Traumatomutilla juvenilis ( Gerstaecker, 1874 ),

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L., 2020, Revision of the Traumatomutilla juvenilis species group (Hymenopteraı Mutillidae), Journal of Natural History 53 (43), pp. 2639-2683: 2655-2669

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2020.1715501

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3671766

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/DE3F8780-4518-E618-FA17-CB0BA15E68F3

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Traumatomutilla juvenilis ( Gerstaecker, 1874 )
status

 

Traumatomutilla juvenilis ( Gerstaecker, 1874) 

( Figures 4View Figure 4 (a – k), 5(a – i))

Mutilla juvenilis Gerstaecker, 1874: 75  , lectotype [designated here], ♀, Brazil, [São Paulo], Salto Grande (ZMB), examined.

Mutilla (Traumatomutilla) bivittata rubroguttata André, 1901: 257  . Holotype [by monotypy], ♀, Paraguay, [Alto Paraguay], Porto Casado [Puerto Casado/Puerto La Victoria] (location unknown) syn. nov.

Mutilla (Traumatomutilla) bivittata immaculiceps André, 1901: 257  , lectotype [designated here], ♀. Paraguay, Rio Monday [sic] ( MNHN) examined, syn  . nov.

Mutilla estrella ( Cresson, 1902)  : 47, lectotype [designated by Cresson (1916)], ♀, Brazil, Corumbá (CMNH) examined, syn. nov.

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) bivittata rubroguttata André, 1902  , 54

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) bivittata immaculiceps André, 1902  , 54

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) estrella André, 1902  , 55

Ephuta (Traumatomutilla) juvenilis André, 1902  , 55

Traumatomutilla bivittata rubroguttata André, 1904  , 40

Traumatomutilla bivittata immaculiceps André, 1904  , 40

Traumatomutilla estrella André, 1904  , 40

Traumatomutilla juvenilis André, 1904  , 40

Diagnosis

Female. In addition to the structural characters referenced in the species groups diagnosis, T. juvenilis  females can be defined by having the mesosoma with lateral margins anterior to propodeal spiracle simply divergent anterad, not constricted; the dorsal surface of the hindtibia densely setose; the pronotal spiracle projected; and the T2 disc evenly convex.

Male. In addition to the structural characters referenced in the species group diagnosis, T. juvenilis  males can be defined by having the cuspis broad, club-like, densely setose throughout; the lateral margins of the propodeum simply rounded, not angulate; and T2 evenly convex.

Description

Body length 14 – 17 mm. Head. Posterior margin virtually straight. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye length in frontal view virtually as long distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Head densely, coarsely and confusedly foveolatepunctate, sparser and finer on gena and malar space. Mandible with small subapical tooth. Dorsal scrobal carina present and well-defined, separated from antennal tubercles; lateral scrobal carina virtually absent. Antennal tubercle densely finely and confusedly rugulose. Flagellomere 1 2.2 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.6 × pedicel length. Genal carina present, well defined, short, broadly separated from gular carina and hypostomal carina. Occipital carina well defined, slightly swollen and curved in straight angle dorsolaterally. Mesosoma. Dorsal thoracic length 0.9 × its width. Mesosomal dorsum well differentiated from pleurae, lateral margins rounded, not angulate or sharp; sculpture predominantly obscured by dense setation, dense confused and coarse areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate where visible. Anterior face of propodeum defined, superficially and longitudinally striate mesoventrad, coarsely punctate laterodorsad; dorsal face roundly angulate into anterior face in lateral view. Humeral carina present broadly separated from well-defined low rounded epaulette, anterolateral corners of pronotum rounded in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of pronotum. Sculpture of lateral face of pronotum densely micropunctate with sparse coarse punctures anteriorly; mesopleuron densely micropunctate anteriorly, sparse and coarse foveolate-punctate along mesopleural ridge, concealed by dense setation elsewhere; metapleuron sculpture concealed by dense setation on ventral half, unsculptured and smooth on dorsal half. Lateral face of propodeum sparsely and shallowly foveolate-punctate anteriorly, with dense coarse confused horizontally oblique rugosities along posterior margin. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 52:61:58:48:45. Lateral margin of mesonotum not emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly and slightly diverging anterad. Propodeal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of mesosoma; post-spiracular area absent. Scutellar scale present, well developed, slightly narrower than and separated from well-developed anterolateral carinae which are connected thus forming a single transverse carina with shallow emargination medially; scabrous intervals present on scutellar area. Posterior face of propodeum longer than and poorly distinguished from dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 32:77:75. T2 slightly longer than wide, with maximum width posterior to midlength; Disc of T2 dense and coarse foveolate-punctate, sculpture denser and smaller mediad; sculpture of integumental spots sparse and shallow foveolate-punctate. Sculpture of T3 – 6, except pygidial plate, predominantly concealed by dense setation, dense and coarse foveolate-punctate with sparse-interspersed micropunctures where visible. S1 surface cuneiform, longitudinally elevated medially, equally high throughout. S2 sparse foveolate-punctate, foveolations sparser and smaller mediad; subapical transverse slope virtually absent medially, conspicuous laterally; anteromedial crest-fold well developed. S3 – 6 dense foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate subpyriform, defined by lateral carinae at apical third; surface with irregular, mostly longitudinal coarse rugosities; interstice apparently granulose.

Male. Body length 11 – 18 mm. Head. Rounded subrectangular in dorsal view, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.75 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 6.1 × DLO, IOD 1.75 × DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Head surface densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to punctate. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina starting narrowly separated from internal eye margin. Clypeus convex medially, concave laterally immediately below antennal insertion; coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate; with a pair of short, sessile, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate. Flagellomere 1 1.9 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2.3 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulettes well defined, low against anterior margin of pronotum, rounded, broadly disconnected from humeral carina; anterolateral angles of pronotum subangulate. Anterior face of propodeum coarsely and densely punctate laterally, impunctate medially, with a conspicuous longitudinal concave medial area. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense punctures anterointernally. Mesoscutum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate, notaulus and parapsis indistinguishable. Scutellum convex, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally; posterior face of axillar projection arched. Metanotum slightly wider laterally, its surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeum dorsum convex, predominantly concealed by dense setation, densely areolate where visible; lateral face predominantly densely areolate, areolations vestigial anterad; posterolateral margins rounded, posterodorsal corners rounded in lateral view; dorsal and posterior faces indistinguishable. Lateral face of pronotum with dense coarse punctures and interspersed micropunctures; mesopleura with strong subacute projected tubercle on dorsal half; mesopleural sculpture densely and coarsely areolate-punctate to foveolatepunctate with interspersed micropunctures anteriorly. Metapleuron predominantly unsculptured, smooth, except ventral fourth, densely and coarsely areolate-punctate. Wings. Forewing with elongate sclerotised pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.5 × as wide as T2. T2 slightly longer than broad. Dorsal metasomal sculpture partially concealed by dense setation, densely and finely foveolate-punctate to simply punctate were visible, except pygidial plate on T7 irregularly rugose and weakly defined by parallel carinae apicolaterally. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, forming pronounced carina slightly higher posteriorly. S2 densely foveolate-punctate, foveolations conspicuously sparser and smaller mediad; with well-developed longitudinal anteromedial crest-fold ending on small and narrow longitudinal pit densely filled with setae. S3 – 7 sparsely and densely foveolate-punctate to punctate. S7 as long as broad, with single subacute tooth-like projection on posterior margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced apically. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 51:39:7; paramere slightly sinuous in dorsal view, upcurved apically in lateral view; with dense long setae ventrally, setae sparser apicad; cuspis moderately thick, club-like, at its widest point half the width of paramere in dorsal view, virtually straight and equally wide throughout in dorsal view, densely covered in thick setae throughout; paracuspis well-developed, not sessile, amorphous, lobe-like, densely setose, setae as long as paracuspis; digitus short, curved inward in dorsal view and upcurved in lateral view, setose dorsally; penis valve strongly concave on internal surface, with very closely spaced pair of teeth apicoventrally; apical tooth more acute and longer; subapical tooth subrounded, externolateral pocket vestigial; apical distance between teeth 0.05 × length of valve; dense setae present along apical margin and at base of teeth on external surface.

Colouration and variations

Head integument always black, at most brownish-black; head setation can be completely black or with a pair of narrow longitudinal stripes of silvery-white setae extending from the posterior margin of vertex along the inner eye margin to antennal tubercles; in certain specimens these stripes are reduced to a pair of lateral longitudinal spots of silvery-white setae on vertex only; specimens with silvery-white setae on vertex and/or frons usually have silvery-white setae on malar space and ventral surface of head. Mesosoma integument is usually completely black, at most brownish-black; setation is predominantly black dorsally with all forms having lateral longitudinal stripes of silvery-white setae usually extending from posterior margin of propodeum to posterior margin of pronotum; stripes might end before pronotal spiracles or beyond posterior margin of pronotum in certain specimes; pleural setae is predominantly black with silvery-white setae ventrally on mesopleuron and metapleuron in all forms. Integument of metasoma is always predominantly black, at most brownish-black, except for disc of T2 which is always marked with integumental spots that can be reddish or yellowish; integumental spots vary greatly in size and can be subquadrate, subrounded or linear/subrectangular. Metasomal setae are predominantly black, except for silvery-white setae varying in density on the following: T1 laterally; T2 lateral margins, lateral felt lines, fringe laterally, and over integumental spots; T3 – 5 medially and laterally; T6 medially; S1 – 5 (except fringe of S5). Appendages colour predominantly black, except mandibles and flagellomeres partially reddish-brown.

Male. Integument usually completely black, at most brownish-black, with mandibles and most flagellomeres partially reddish-brown. Body setae is predominantly black with silvery-white setae varying in density and extension in the following: antennal tubercles; metanotum; propodeum; legs (except dorsum of femora and tarsi) T1, base of T2, lateral margins of T2, lateral felt line of T2, and fringes of T2 – 4 laterally; S1 – S5 except fringe of S5.

Distribution

Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina.

Material examined

(336 ♀, 323) Type material. Lectotype: Traumatomutilla juvenilis  , ♀, BRAZIL, [São Paulo], Salto Grande, Sello S. ( ZMB)  ; lectotype: Traumatomutilla immaculiceps  , ♀, PARAGUAY, [Distrito Capital], Asunción, 1891 ( MNHN);  Holotype: Traumatomutilla estrella  , ♀, BRAZIL, [Mato Grosso do Sul], Chapada [dos Guimarães] ( CMNH)  . Additional material: BRAZIL: Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, 2♀, IV ( CMNH);  Chapada [dos Guimarães], Campo, 5♀, IX ( CMNH);  Mato Grosso: Confluência Xingú-Kuluene , 1♀, VI.1947 ( MNRJ);  P.N. [Parque Nacional] do Xingú, Jacaré, 1♀, Alvarenga & Werner ( DZUP);  Barra do Tapirapé , 5♀ ( MZSP);  Diamantino , Alto Rio Arinos , 4♀, X.1983 ( MNRJ);  Alto Xingú , P.I. [Posto Indígena] Col. [Coronel] Vasconçelos , 2♀, XI.1958 ( MNRJ);  Aldeia Camariura , 1♀, 24.XI.1960 ( MNRJ);  marg. esq. [margem esquerda] rio Sucuriú , Faz. [Fazenda] Canaã, Três Lagoas , 1♀, 10.XII.1967, F. Lane ( MZSP);  Rio Papagaios, Utiariti , 22 – 31.X.1966, Lenko & Pereira ( MZSP);  Rosário Oeste, 5♀ ( MZSP); Santa Isabel , 1♀, 18.I.1944, P.A. Berry ( CISC);  Tapirapé Indian Village, at confluence of Rio Tapirapé and Rio Araguaia , 1♀, 11.XII.1960, B. Malkin ( FMNH);  Poconé, Pouso Alegre , 1♀, 28.I.2001, A. Köhler ( CESC);  Mato Grosso do Sul: Anastácio, Fazenda Boa Esperança , 1♀, 16 – 26.II.2008, Bossi R. Bervian C. ( MZSP)  ; Bodoquena, Cara da Onça , 310 m [above sea level], 20°44 ʹ 26 ″ S 56°44 ʹ 04 ″ W, 1♀, XII.2012, T.H. Auko e eq. [equipe] ( UFGD);GoogleMaps  Morra D. Sul [sic], Califórnia , 250 m [above sea level], 20°42 ʹ 07 ″ S 56°52 ʹ 47 ″ W, 1♀, II.2007, V. Carbonari ( UFGD);GoogleMaps  Três Lagoas, 5♀ ( MZSP); Pará: Santarém , 1♀, VII.1919, S.M. Klages ( CMNH);GoogleMaps  Conceição do Araguaia , 1♀, 18.XI.1979, I.S. Gorayeb ( MPEG);GoogleMaps  Gorotire, Rio Fresco , 1♀, X.1985, W.L. Overal ( MPEG);GoogleMaps  Mocajuba, Mangabeira, 9♀ ( MNRJ);GoogleMaps  Rondônia, MZ [sic] Polo Noroeste , Pimenteiras , 1♀, 15 – 27.XI.1985 ( MZSP);GoogleMaps  São Paulo: Ilha Solteira, Campos Nativos , 1♀, 05.V.1990, Borrmann ( EMUS);GoogleMaps  Reserva de Jataí, Luis Antônio , 16.X.1999, Melo G.A.R. ( DZUP)GoogleMaps  ; Cotia, 1♀ ( DEI); Faz . [Fazenda] Itaquerê, Nova Europa , 1♀, 04.III.1964, K. Lenko ( MZSP);  N. [Novo] Horizonte , 1♀, XI  .1944 ( MNRJ);  Angatuba , 1♀, III.1917 ( MNRJ);  Andradina , 1♀, 10.II.1959 ( MNRJ);  Anhembia, Faz . [Fazenda], Barreiro Rico , 1♀, 15. XI.1965, W.D. Edmonds ( MNCN);  Araraquara , 1♀, 17 – 18.I.1941, M. Carrera ( MNCN);  Franca, 1♀, X.1910, E. Garbe ( MNCN);  Jundiaí , 1♀, 17.XI.1895, Schrottky ( MNHN);  Ribeirão Preto , 1♀, 21.X.1962, Exp. Dep. Zool. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] ( MNCN);  São Paulo, 1♀, 06.I.1925 ( DEI);  Rio Claro, 2♀, Braulio Dias ( AMNH);  Avaré , 1♀, E. Amante ( AMNH);  Botucatu , 1♀, IV.1989, Oliveira T ( MIUP);  Minas Gerais: Passos , 1♀, 23 – 31.I.1963, Elias C. ( DZUP)  ; Araxá , 1♀, 06.XI.1965, Elias C. & Elias T. ( DZUP)  ; Ituiutaba , 1♀, XI.1963 ( MNRJ);  Paraopeba , 1♀, n.o proc. [número de procedência?] 16/53 ( MNRJ);  Araguari , 1♀, X.1931, R. Spitz ( MNCN);  Lassance , 1♀, 09 – 19.XI.1919, Cornell University Expedition ( CUIC);  Sertão de Diamantina, Fazenda das Melâncias  , 1♀, 10.XI.1902, E. Gounelle ( MNCN);  Uberlândia , 1♀, X.1962, Exp. Dep. Zool. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] ( MNCN);  Goiás: Campinas , 1♀, X.1937 ( MNCN);  Fazenda Cachoeirinha, Jataí , 1♀, X.1962, Exp. Dep. Zool. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] ( EMUS);  Jataí, Faz . [Fazenda] Aceiro , 1♀, X.1962, Exp. Dep. Zool. [Expedição Departamento Zoologia] ( MNCN);  Piranhas , 1♀, 02.XI.1961, Werner ( MNCN);  Viannópolis , 1♀, XI.1931, R. Spitz ( MNCN);  Distrito Federal, Brasília , 1♀, Braulio Dias ( AMNH);  BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: El Carmen, 1♀, 25 – 27.II.1954, C. Gans & F. Pereira ( MNCN);  Buena Vista , 2♀, 1928, J. Steinbach ( CUIC);  Prov .[ince] Chiquitos, Santiago , 700 m, 1♀, XII.1959 ( MIUP);  Florida, Samaipata , 1♀, 17.V.1996, W. Roja ( MIUP);  Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450 m [above sea level], 2♀, XI.1910, J. Steinbach ( CMNH);  Puerto Suárez , 150 m [above sea level], 1♀, XII.1908, J. Steinbach ( CMNH);  Pacajes, Corocoro , 1♀, 19.II.1995, L. Peña ( AMNH);  Beni: Cavinas , 1♀, I.1922, W.M. Mann ( USNM);  Guayaramerín , 1♀, XI.1956, Fritz ( AMNH);  Reyes , 1♀, X.1921, W.M. Mann ( USNM);  PARAGUAY: San Pedro: Cororo, Rio Ypane : 1♀, XII.1983, M.A. Fritz ( EMUS); 73, II.1979, Fritz ( AMNH);  Pto . [Puerto?] Pablo , 8♀ 33, XI – XII.1936 ( RBINS);GoogleMaps  Kanindeyu, Tava Yopoi , 24°22 ’ S 55°53 ʹ W, 26.X – 04.XI.2007, U. Dreschel ( EMUS);GoogleMaps  Guairá, Villa Rica, 1♀, 1900, Burgdorf ( MNHN);GoogleMaps  Distrito Capital , Asunción , 1♀, 06.XII.1905 ( MNHN);GoogleMaps  Paraguari: E [East] of Ybicui , 1♀, 02.IV.2006, U. Dreschel ( FSCA);GoogleMaps  Sapucay, 1♀ ( USNM);GoogleMaps  La Rosada , 26°06 ’ S 56° 50 ʹ W, 1♀, 27 – 30.XII.2008, U. Dreschel ( FSCA);GoogleMaps  Compañia Naranjo , 13, 3 – 8.II.1996, B. Garcete ( MIUP);GoogleMaps  Parque Nacional Ybycui , 23, 14.I.1996, B. Garcete ( MIUP);GoogleMaps  Presidente Hayes, Puerto Galileo , 3♀, 02 – 05.III.2006, U. Dreschel ( FSCA);GoogleMaps  Lolita, Yaragui , 23°06 ’ S 59° 38 ʹ W, 1♀, 05.III.2003, U. Dreschel ( EMUS);GoogleMaps  Cordillera, San Bernardino , 1♀, K. Fiebrig ( USNM); Caaguazu: Zudañez , 1♀, I.1949 ( UMMZ);GoogleMaps  Caaguazu , 23, XII.1977, Fritz ( AMNH);GoogleMaps  Caazapa, Colonia Neufield , 390 ʹ [sic], 26°28 ’ S 55°55 ʹ W, 1♀, 24.IX – 02.XI.2008, U. Dreschel ( EMUS);GoogleMaps  Concepción: 25 mi [Miles] SE [southeast] San Carlos , 1♀, 27.X.2002, U. Dreschel ( FSCA);GoogleMaps  Chaparral , 1♀, 27.X.2002, U. Dreschel ( FSCA); Cororo , 2♀, II.1993, Arriagada ( AMNH);GoogleMaps  Estancia Santa Herminia , 23°24 ʹ 13 ″ S 56°30 ʹ 33 ″ W, 13, 8.XI – 7.XII.2003, B. Garcete ( MIUP);GoogleMaps  Amambay, 2 km [kilometres] S [south] Cerro Cora , 1♀, 28.XI.1973, O.S. Flint ( DGMC);GoogleMaps  Alto Paraguay, Cuaacupe , 1♀, 14.XII.1944, P.A. Berry ( CISC);GoogleMaps  Chaco, Est . [Estación] Hermosa, Rio Siete Puntas , 1♀, 27.X.1946, C. Olrog ( NHRM);GoogleMaps  ARGENTINA: Chaco: Ciervo Petizo , 1♀, 25GoogleMaps  . XI.1949, Duret ( MNHN);  San Bernardo , 1♀, II.1990, Di Lorio ( AMNH);  Formosa, Gran Guardia , 2♀, J. Foerster ( AMNH);  Mendoza, Estancia Pedregal , 4♀, 21.XII.1906, Jorgensen ( ZMUC);  Entre Rios, San Jose , 13, X.1925, Lindner D. Chaco Exp. [Departamiento Chaco Expedition] ( ZMB)  . An additional 149♀ from Brazil, 5♀ from Argentina, 2♀ from Bolivia, and 50♀ as well as 153 from Paraguay were also examined ( AMNH, ANSP, CASC, CMNH, DGMC, DZUP, EMUS, FEIS, FSCA, LACM, MIUP, MNHN, MNRJ, MPEG, MZSP, RBINS, USNM, ZMB, ZMUC) 

Remarks

The discovery of the male of T. miniata  coupled with a large series of males and females from Puerto Pablo and Cororo in Paraguay (RBINS and EMUS) facilitated the sex association for T. juvenilis  . Females of that series clearly belong to T. juvenilis  (the T. immaculiceps  colour form) while the males have similar genitalia to T. miniata  , but they lack the sharply angulate propodeum and T2. Females of T. juvenilis  are similar in structure to females of T. miniata  apart from inconspicuous sculpture characters and the conspicuously pronounced, almost tuberculate, pronotal spiracles of T. miniata  . Therefore, the sexes of T. juvenilis  were associated based on repeated geographical co-occurrence and morphological ‘ clues ’ provided by both sexes of T. miniata  .

André (1901) provided few comments regarding T. bivittata rubroguttata  and referred to two specimens ‘ reported by M. Boggiani ’ from Puerto Casado in Paraguay which, we assume, the author considered as the type series for T. bivittata rubroguttata  . Unfortunately, there is no indication of where the types were deposited at the time and we were unable to retrieve any information on such specimens. In the description of T. bivittata rubroguttata  , however, André mentioned an additional specimen collected in Brazil, which belonged to his personal collection and agreed in every aspect with the Boggiani specimens. We have examined every specimen of Traumatomutilla in André ’ s collection at MNHN and found four specimens labelled as T. bivittata rubroguttata  , all from Mato Grosso state in Midwestern Brazil. It is not clear, however, which of the specimens is the one André (1901) referred to. Although we have not seen the actual types of T. bivittata rubroguttata  (Boggiani specimens), all four specimens from André ’ s collection agree with each other in every aspect. Additionally, André (1901) reported that the Boggiani specimens were in agreement with Gerstaecker ’ s description of T. bivittata  except for the T2 integumental spot colour. The fact that Gerstaecker ’ s descriptions focused almost exclusively on colour and setae characters could explain why such structurally distinct species were considered to be so closely related.

Traumatomutilla immaculiceps  was also originally described as a subspecies of T. bivittata  by André (1901) and elevated to species level by André (1910) based on minor setae differences of the head and metasomal segments. According to André (1910) the type series of T. immaculiceps  consisted of four females from Asunción, Paraguay, with collecting dates, 30 December 1904, 14 March 1906, and 11 April 1906. We examined a series of four specimens labelled by André as T. immaculiceps  deposited at MNHN, two of which were labelled SYNTYPE upon preparation of the loan. One of the SYNTYPES, though identified as T. immaculiceps  by André himself, is actually Traumatomutilla tristis (Gerstaecker)  from the T. indica  species group. None of the specimens in the series matches the label data provided by André (1910) and according to the collection managers at MNHN there are no other specimens in André ’ s collection labelled as T. immaculiceps  by André himself. The correctly identified syntype is from Asunción, apparently collected in 1891, while the other two specimens, though both from Paraguay, have different collecting locality and/or collecting date. It is unclear at this moment why are there such differences in the label data between André (1910) specimens and the specimens deposited at MNHN. Based on the fact that the correctly identified syntype was labelled by André and is from the correct locality provided by the author upon description, we designate this specimen as the lectotype for T. immaculiceps  . We refrain, however, from designating the other two correctly identified specimens of T. immaculiceps  as paralectotypes since, though from Paraguay, they are not from the same locality mentioned by André (1910).

Casal labelled numerous specimens in different collections as ‘ T. guarania  sp. nov. ’ without, however, publishing this putative new species or mentioning it in his 1969 paper on Traumatomutilla. All of these specimens are identical to T. estrella  .

Slight structural variations were observed in the specimens examined: mesonotum as wide as, narrower, or wider than distance between pronotal spiracles; presence of obvious to inconspicuous to absent oblique rugae on lateral face of propodeum; and medial intervals at mesosomal dorsum inconspicuously aligned so as to form an irregular longitudinal medial carina.

Traumatomutilla juvenindica Williams and Bartholomayı  sp. nov.

( Figures 6View Figure 6 (a,b), 7(a – f))

Diagnosis

Female. Head with transversal stripe of dense silvery-white setae; genal carina vestigial, poorly defined; scabrous intervals present on posterior third of mesosoma.

Male. Cuspis slender and predominantly asetose, pygidial plate restricted to apical third of T7, head and pronotum clothed with dense silvery-white setae.

Description

Female. Body length 12 – 14 mm. Head. Posterior margin virtually straight. Vertex width 0.8 × pronotal width. Eye length in frontal view 1.1 × distance from its ventral margin to mandibular condyle. Frons and vertex densely, finely and confusedly areolate-punctate to foveolatepunctate; gena and malar space sparsely foveolate-punctate, with well-defined unsculptured and smooth areas. Mandible with small subapical tooth. Dorsal scrobal carina present and well defined, separated from antennal tubercles and from vestigial lateral scrobal carina; lateral scrobal carina reduced to longitudinal impunctate area. Antennal tubercle virtually unsculptured, smooth. Flagellomere 1 2.4 × pedicel length; flagellomere 2 1.8 × pedicel length. Genal carina vestigial, to a narrow vertical and mostly unsculptured smooth area, broadly separated from gular carina and hypostomal carina. Occipital carina well defined, conspicuously swollen and curved in a straight angle dorsolaterally. Mesosoma. Dorsal thoracic length 0.8 × its width. Mesosomal dorsum predominantly dense confused and coarse areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate, areolations denser and smaller mediad; scabrous intervals present on posterior third of mesonotum. Anterior face of propodeum defined, conspicuously and finely striated longitudinally basad, confusedly and densely punctate dorsad; dorsal face rounded into anterior face in lateral view. Humeral carina present broadly separated from slightly pronounced blunt epaulette, anterolateral corners of pronotum subrounded in dorsal view. Pronotal spiracle strongly projected from lateral margin of pronotum, rounded, not at all acute. Sculpture of lateral face of pronotum confusedly punctate with interspersed micropunctures; mesopleuron densely micropunctate anteriorly, sparsely and coarsely foveolate-punctate along mesopleural ridge, elsewhere obscured by dense setae; metapleuron sculpture on dorsa half unsculptured, smooth, ventral half concealed by dense setation. Lateral face of propodeum mostly unsculptured on anterior two thirds, smooth, sparsely and shallowly foveolate-punctate; posterior third densely, confusedly foveolate-punctate with interspersed vestigial oblique rugosities. Ratios of width of humeral angles, pronotal spiracles, widest point of mesonotum, narrowest point of mesonotum and propodeum posterior to propodeal spiracles, 54:70:55:53:47. Lateral margin of mesosoma not emarginated anterior to propodeal spiracle, smoothly and slightly diverging anterad and converging slightly posterior to pronotal spiracles. Propodeal spiracle virtually flat against lateral margin of mesosoma; post-spiracular absent. Scutellar scale present, well-developed, slightly narrower than and separated from well developed anterolateral carinae which are connected thus forming a single transverse carina almost reaching lateral margin of mesosoma; scabrous intervals present on scutellar area. Posterior face of propodeum longer than and poorly distinguished from dorsal face. Metasoma. Ratios of width of T1, width of T2 and length of T2, 39:82:87. T2 slightly longer than wide, with maximum width posterior to midlength. Disc of T2 dense and fine foveolate-punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures to dense and fine punctate mediad; sculpture of integumental spots sparse shallow foveolate-punctate. Sculpture T3 – 6, except pygidial plate, dense and fine foveolate-punctate with sparse interspersed micropunctures. S1 surface cuneiform, longitudinally elevated medially, equally high throughout. S2 sparse foveolate-punctate, foveolations sparser mediad; subapical transverse slope virtually absent, vestigial laterally; antero-medial crest-fold welldeveloped. S3 – 6 dense fine foveolate-punctate. Pygidial plate broad, subpyriform, defined by lateral carinae at apical third; surface with irregular, mostly longitudinal coarse rugosities; interstice apparently sparsely granulose.

Male. Body length 13 – 15 mm. Head. Rounded subrectangular in dorsal view, posterolateral angles rounded. Vertex width 0.75 × pronotal width. Eye almost circular. Ocelli small; OOD 2.9 × DLO, IOD virtually equal to DLO. Occipital carina distinct. Head surface mostly concealed by dense setation, except ventral surface densely and shallowly punctate. Gena ecarinate. Antennal scrobe concave to eye margin, with prominent transverse dorsal scrobal carina narrowly separated from internal eye margin and slightly extending into lateral margin of antennal scrobe. Clypeus slightly concave laterally immediately below antennal insertion, convex medially; coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate to punctate; with a pair of short, sessile, blunt tubercles on apical margin. Scape bicarinate. F1 2.2 × pedicel length; F2 2.6 × pedicel length. Mandible obliquely tridentate apically, inner tooth slightly larger than middle tooth; lacking dorsal or ventral projections. Mesosoma. Epaulettes well defined, virtually flat against anterior margin of pronotum, rounded, broadly separated from poorly defined humeral carina, anterolateral angles of pronotum rounded. Anterior face of propodeum densely micropunctate laterally, unsculptured medially, with a conspicuous longitudinal slightly concave medial area. Tegula convex, mostly glabrous and impunctate except for dense coarse punctures anteriorly and along inner margin. Mesoscutum densely and finely foveolate-punctate, notaulus and parapsis indistinguishable. Scutellum convex, densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate. Axilla produced posterolaterally as truncate projection, with conspicuous flat posterior face, coarsely and densely foveolate-punctate dorsally; posterior face of axillar projection arched. Metanotum virtually equally wide throughout, surface obscured by dense setation. Propodeum dorsum convex, partially concealed by dense setation, densely areolate where visible; lateral face predominantly densely and coarsely areolate, areolations less defined anterad; posterolateral margins rounded, posterodorsal corners rounded in lateral view; dorsal and posterior faces indistinguishable. Lateral face of pronotum densely and coarsely foveolate-punctate to punctate with interspersed micropunctures; mesopleura with strong subacute tubercle on dorsal half; mesopleural sculpture densely and coarsely areolate-punctate to foveolate-punctate with interspersed micropunctures anteriorly. Metapleuron virtually unsculptured and asetose throughout. Wings. Forewing with elongate sclerotised pterostigma; marginal cell elongated, truncate apically; three submarginal cells. Legs. Simply setose, no strong spines discernible dorsally; spurs finely serrate on margins. Metasoma. T1 0.45 × as wide as T2. T2 length 0.85 × its width. Dorsal metasomal sculpture partially concealed by dense setation, densely and finely punctate where visible; T7, except pygidial plate, foveolate punctate; Pygidial plate restricted to apical third of T7, conspicuously wider than longer, defined by lateral carinae laterally, with conspicuous carina laterobasally converging into longitudinal medial carina extending basad on T7; pygidial plate surface irregularly rugulose. S1 longitudinally elevated medially, forming pronounced carina slightly lower medially. S2 sparsely foveolatepunctate, foveolations conspicuously denser laterad; with well-developed longitudinal anteromedial crest-fold ending on elongate patch of silvery-white setae. S3 – 7 sparsely foveolate-punctate to punctate. S7 slightly broader than long, with a pair of subacute closely spaced tooth-like projections on posterior margin. Genitalia. Parapenial lobe slightly pronounced apically. Ratios of free length of paramere, cuspis and digitus, 93:70:13; paramere slightly sinuous in dorsal view, upcurved apically in lateral view; with dense setae ventrally except apically with setae conspicuously reduced; cuspis narrow, slender, slightly curved inward at basal half and curved outward in apical half in dorsal view; conspicuously and smoothly widened apically; predominantly asetose with sparse conspicuous setae ventrally at apex; paracuspis well-developed, not sessile, longer than wide, subrounded at apical margin, densely setose, setae predominantly shorter than paracuspis; digitus short, curved inward in dorsal view and upcurved in lateral view, setose basodorsally; penis valve strongly concave on internal surface, with very closely spaced pair of teeth apicoventrally; apical tooth more acute and slightly longer; subapical tooth acute, externolateral pocket virtually absent, vestigial; apical distance between teeth 0.03 × length of valve; dense setae present along apical margin and at base of teeth on external surface; outer surface with conspicuous medial projection on ventral margin.

Colouration and variations

Female. Body and appendages black to brownish-black, except most antennal flagellomeres and mandibles partially reddish-brown. Body setae predominantly black, except the following areas with silvery-white setae varying in density: transverse stripe on vertex of head; lateral longitudinal stripes from posterior margin of propodeum to anterior margin of mesonotum; ventral third of mesosomal pleurae; most of legs; T1 laterally; integumental spots, lateral area, lateral fringes and lateral margins of T2; T3 – 5 laterally and medially; most of T6; S1 – 6. No significant colouration or setae variations were observed in the specimens examined.

Male. Body and appendages black, at most mandibles and/or most flagellomeres partially reddish-black. Body setae predominantly silvery-white varying in density except for the following areas with black setae varying in density: scutum, axillae, anterior half of scutellum, posterior third of T2, T6 – 7, most of S6, and S7 (hypopygium). Certain specimens might have a longitudinal narrow strip of silvery-white setae extending medially from anterior half to fringe of T2.

Distribution

Colombia and Venezuela.

Etymology

A merging of the specific epithets of T. juvenilis  and T. indica ( Linnaeus, 1758)  . An allusion to the fact that this species has the structural traits of T. juvenilis  and the overall colour and setal patterns of T. indica  .

Material examined

(2♀, 43) Type material. Holotype: ♀, VENEZUELA, Lara, Guamacire [sic!], Hda. [Hacienda?] Sigata, 26.VIII.1976, J.M. Osorio ( FSCA); Paratype: ♀, COLOMBIA, Cesar, Becerril, 24.VII.1968, B. Malkin ( AMNH). Allotypes: 3, COLOMBIA, [Cesar], Lake Sapatoza region, Chiriguana district, VIII – IX.1924, C. Allen ( BMNH); 3, same label data as previous specimen ( BMNH); 3, COLOMBIA, [Bolivar], Magdalena Valley, El Banco, C. Allen ( BMNH); 3, COLOMBIA, Bolívar, Zambrano, Hda. [Hacienda] Monterrey, 09°45 ʹ N 74°49 ʹ W, Malaise 5, Andaluz 14, 10 m [above the ground], 08.VII.1993, F. Fernández (UNAL).

Remarks

Before the discovery of T. juvenindica  , the northernmost distribution record for a species of the T. juvenilis  species group was a single female collected in Santarém at the Brazilian Amazon, nearly 2,200 km Southeast of the closest record for T. juvenindica  (Guamacire, Lara, Venezuela) with males and females collected even further away in Becerril, César, Colombia (~ 2,500 km from Santarém). This apparent isolation of T. juvenindica  from the main bulk of the T. juvenilis  species group leaves us with almost no doubt about this sex association. It is peculiar, however, that the males of T. juvenindica  have genitalic characters like males of T. bivittata  and T. guarata  while the females are clearly morphologically closer to those of T. juvenilis  and T. miniata  .

Minor structural variations were observed between female specimens in the type series, namely (1) the sculpture of the lateral face of the propodeum varies in density and (2) a conspicuous longitudinal medial carina on the mesosomal dorsum with its adjacent sculpture simply punctate and contrasting with the areolate-punctate sculpture on the margins of the mesosomal dorsum. The medial longitudinal carina on the mesosoma is present in all species of the T. indica  group, but inconspiuous forms of such a carina can also be found in specimens of the T. quadrinotata  and T. gemella  species groups. Females of T. juvenindica  have the legs remarkably asetose, smooth and shinning in comparison with other females in the group and indeed in the genus as a whole. All but one specimen in the type series were collected northwest of the Andes in Colombia, which has a peculiar fauna including the only South American records for the mainly North and Central American genus Dasymutilla Ashmead ( Bartholomay et al. 2019c)  . It is also noteworthy that both sexes of this species bear the conspicuous Amazonian colour pattern that can be observed in other species such as T. indica (Linnaeus)  and T. guayaca Casal. 

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

CMNH

The Cleveland Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

DEI

Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut

MNCN

Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

CUIC

Cornell University Insect Collection

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

RBINS

Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

NHRM

Naturhistoriska Rijkmuseet

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

ANSP

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mutillidae

Genus

Traumatomutilla

Loc

Traumatomutilla juvenilis ( Gerstaecker, 1874 )

Bartholomay, Pedro R., Williams, Kevin A., Cambra, Roberto A. & Oliveira, Marcio L. 2020
2020
Loc

Mutilla juvenilis

Gerstaecker A 1874: 75
Loc

Mutilla (Traumatomutilla) bivittata rubroguttata André, 1901: 257

Andre E 1901: 257
Loc

Mutilla (Traumatomutilla) bivittata immaculiceps André, 1901: 257

Andre E 1901: 257