Ixodes angustus Neumann

Reeves, Will K., Durden, Lance A., Ritzi, Christopher M., Beckham, Katy R., Super, Paul E & Oconnor, Barry M., 2007, Ectoparasites and other ectosymbiotic arthropods of vertebrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, Zootaxa 1392, pp. 31-68: 50-51

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.273680

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1BA23B6E-F96B-495C-B0C5-0AC99413D0C3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E5278780-FFFE-FFDD-FF3B-5CBBFE3FF91A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Ixodes angustus Neumann
status

 

Ixodes angustus Neumann 

Ex Blarina brevicauda  (northern short­tailed shrew): 2 F, TN, Sevier Co., Chimneys Picnic Area, 19 May 1951, R. Traub & D. Pfitzer, RML 30234View Materials; 2 L, TN, Sevier Co., Chimneys Picnic Area, 4 Oct. 1953, P. T. Johnson & M. L. Morrow, RML 118622; 2 L, GSMNP, 5 Oct. 1953, P. T. Johnson, M. L. Morrow & G. Rust, RML 66123View Materials; 2 L, TN, Sevier Co., Goshen Prong, K. Walters, Nov. 2001, L­ 2984.

Ex Myodes gapperi  (northern red­backed vole): GSMNP (Linzey & Linzey 1968); 1 N, 1 L, NC, Swain Co., Indian Gap, 31 May 2001, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2974; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Heath Bald on the Chimney Tops Trail, 3 Jun. 2001, E. B. Pivorun; 4 N, TN, Sevier Co., Brushy Mount, 9 Apr. 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2993; 1 F, 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., near Chimney Tops Trail, 12 May 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2971.

Ex Parascalops breweri  (hairy­tailed mole): 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Goshen Prong, 16 Nov. 2001, K. Walters, L­ 2980.

Ex Peromyscus leucopus  (white­footed mouse): 1 F, 2 N, NC, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 21 Apr. 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2978.

Ex Peromyscus maniculatus  (deer mouse): 1 F, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob, 9 Apr. 2002, E. B. Pivorun; 1 F, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob, 19 Apr. 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2968; 1 N, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob, 20 Apr. 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2969; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Chimney Tops Trail, 12 May 2002, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2926; 1 F, TN, Cocke Co., Snake Den Ridge, 24 Aug. 2002, K. Walters, L­ 2997; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Heath Bald, 15 Jul. 2001, E. B. Pivorun; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Chimney Tops Trail, 15 Jul. 2001, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2970.

Ex Sorex cinereus  (masked shrew): 2 L, NC, Swain Co., Indian Gap, 12 May 2002, K. Walters, L­ 2982.

Ex Synaptomys cooperi  (southern bog lemming): 1 L, NC, Swain Co., Andrew’s Bald, 9 Sep. 2002, K. Walters, L­ 2989; 1 F, TN, Sevier Co., Greenbrier, 4 Apr. 1931, R. L. Boke.

This is a commonly collected tick in the Park that primarily parasitizes small mammals in moist or montane habitats (Robbins & Keirans 1992). All of the southern U.S. records are from higher elevations in the Appalachians. This tick might be an enzootic vector of Borrelia burgdorferi  , the Lyme disease agent (Durden & Keirans 1996).

Ixodes brunneus Koch 

Ex Melospiza melodia  (song sparrow): 1 F, NC, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 19 Apr. 2004, P. Super.

This tick is exclusively a parasite of birds. This is the first record for the park. Goddard et al. (2003) reported evidence of both Rickettsia  and ehrlichiae from I. brunneus  .

Ixodes cookei Packard 

Ex Canis lupus  (domestic dog): 2 F, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob, W. K. Reeves, 31 Jul. 2003, L­ 3089.

Ex Canis rufus  (red wolf—introduced): 2 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 25 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller, RML 122539;

Ex Marmota monax  (woodchuck): 1 L, NC, Swain Co., Smokemont, 22 Aug. 2002, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2988.

Ex Procyon lotor  (raccoon): 3 F, TN, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 1979, V. Major & A. Rabinowitz, RML 64584View Materials; TN, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 1979­1980 (Rabinowitz et al. 1983); 1 N, GSMNP, 28 Sep. 1986, R. Thompson, RML 119896; 2 F, 8 N, 1 L, GSMNP, 26 Feb. 1987, R. Thompson, RML 119898; 3 N, GSMNP, 4 Sep. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119894; 1 N, 1 L, GSMNP, 4 Sep. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119895; 3 N, GSMNP, date not given, R. Thompson, RML 119899.

This tick mainly parasitizes carnivores such as raccoons, foxes, and mustelids across North America (Bishopp & Trembley 1945, Durden & Keirans 1996). Ixodes cookei  is a vector of Powassan encephalitis virus in the northeastern US (Main et al. 1979), but the vector potential of this tick and status of the virus in the GSMNP has not been studied.

Ixodes dentatus Marx 

Ex Zonotrichia albicollis  (white throated sparrow): 1 L, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Knob, 28 Oct. 2006, P.

Super, L­ 3371.

Ixodes dentatus  is primarily known as a rabbit tick but the larvae feed on birds and other small mammals. Ixodes dentatus  has been associated with Borrelia burgdorferi  the agent of Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum  an agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Babesia divergens  the agent of European redwater (Anderson et al. 1996, Goethert & Telford 2003 a,b).

Ixodes marxi Banks 

Ex Glaucomys volans  (southern flying squirrel): 6 L, TN, Sevier Co., Trillium Gap, 9 Apr. 2002, K. Walters, L­ 2936.

Ex Tamiasciurus hudsonicus  (red squirrel): 2 F, NC, Swain Co., Ravensford, 4 Jul. 2002, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2925.

This tick parasitizes sciurid rodents in eastern North America (Bishopp & Trembley 1945, Durden & Keirans 1996). There are few records from the southern United States and the above records represent the first ones for Tennessee and the Park.

Ixodes scapularis  Say—blacklegged tick

Ex Terrapene carolina  (eastern box turtle): 1 N, NC, Swain Co., 20 Mile Creek Ranger Stn., 15 Aug. 2002, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2942.

The blacklegged tick is widespread in eastern North America (Strickland et al. 1976, Dennis et al. 1998). It is not common at high elevations which might explain the apparent rarity in the Park. Immature stages of this tick typically feed on reptiles (mainly lizards), birds, and small mammals, whereas adults feed on larger mammals such as white­tailed deer, raccoons, humans, and feral hogs (Durden & Oliver 1999, Durden et al. 2002). All stages can also feed on humans and this tick is the principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi  the agent of Lyme disease, Anaplasma phagocytophilum  an agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Babesia  spp. in many parts of eastern North America (Durden & Keirans 1996). The collection of a nymph from a box turtle represents the first record of I. scapularis  from this host. This tick has not been reported from white­tailed deer in the Park but adults should be present in the cooler months. Ixodes texanus  Banks—raccoon tick

Ex Procyon lotor  (raccoon): TN, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 1979­1980 (Rabinowitz et al. 1983); 1 F, GSMNP, 18 Aug. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119897.

This tick parasitizes carnivores, especially the raccoon, across North America (Durden & Keirans 1996). Rickettsia rickettsii  , the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, has been isolated from I. texanus (Anderson et al. 1986)  .

Ixodes  sp.

Ex Didelphis virginiana  (opossum): LL, GSMNP (Komarek & Komarek 1938).

Ex Mephitis mephitis  (striped skunk): GSMNP (Komarek & Komarek 1938).

Ex Microtus chrotorrhinus  (rock vole): GSMNP (Linzey & Linzey 1968).

Ex Neotoma magister  (Allegheny woodrat): 1 N, TN, Blount Co., the Sinks, 21 May 1951, R. Traub & D. W. Pfitzer, RML 31648View Materials (specimen not in vial—if located, it could be identified to species).

Ex Procyon lotor  (raccoon): GSMNP (Komarek & Komarek 1938).

These ticks were not identified beyond genus in the various reports cited above so no more can be stated about these records.

GSMNP

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Ixodida

Family

Ixodidae

Genus

Ixodes