Oxyopes incantatus, Santos, Adalberto J., 2017

Santos, Adalberto J., 2017, The jumping lynx spider Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 and its Neotropical relatives (Araneae: Oxyopidae), Zootaxa 4216 (5), pp. 457-481: 475-479

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.242322

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D5D46C5C-7D79-4F03-B422-8D955A0B391A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D71B87B1-FF96-3D07-FF15-F9D692F8FB58

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Oxyopes incantatus
status

sp.nov.

Oxyopes incantatus  sp.nov.

Figs 8–10View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10

Oxyopes gracilis  ; Baert et al. 1989a: 45; 1989b: 16; 1991: 338. Oxyopes saltans  (lapsus); Baert et al. 2008: 57.

Etymology. The specific epithet is the Latin for enchanted, and is a reference to “Las Islas Encantadas”, a nickname historically used by sailors to refer to the Galápagos Islands.

Type material. Male holotype from west side (0.3908o S 91.641o W), Fernandina Island, Galápagos Archipelago, Ecuador, D.Q. Cavagnaro leg., 5/II/1964, deposited in CASGoogleMaps  . Paratypes: ECUADOR  . Galápagos Archipelago: same data as the holotype, 1 ♀ ( CAS)  ; 1 ♂ 1♀ ( UFMG 19944View Materials); Isabela Island, Volcán Alcedo (0.4635o S 91.1197o W), R. Silberglied leg., 22/III/1 970GoogleMaps  , 1 ♀ ( MCZ 19085View Materials); Santa Cruz Island, Los Gemelos (0.6256o S 90.3853o W), L. Baert et al. leg., 12/II –7/III/1988GoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ ( IRSN IG27318); 31 km N Santa Rosa (malaise trap, Scalesia  forest, 0.6256o S 90.3853o W, 570 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 14/V –13/VIII/1985GoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (AMNH).

Remarks. Although I have seen only a small sample of the specimens listed in Baert et al. (1989a, 1989b), I am confident those records (illustrated in Fig. 10View FIGURE 10 B) can be attributed to O. incantatus  , which is the only oxyopid from Galápagos I have found in numerous spider collections.

Diagnosis. Males of Oxyopes incantatus  can be distinguished from O. salticus  and O. crewi  by the comparatively shallow retrolateral cymbial scoop, delimited by a ventral ridge that does not surpass the middle of the tibia in ventral view ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8 A, 9A, B). Additionally, different from the latter two species, the retrobasal tibial apophysis of O. incantantus  is small, rounded, and located in a comparatively anterior position ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B). The species is also distinctive in the cymbial protrusion small and rounded, almost imperceptible ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8 A, 9A). Females can be recognised by the triangular median process of the epigynum with straight borders ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8 C, 9D), and positioned relatively closer to the epigynum tegument ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 D). The internal female genitalia differ from the other species in the anteriorly positioned spermathecae ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8 E, 9E).

Description. Male (Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, holotype). Carapace faint brown, with lateral dark grey bands. Eye area black. Clypeus and chelicerae faint brown, with a pair of longitudinal black stripes. Endites faint brown, with an ectal dark spot. Labium black in the basal half, cream coloured distally. Sternum faint brown, with a sinuous dark grey, marginal stripe. Pedipalpus faint brown, darker in the tibia and cymbium. Legs faint brown, with a few ventral dark grey spots on coxae and femora. Opisthosoma cream coloured, dorsum with a faint brown cardiac mark delimited in dark grey, and a dark grey median band posteriorly. Sides densely suffused in dark grey, venter black. Spinnerets faint brown. Total length 3.9. Carapace 2.1 long, 1.4 wide. Tibia I length 1.75, II 1.5, III 1.12, IV 1.37. Opisthosoma 1.8 long, 1.1 wide. Ventral tibial apophysis apically rounded, with narrow anterior keel ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 B). Embolus relatively short, compared to the embolus base ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 C).

Female (Fernandina, Galápagos Islands, paratype, CAS). Colour as in male, except by the following. Leg femora with a ventral, longitudinal dark grey stripe. Patellae and tibiae with a few, ventral and dorsal dark grey spots. Opisthosoma with a few white spots around cardiac mark. Total length 4.6. Carapace 2.1 long, 1.5 wide. Tibia I length 1.62, II 1.5, III 1.12, IV 1.44. Opisthosoma 2.5 long, 1.8 wide. Apex of the median process of epigynum rounded, gently projected dorsally, base bulging ventrally ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 D). Lateral processes small, acute, positioned just anteriorly to the lateral base of the median process ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9 D). Copulatory ducts long, anteriorly projected ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 E). Spermathecae rounded, with anterior gland pores ( Figs 8View FIGURE 8 E, 9E, F), and one ectal Bennet’s gland pore. Fertilization ducts long, posteriorly directed ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 E).

Variation. Some males have a darker and shiny opisthosoma, covered by smooth cuticular scales. Based on my experience with other oxyopids, it is possible that these scales are always present in vivo, but fall from older preserved specimens. Carapace colour varies from creamy to dark brown. Measurements: males (N=11), total length 3.85–4.1, carapace width 1.3–1.5. Females (N=18), total length 3.6–5.0, carapace width 1.3–1.5.

Natural history. Specimens have always been found in humid places covered with shrub vegetation, usually fern sedges and forests dominated by Scalesia  or Miconia  trees ( Baert et al. 1989a, 1989b, 2008).

Distribution. Known only from the Galápagos Archipelago ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10 A, B). Specimens examined herein came from Fernandina, Isabela and Santa Cruz Islands, but the species was also recorded from Pinta, Santiago and Marchena Islands ( Baert et al. 1989a, 1989b, sub O. gracilis  ).

Additional material examined. ECUADOR. Galápagos: Fernandina Island, west side (0.3908o S 91.641o W), D.Q. Cavagnaro leg., 5/II/1964, 9 ♂ 16 ♀ 11 juv. ( CAS)GoogleMaps  ; Santa Cruz Island, 4 km N Bellavista, Media Luna ( Miconia  zone, 0.6641o S 90.3262o W, 620 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 14/V – 13/VIII/1 985, 3 ♂ 3 ♀ 2 juv. ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; (dung traps), 2 ♂ 2 ♀ (AMNH); (carrion traps), 17–21/V/1985, 2 ♀ (AMNH); Bellavista (agriculture zone, 0.6994o S 90.327o W), Peck & Sinclair leg., 1–9/IV/1989, 1 ♂ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Los Gemelos , 31 km N Santa Rosa ( Scalesia  forest, 0.6257o S 90.3853o W, 570 m), S. & J. Peck leg., 15/VII/1985, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Media Luna to Puntudo (0.6567o S 90.3257o W), S. Peck leg., IV/1989, 4 ♂ 5 juv. ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Puntudo ( Scalesia  forest, 0.6458o S 90.3293o W), I – III/ 1989, 5 ♂ 3 ♀ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  .

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

UFMG

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

IRSN

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oxyopidae

Genus

Oxyopes

Loc

Oxyopes incantatus

Santos, Adalberto J. 2017
2017
Loc

Oxyopes gracilis

Baert 2008: 57
Baert 1989: 45
1989