Psilochorus bromelicolus Huber

Huber, Bernhard A. & Carvalho, Leonardo S., 2019, Filling the gaps: descriptions of unnamed species included in the latest molecular phylogeny of Pholcidae (Araneae), Zootaxa 4546 (1), pp. 1-96: 64-67

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Psilochorus bromelicolus Huber

sp. n.

Psilochorus bromelicolus Huber  sp. n.

Figs 240–251View FIGURES 240–245View FIGURES 246–248View FIGURES 249–251

Psilochorus Br  11-40: Eberle et al. 2018 (molecular data); Huber et al. 2018: fig. 3.

Type material. BRAZIL: ♂ holotype  , 1♀ paratype, MNRJ (14324–25), and 3♂ 7♀ paratypes, ZFMK (Ar 20647), Bahia, Camacan, Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Nacional Serra Bonita (15°23.3’–23.4’S, 39°33.7’–34.0’W), ~ 750–850 m a.s.l., 2–3.x.2011 (B.A. Huber, A. Pérez González, M. Alves Dias)  .

Other material examined. BRAZIL: 1♂ 6♀ 2 juvs in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Br11-162a), same data as holotype  .

Etymology. The species name is an adjective and refers to the microhabitat in which this species was found (see below).

Diagnosis. Males are easily distinguished from all other known pholcids by armature of male chelicerae ( Figs 249–250View FIGURES 249–251): proximal frontal processes with dense brushes of hairs with short but strong side branches; also by shape of procursus ( Figs 246, 248View FIGURES 246–248): very simple, distally weakly sclerotized and curved towards prolateral. The ZFMK has a very similar undescribed species with much smaller but otherwise identical pedipalps (femur length 0.26– 0.28 versus 0.40), shorter cheliceral apophyses, and longer and thinner legs (tibia 1 L/d 85 versus 55). Females of P. itaguyrussu  and P. ybytyriguara  are unknown; females of undescribed species in ZFMK differ by shape of epigynum (compare Figs 243–245View FIGURES 240–245 with 252–263).

Description. Male (holotype). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 3.5, carapace width 0.95. Distance PME-PME 50 µm; diameter PME 110 µm; distance PME-ALE 70 µm; distance AME-AME 10 µm, diameter AME 15 µm. Leg 1: 18.0 (4.2 + 0.3 + 4.4 + 7.7 + 1.4), tibia 2: 2.8, tibia 3: 2.1, tibia 4: 2.7; tibia 1 L/d: 55.

COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace pale ochre with brown median band including ocular area and brown lateral bands; clypeus brown; sternum light brown with some light spots; legs light brown with darker rings on femora (subdistal) and tibiae (proximal and subdistal). Abdomen pale greenish, with bluish marks dorsally and laterally; ventrally with light brown plate in front of gonopore and dark median band behind gonopore.

BODY. Habitus as in Figs 241–242View FIGURES 240–245. Ocular area slightly raised. Thoracic furrow shallow but distinct in anterior part. Clypeus unmodified. Sternum wider than long (0.60/0.46), unmodified. Gonopore in very posterior position (at ~70% of abdomen length).

CHELICERAE. As in Figs 249–250View FIGURES 249–251, with distinctive pair of frontal apophyses curved downwards and set with dense brushes of hairs with short but strong side branches.

PALPS. As in Figs 246–248View FIGURES 246–248; coxa relatively large (i.e. palp small relative to body size), with rounded retrolateral apophysis, trochanter barely modified, femur with retrolateral-ventral process proximally and distinct ventral apophysis distally; tarsus with 3–4 macrosetae; procursus simple, distally weakly sclerotized, widened, and curved towards prolateral; bulb large, with whitish protrusion dorsally and flat distal bulbal apophysis.

LEGS. Without spines, few vertical hairs; with curved hairs on legs 2 only (tibiae and metatarsi); retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 6%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all tibiae; tarsus 1 with ~20 pseudosegments, distally distinct.

Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 4 other males: 3.7, 3.8, 4.2, 4.3. Abdomen length unusually variable (shortest abdomen 67% of longest abdomen).

Female. In general similar to male ( Fig. 240View FIGURES 240–245) but without curved hairs on legs. Tibia 1 in 12 females: 2.8–3.3 (mean 3.1). Epigynum simple plate ( Fig. 243View FIGURES 240–245), anteriorly evenly curved, posteriorly slightly pointed, with dark posterior margins interrupted medially by small whitish area; pair of internal structures and median ‘receptacle’ visible through cuticle. Internal genitalia with distinct median ‘receptacle’ and pair of lateral sclerites; pore plates apparently fused medially.

Notes. This species shares two potential synapomorphies with P. itaguyrussu  and P. ybytyriguara  and with males and females of undescribed species: (1) genital bulb with whitish protrusion dorsally (also present in the distantly related genus Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998  ); (2) pore plates more or less clearly fused medially (unknown in P. itaguyrussu  and P. ybytyriguara  ; also present in some distantly related taxa, e.g., Litoporus lopez Huber, 2000  ).

Distribution. Known from type locality only ( Fig. 348View FIGURE 348). Natural history. The spiders were collected on bromeliads approximately 1–2 m above the ground ( Fig. 340View FIGURES 336–341).

Their small webs were hidden deep among the leaf bases. Males and females were sometimes found close together

( Fig. 240View FIGURES 240–245). One egg-sac contained 13 eggs.