Amblyomma americanum

Reeves, Will K., Durden, Lance A., Ritzi, Christopher M., Beckham, Katy R., Super, Paul E & Oconnor, Barry M., 2007, Ectoparasites and other ectosymbiotic arthropods of vertebrates in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA, Zootaxa 1392, pp. 31-68: 48-49

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.273680

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1BA23B6E-F96B-495C-B0C5-0AC99413D0C3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/E5278780-FFFC-FFDB-FF3B-5853FDF1F832

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Amblyomma americanum
status

 

Amblyomma americanum  (L.) ­ lone star tick

Ex Carpodacus mexicanus  (house finch): 6 L, NC, Swain Co., Oconaluftee, 25 Jun. 2001, P. Super, L­ 2967.

Ex Procyon lotor  (raccoon): 2 L, GSMNP, 28 Sep. 1986, R. Thompson, RML 119896; 1 N, 2 L, GSMNP, 4 Sep. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119894; 1 N, 2 L, GSMNP, 4 Sep. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119895; 5 N, 3 L, GSMNP, date not given, R. Thompson, RML 119899.

The lone star tick is common and widespread in the eastern United States and occurs as far north as Maine (Keirans & Lacombe 1998). However, the relatively small number of records from the Park suggests that it is not common there. Immature ticks parasitize a variety of birds and mammals whereas adults typically parasitize larger mammals including humans (Bishopp & Trembley 1945, Strickland et al. 1976, Durden & Kollars 1992). This tick is a vector of Ehrlichia chaffeensis  , Ehrlichia ewingii  , Rickettsia  spp., Coxiella burnetii  , and “ Borrelia lonestarii  ” a putative agent of southern tick associated rash illness ( STARI) also known as “Lymelike disease” (Childs & Paddock 2003). A new Ehrlichia  sp., similar to the agent of heartwater, was recently reported from A. americanum  in Georgia (Loftis et al. 2006).

Dermacentor albipictus (Packard)  —winter tick

Ex Cervus elaphus  (elk) (re­introduced): 14 N, NC, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 9 Jan. 2003, W. K. Reeves, L­ 3020, RML 123523.

This one­host tick primarily parasitizes large ungulates especially during the cooler months (Strickland et al. 1976) as reflected by its vernacular name. Dermacentor albipictus  is widespread in North America (Bishopp & Trembley 1945) and probably parasitizes white­tailed deer in the Park.

Dermacentor variabilis (Say)  —American dog tick

Ex Canis rufus  (red wolf—introduced): 1 F, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 25 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller, RML 122539; 2 M, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 7 May 1998, R. D. Keller, RML 122662; 16 M, 4 F, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 15 May 1998, R. D. Keller, RML 122664.

Ex Myodes gapperi  (northern red­backed vole): 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., 30 Sep. 2001, K. Walters.

Ex Equus caballus  (horse): 1 F, NC, Swain Co., Deep Creek horse stable, 23 May 2001, W. K. Reeves.

Ex Homo sapiens  (human): 1 F, NC, Swain Co., Payne Creek, 8 Jul. 2001, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2963; 1 M, 1 F, NC, Swain Co., 20 Mile Ranger Stn., 8 Jul. 2001, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2964; 1 M, NC, Swain Co., Sweet Branch, 8 Jul. 2001, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2965, 1 F, TN, Blount Co., Cade’s Cove, 25 May 2001, W. K. Reeves;.

Ex Procyon lotor  (raccoon): TN, Blount Co., Cades Cove, 1979­1980 (Rabinowitz et al. 1983); 1 M, 1 F, GSMNP, 18 Aug. 1988, R. Thompson, RML 119897; 5 N, 3 L, GSMNP, date not given, R. Thompson.

Ex Lama glama (lama) (introduced): 1 F, TN, Blount Co., Cade’s Cove, 4 Aug. 2003, W. K. Reeves, L­ 3099.

Ex Marmota monax  (woodchuck): 1 F, NC, Swain Co., Smokemont, 22 Aug. 2002, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2988.

Ex Ochrotomys nuttalli  (golden mouse): TN, Sevier Co., near Cosby, D. W. Linzey, 1964­1966 (Linzey 1968, Linzey & Linzey 1968).

Ex Peromyscus leucopus  (white­footed mouse): 1 L, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 26 May 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 L, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 29 May 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 29 May 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 L, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 30 May 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 3 Jun. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 13 Jun. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 15 Jun. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 18 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 21 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 21 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 23 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller; 1 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 23 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller; 3 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 23 Jul. 1997, R. D. Keller, RML 122540; 4 N, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 2 Aug. 1997, R. D. Keller.

Ex Peromyscus maniculatus  (deer mouse): 1 L, NC, Haywood Co., Cataloochee, 12 May 2001, E. B. Pivorun, L­ 2945, RML 123123; 1 L, NC, Haywood Co., Purchase Creek, 12 May 2001, E. Pivorun, L­ 2944, RML 123124.

Ex Sus scrofa (feral hog): 1 F, TN, Sevier Co., Sugarland Mountain, 15 Apr. 1998, R. D. Keller, RML 122663.

Ex Synaptomys cooperi  (southern bog lemming): 1 N, 4 L, GSMNP, 2001, R. P. Eckerlin, L­ 2976, M­ Scoop­ 2­2001; 2 L, GSMNP, 2001, R. P. Eckerlin, L­ 2977, M­Scoop­ 1­2001.

Dermacentor variabilis  was the most frequently collected tick in the Park. Immature stages mainly parasitize small mammals whereas adults parasitize larger mammals including humans, dogs, raccoons, and opossums (Durden & Kollars 1992). Dermacentor variabilis  is the principal vector of the agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever ( Rickettsia rickettsii  ) in eastern North America and toxins released by certain individual attached females can cause tick paralysis especially in dogs and humans (Strickland et al. 1976, Durden & Kollars 1992).

Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard)  —rabbit tick

Ex Melospiza melodia  (song sparrow): 4 L, NC, Swain Co., Oconaluftee, 7 Aug. 2002, W. K. Reeves, L­ 2992; 6 N, 6 L, NC, Swain Co., Oconaluftee, 13 Jul. 2004, P. Super, L­ 3295.

Ex Passerina  cyanea (indigo bunting): 1 L, TN, Blount Co., Cade’s Cove, 1 Aug. 2000, P. Super, RML 123068.

Ex Sylvilagus floridanus  (eastern cottontail): GSMNP (Komarek & Komarek 1938); 1 M, 3 F, 2 N, TN, Blount Co., 27 Feb. 1938, W. W. Stanley, RML 14018View Materials.

Ex Thryothorus ludovicianus  ( Carolina  wren): 4 N, Sugarland, 4 Jul. 2001, P. Super, L­ 2966.

This tick is widely distributed in North America and there are records of it from across Tennessee (Durden & Kollars 1992). Adult rabbit ticks typically parasitize rabbits whereas larvae and nymphs parasitize birds and rabbits (Durden & Kollars 1992).

GSMNP

Great Smoky Mountains National Park

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Ixodida

Family

Ixodidae

Genus

Amblyomma