Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924),

Sirin, Uemit Davut, Caliskan, Hakan & Sahin, Yalcin, 2015, Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey, Biodiversity Data Journal 3, pp. 4834-4834: 4834

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.3.e4834

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/EE7B8FC9-A429-53CF-16D2-15622ACE0E23

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Biodiversity Data Journal by Pensoft

scientific name

Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924)
status

 

Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924) 

Materials

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 14 pupae, 7 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Saray; locationRemarks: 25; verbatimLatitude: 41°33'36.45"N; verbatimLongitude: 28°3'50.97"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 159; Event: eventDate: 05/24/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 male pharate adult; lifeStage: 5 pupae, 9 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Merkez; locationRemarks: 58; verbatimLatitude: 41°46'33.77"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°40'36.82"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 160; Event: eventDate: 05/29/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 3 males pharate adult; lifeStage: 8 pupae, 11 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Merkez; locationRemarks: 61; verbatimLatitude: 41°43'25.74"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°33'38.19"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 161; Event: eventDate: 05/30/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 male; lifeStage: 6 pupae, 6 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Hatipköy; locationRemarks: 63; verbatimLatitude: 41°48'14.99"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°33'13.31"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 162; Event: eventDate: 05/30/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 female pharate adult; lifeStage: 4 pupae, 6 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Karaağaç; locationRemarks: 64; verbatimLatitude: 41°40'13.71"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°31'20.94"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 163; Event: eventDate: 05/31/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 5 pupae, 9 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Keşan; locationRemarks: 70; verbatimLatitude: 41°5'0.44"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°32'11.32"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 164; Event: eventDate: 06/01/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 3 pupae, 5 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Edirne; county: Keşan; locationRemarks: 75; verbatimLatitude: 40°46'5.97"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°30'42.72"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 165; Event: eventDate: 06/02/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 female pharate adult; lifeStage: 2 pupae / 2 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Şarköy; locationRemarks: 83; verbatimLatitude: 40°46'21.52"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°3'32.09"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 166; Event: eventDate: 04.06.2002 / 05.07.2003GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 male pharate adult; lifeStage: 1 pupa, 2 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Çanakkale; county: Gelibolu; locationRemarks: 90; verbatimLatitude: 40°26'2.76"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°33'22.85"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 167; Event: eventDate: 06/05/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 3 pupae, 9 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Malkara; locationRemarks: 93; verbatimLatitude: 40°56'45.42"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°53'8.36"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 168; Event: eventDate: 06/06/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 8 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Malkara; locationRemarks: 97; verbatimLatitude: 41°0'48.93"N; verbatimLongitude: 26°56'39.41"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 169; Event: eventDate: 06/06/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 8 pupae, 4 larvae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Hayrabolu; locationRemarks: 100; verbatimLatitude: 41°11'28.14"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°12'29.08"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 170; Event: eventDate: 06/06/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: sex: 1 male pharate adult; lifeStage: 3 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Kırklareli; county: Babaeski; locationRemarks: 103; verbatimLatitude: 41°27'8.31"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°2'44.09"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 171; Event: eventDate: 06/07/2002GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 2 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Kırklareli; county: Merkez; locationRemarks: 124; verbatimLatitude: 41°42'38.22"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°15'46.64"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 172; Event: eventDate: 07/08/2003GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 2 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Çorlu; locationRemarks: 130; verbatimLatitude: 41°12'41.18"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°57'15.98"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 173; Event: eventDate: 05/24/2006GoogleMaps 

Type status: Other material. Occurrence: lifeStage: 5 pupae; Taxon: scientificName: Simulium (Wilhelmia) balcanicum (Enderlein, 1924); kingdom: Animalia; phylum: Arthropoda; class: Insecta; order: Diptera; family: Simuliidae; genus: Simulium; subgenus: Wilhelmia; scientificNameAuthorship: (Enderlein, 1924); Location: continent: Europe; country: Turkey; stateProvince: Tekirdağ; county: Çorlu; locationRemarks: 131; verbatimLatitude: 41°8'45.21"N; verbatimLongitude: 27°38'53.92"E; Identification: identificationID: esoguent-th-ıd- 174; Event: eventDate: 05/24/2006GoogleMaps 

Notes

Simulium balcanicum  was reported from four big river basins, Büyük Menderes, Yeşilırmak, Kızılırmak and Sakarya, in Anatolia according to the checklist of Turkish black flies ( Kazancı and Ertunç 2008). Crosskey and Zwick (2007) stated that it is widespread in western Anatolia. Şirin et al. (2014) recorded this species eleven different streams in East Marmara Region. Additionally, S. balcanicum  occurs in the adjacent western countries of Turkey, such as Bulgaria, Greece and Romania. Simulium balcanicum  is similar to S. lineatum  . The diagnostic character separating the two nominal species is in the pupal gill: in S. lineatum  all six inner gill tubes arise independently from the gill base, whereas in S. balcanicum  the posterior pair of inner gill tubes arises in the form of a fork with a common stem ( Crosskey and Zwick 2007). All of our pupae and mature larvae have the balcanicum type of gills. Crosskey and Zwick (2007) doubted that S. lineatum  and S. balcanicum  are separate species. Because of similarity in the terminalia, the authors predicted that S. balcanicum  is not a distinct species, and that the name probably should be synonymized with S. lineatum  . They suggested, however, that chromosomal data for both nominal species need to be considered before establishing synonymy. Adler et al. (2012) analyzed the polytene chromosomes of these species in the Kızılırmak River and other sites in Europe and revealed that S. lineatum  and S. balcanicum  are distinct, reproductively isolated species. They stated that chromosomally, these two species have fixed-inversion differences and unique autosomal polymorphisms.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Simuliidae

Genus

Simulium