regan 1905: 77 ( new status).

Lectotype. Herein designated as BMNH 1864.1.26.52, O. Salvin. Specimen 63 mm SL from the syntypic series (Fig. 7). Lake “Isabel” (=Izabal) , Guatemala. 

Paralectotypes. BMNH 1864.1.26.53-55 (2), collected with lectotype . 

Diagnosis. Autapomorphy (Schmitter-Soto, in press): first bar on side of body, Y-shaped or at least dorsally expanded, usually well-marked, arms continuous, rostral arm not strongly curved forward (see Günther 1867, plate 73, fig. 1). (Not to be confused with Y-shaped first bar of Amatitlania  spp., in which rostral arm not curved and caudal arm usually discontinuous.)

Description. D. XVII -XIX,9-11 (one specimen of 66 with 20 spines); A. VIII -X,7-9 (one specimen of 66 with 7 spines). Gill rakers on lower limb of first arch modally 6. Scale rows on cheek 4-6; scales from lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 4.5-5.5; scales from lateral line to base of first dorsal-fin ray 2-2.5, sporadically3; circumpeduncular scales modally 17 (additional meristic data appear in Table 3).

Largest examined specimen 80 mm SL. Body deeper than other Cryptoheros  ZBK  (52-56% of SL); head length 32-37% of SL; orbital diameter 28-32% of head length (further morphometric data appear in Table 4). Head profile convex, straight, or concave. Teeth not embedded; pointed or bluntish, slightly labiolingually compressed and retrorse, bicuspid (i.e. with a strong lingual cusp), occasionally incisor-like. Upper and lower symphysial teeth subequal to adjacent teeth, not abruptly larger. Lips not medially narrow; lower lip squarish or rounded at corner, its lower angle acute.

Pectoral and pelvic fins always reaching caudad beyond 3rd anal-fin spine. Filamentous rays of dorsal fin extending to distal third of caudal fin or beyond. One or two lateral-line pored scales on caudal fin; subsidiary pores always present, occasionally forming two-scale rows. Scales between dorsal and anal fin rays distally in two rows, up to 16 scales long.

Genital papilla oval, with pigment on margins and basal half, rarely also on tip.

A faint vertical bar on head, starting behind orbits; no interorbital bands; a stripe from snout to eye; no opercular spots. Eyes golden-green. No longitudinal stripe, but said to have a blue streak in life. Second bar on side of body weaker dorsally; bar intensities otherwise not varying; 1st bar Y-shaped (see Diagnosis); 3rd to 7th bars may extend onto base of dorsal fin. An ocellus sporadically present on spinous dorsal fin of females. Soft dorsal and anal fins usually immaculate; sometimes with light dots discernible at bases. About 12-13 rows of light spots on sides, smaller than scales; breast region coppery, yellow-orange, or pink-red. Axil of pectoral fin somewhat darker, base of pectoral fin either white or same coloration as breast. Caudal blotch two-thirds or more on peduncle, one third or less on caudal fin; the blotch crosses the lateral line, and usually forms a saddle, i.e., blotch continuous across the dorsal part of the caudal peduncle but not across the ventral part.

Distribution. Endemic to rivers flowing into Lake Izabal, Guatemala (Fig. 5).

Remarks. Although earlier references (e.g., Schmitter-Soto 1998) have included this species in the Mexican fauna, Kullander (2003) correctly considered the species not to be present in Mexico. Alleged records from that country are based on Cr. chetumalensis  (see below). Costa Rican and Panamanian specimens originally identified as “ Cichlasoma spilurum  ” at UMMZ (190367 and 147222) are Cr. septemfasciatus  and Cr. altoflavus  ZBK  , respectively. The Nicaraguan records mentioned by Allgayer (2001) and Kullander (2003) might be Cr. cutteri  (see below), but I was unable to locate any specimen of the subgenus Cryptoheros  ZBK  from Nicaragua.

Cichlasoma immaculatum  , originally described as a “variety” of C. spinosissimum  ZBK  by Pellegrin (1904; see above) is actually a junior synonym of Cr. spilurus  . The two syntypes (MNHN 9846, Fig. 8), although decolored and partly descaled, are readily identifiable as Cr. spilurus  based on meristic (e.g., A. IX, not A. XI; scales between lateral line and first dorsal fin spine 4.5, not 5-6) and morphological grounds (e.g., the triple coronal pore characteristic of Cryptoheros  ZBK  ).

Cr. cutteri  is removed from the synonymy of Cr. spilurus  (see below).