Artema ghubrat Huber
Huber, Bernhard A. & Carvalho, Leonardo S., 2019, Filling the gaps: descriptions of unnamed species included in the latest molecular phylogeny of Pholcidae (Araneae), Zootaxa 4546 (1), pp. 1-96: 11-14
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|Artema ghubrat Huber|
Artema ghubrat Huber sp. n.
Artema sp. n. “Om42”: Huber 2018b: 4.
Type material. OMAN: ♂ holotype, ZFMK ( Ar 20593), Ad Dakhiliyah, between Tanuf and Al Hamra, Al Ghubrat Cave (23.0718°N, 57.3680°E), lower entrance, in cave, 665 m a.s.l., 15.ii.2018 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps .
Other material examined. OMAN: 6♂ 3♀, ZFMK (Ar 20594) and 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK ( Om 104), same data as holotypeGoogleMaps . 1♀, NHMW, Al Ghubrat Cave , same entrance (“ Al Ghubrat, Quellhöhle ”), xi.2001 (Sattmann) . 2♂ 5♀, ZFMK ( Ar 20595), Al Ghubrat Cave (23.0723°N, 57.3679°E), upper entrance, in cave, 675 m a.s.l., 15.ii.2018 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps .
Note. The coordinates of Al Ghubrat Cave in Aharon et al. (2017) are slightly wrong (4.5 km NE). At that time we did not know the precise location of this cave.
Etymology. The species name is derived from the type locality; noun in apposition.
Diagnosis. Pale species without dark abdominal marks ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1–6), distinguished from known congeners by male chelicerae ( Figs 21–22View FIGURES 19–24; median ridges leading to distal apophyses, pair of rounded lateral projections), and by shape of epigynum ( Fig. 31View FIGURES 28–32; simple anterior plate wider than long, anterior epigynal projections barely visible). From most species also by combination of procursus distally without light notch in dorsal view ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7–12), and genital bulb with large rounded process c ( Figs 10View FIGURES 7–12, 15–16View FIGURES 13–18).
Description. Male (holotype). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 8.1, carapace width 3.1. Distance PME-PME 190 µm; diameter PME 160 µm; distance PME-ALE 30 µm; distance AME-AME 40 µm, diameter AME 140 µm. Leg 1: 61.4 (15.7 + 1.3 + 17.2 + 24.3 + 2.9), tibia 2: 13.5, tibia 3: 9.7, tibia 4: 12.1; tibia 1 L/d: 57.
COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace pale ochre-yellow, slightly darker pit and light brown ocular area; clypeus with indistinct light brown median band and dark brown rim; sternum ochre-yellow with light brown margins; legs ochre-yellow, patellae slightly darker, femora 1 proximally red-brown. Abdomen monochromous pale gray.
BODY. Habitus as in Fig. 3View FIGURES 1–6. Ocular area barely elevated, on posterior part with ~20 very strong hairs. Deep thoracic pit behind ocular area, without thoracic furrow in posterior part of carapace. Clypeus unmodified except for slightly thickened brown rim. Sternum wider than long (2.1/1.4), unmodified. Gonopore with four epiandrous spigots.
CHELICERAE. As in Figs 21–22View FIGURES 19–24, with several sclerotized cone-shaped hairs in distinctive arrangement, with median ridges leading to distal apophyses and pair of rounded lateral projections; with very fine and barely visible stridulatory ridges.
PALPS. In general very similar to known congeners ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 28–32); coxa unmodified, trochanter ventrally slightly projecting and strongly sclerotized, femur strongly widened, with retrolateral apophysis proximally pointing towards ventral, with stridulatory pick (modified hair) prolaterally near joint to trochanter, patella very short, ventrally closed, i.e. not reduced; tibia retrolateral trichobothrium in very proximal position; procursus with distinct dorsal apophysis and ventral pocket in very proximal position, distally widened, without light notch in dorsal view ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7–12); genital bulb with short membranous embolus accompanied by two processes (processes a and b in Aharon et al. 2017), with distinct and large process c and small process d ( Figs 10View FIGURES 7–12, 15–16View FIGURES 13–18).
LEGS. Without spines and curved hairs, few vertical hairs; regular mechanoreceptive sensilla either thick and variably long (~0.15–1.5) or thin and short (~0.08–0.15); retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 9%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all tibiae; tarsus 1 with ~15–20 pseudosegments, barely visible.
Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 8 other males: 14.1–16.8 (mean 15.7).
Female. In general similar to male ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1–6) but with distinct stridulatory ridges on chelicerae, clypeus rim not brown, and femora 1 proximally not red-brown. Tibia 1 in 8 females: 10.4–14.0 (mean 12.4). Entire epigynal area ( Fig. 31View FIGURES 28–32) strongly protruding, anterior plate on frontal side of epigynal protuberance and posterior plate on rear side; anterior plate rectangular, dark brown laterally, lighter and slightly bulging medially; posterior plate simple, very wide. Anterior epigynal projections barely visible. Internal genitalia simple, with pair of elongated pore plates in transversal position ( Figs 26View FIGURES 25–27, 35–36View FIGURES 33–38).
Distribution. Known from type locality only ( Fig. 342View FIGURE 342).
Natural history. This species was only found in total darkness in the cave, while the cave entrance area was occupied by Artema bahla (and an unnamed species of the genus Crossopriza Simon, 1893 ). Within the cave, the spiders were very abundant, but often too high to reach or hidden deep in rock cavities. Their webs appeared much less conspicuous than those of epigean congeners.
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