Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragon & Navarro-Rodriguez,

Valdez-Mondragon, Alejandro, Navarro-Rodriguez, Claudia I., Solis-Catalan, Karen P., Cortez-Roldan, Mayra R. & Juarez-Sanchez, A, 2019, Under an integrative taxonomic approach: the description of a new species of the genus Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae) from Mexico City, ZooKeys 892, pp. 93-133: 93

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.892.39558

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E176337C-6F78-4462-8FD0-ACB727C043E4

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D519C07A-29E9-51DB-9ED8-93FF9F079515

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragon & Navarro-Rodriguez
status

sp. nov.

Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragon & Navarro-Rodriguez  sp. nov. Figs 1-6View Figures 1–6, 7-9View Figures 7–13, 13View Figures 7–13, 14-17View Figures 14–18, 19-22View Figures 19–22, 23-28View Figures 23–28, 32-34View Figures 29–34, 35-37View Figures 35–37, 48-55View Figures 48–55, 56-61View Figures 56–61

Type material.

MEXICO: Mexico City: male holotype (LATLAX-T001) from Street Cruz Verde No. 132 (lat 19.2921, lon -99.174203; 2281 m), Tlalpan, 10-XII-2017, M. Sánchez-Vílchis leg. (inside house). Paratypes: 1 female (LATLAX-T002), 2 males (LATLAX-T003), 4 females (LATLAX-0004), same data as holotype.

Other material examined.

MEXICO: Mexico City: 5 females, 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara 0539), same data as holotype. 3 males, 8 immatures (LATLAX-Ara 0540), same data as holotype. 1 male (LATLAX-Ara 0542), 19-I-2019, A. Valdez leg., same locality as holotype. 1 female, 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara0156) from Street Tepocatl #61, Pedregal de Santo Domingo (19.330101, -99.147210; 2256 m), Coyoacán, 02-VII-2017, R. Cansino López leg. 1 male (LATLAX-Ara1087) from Pedregal de Santo Domingo, (19.328704, -99.164989, 2273 m) Coyoacán, 21-VII-2017 R. Cansiano Lopéz leg. 1 male, 1 female, 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara 0193) Los Reyes Copilco, Fracc. Areada Dpto. 102-A (19.336984, -99.182979, 2272 m), Coyoacán, IX-2017, D. Guerrero leg. 1 female, 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara196) Los Reyes Copilco, Fracc. Areada Dpto. 102-A (19.336984, -99.182979, 2272 m), Coyoacán, XII-2017, D. Guerrero leg. 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara 0482) from Street Toriello Guerra, Cuitlahuac S/N (19.297228, -99.174510, 2269 m) Tlalpan, II-2018, D. Barrales leg. 1 male 1 immature (LATLAX-Ara 0487) from Street Toriello Guerra, Cuitlahuac S/N (19.297228, -99.174510, 2269 m) Tlalpan, II-2018, D. Barrales leg. 1 female (LATLAX-Ara 0507) from Street Tepocatl #61, Pedregal de Santo Domingo (19.330101, -99.147210; 2256 m), Coyoacán 09-VIII-2018, R. Cansino Lopéz leg. Estado de Mexico: 1 female (LATLAX-Ara 0529) from Street Juaréz #23, San Mateo Ixtacalco (19.702460, -19.187150, 2355 m), Municipality Cuautitlán Izcalli 05-III-2019, M. Cortez. Tlaxcala: 1 male, 3 females, 15 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0132) from Street Reforma #5, Santiago Tlacochcalco (19.26939, -98.22303, 2245 m), Municipality of Tepeyanco, 06-VI-2017, M. Cortez, A. Juárez, J. Valerdi Cols. 1 female (LATLAX-Ara0188) from the Trinidad Tenexyecac (19.335588, -98.315688, 2241 m), Municipality of Ixtacuixtla of Mariano Matamoros, 02-III-2018, E. Briones leg. 2 males, 3 females, 10 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0500) from North Street Juárez #214, Huamantla downtown (19.3168, -97.92245, 2511 m), Municipality Huamantla, 15-V-2018, A. Valdez, I. Navarro, P. Solís, A. Cabrera, D. Montiel. Cols. 6 males, 5 females, 46 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0501) from Street North Juárez #214, Huamantla downtown (19.3168, -97.92245, 2511 m), Municipality Huamantla, 08-VI-2018, A. Valdez, I. Navarro, P. Solís, A. Cabrera, D. Montiel. Cols. 6 male, 2 females, 46 immatures (LATLAX-Ara0502) from Santiago Tlacochcalco (19.26939, -98.22303, 2245 m), Municipality of Tepeyanco, 25-IV-2018, P. Solís, I. Navarro A. Juárez, J. Valerdi Cols.

Etymology.

The species is a noun in apposition dedicated to Tenochtitlán (Nahuatl language) city, a large Mexica city-state in what is now Mexico City where the type locality is located. Tenochtitlán was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico, being the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century.

Diagnosis.

The male of Loxosceles tenochtitlan  sp. nov. morphologically resembles those of Loxosceles misteca  Gertsch, 1958 ( Figs 29-31View Figures 29–34, 38View Figures 38–41 - 47View Figures 42–47) from Guerrero; however, in the new species, the curvature of the basal-ventral part of the tibia of the male palp is less pronounced than in L. misteca  ¸ where it is prominent ( Figs 23View Figures 23–28, 25View Figures 23–28, 42View Figures 42–47, 44View Figures 42–47, 48-55View Figures 48–55). Both species have a spatula-shaped embolus; in the new species, the embolus is slightly wider than that of L. misteca  ( Figs 23View Figures 23–28, 25View Figures 23–28, 26View Figures 23–28, 42View Figures 42–47, 44View Figures 42–47, 45View Figures 42–47, 48-55View Figures 48–55, 62-65View Figures 62–69). In dorsal view, the embolus basally is wider in L. tenochtitlan  sp. nov. than in L. misteca  ( Figs 26View Figures 23–28, 45View Figures 42–47). Leg I length of males of L. tenochtitlan  sp. nov. is shorter than legs I of L. misteca  ( Fig. 81View Figures 78–81). The seminal receptacles of females of L. tenochtitlan  sp. nov. and L. misteca  are similar, however in the new species the distance between the base of the receptacles is larger than in L. misteca  ( Figs 56-61View Figures 56–61, 66-69View Figures 62–69), also, the genitalia of L. tenochtitlan  sp. nov. has small accessory lobes receptacles on each side ( Figs 56-61View Figures 56–61), which are absent on L. misteca  ( Figs 66-69View Figures 62–69).

Description.

Male (holotype; LATLAX-T001): Specimen collected manually, preserved and observed in 80% ethanol. Measurements: Total length (prosoma + opisthosoma) 6.70. Carapace 3.20 long, 2.90 wide. Clypeus length 0.45. Diameter of AME 0.13, PME 0.17, PLE 0.20; AME-PME 0.20 Labium: length 0.79, width 0.58. Sternum: length 1.80, width 1.62. Leg lengths: I (total 18.55): femur 5.00 / patella 1.10 / tibia 5.90 / metatarsus 5.35 / tarsus 1.20; II (20.98): 5.60 / 1.12 / 6.75 / 6.20 / 1.31; III (15.67): 4.40 / 1.10 / 4.45 / 4.60 / 1.12; IV (16.99): 4.75 / 1.02 / 4.92 / 5.10 / 1.20. Leg formula: 2-1-4-3.

Prosoma: Carapace orange, longer than wide, piriform, with small and numerous setae laterally, with defined pale brown violin-shaped pattern dorsally, darker toward ocular region, carapace without spots ( Fig. 19View Figures 19–22). Fovea brown ( Fig. 19View Figures 19–22). Six eyes in three groups, clypeus reddish orange. Sternum pale orange, longer than wide ( Fig. 20View Figures 19–22). Labium reddish, longer than wide, trapezoidal, fused to the sternum ( Fig. 20View Figures 19–22). Endites pale orange basally, reddish distally and white apically, longer than wide, rounded basally ( Fig. 20View Figures 19–22).

Legs: Coxae pale orange ( Fig. 20View Figures 19–22). Trochanters pale orange. Femora pale orange, reddish orange on femora I ( Figs 19View Figures 19–22, 20View Figures 19–22). Patellae dark orange. Tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi reddish orange.

Chelicerae: Fused basally, chelated chelicerae laminae, reddish orange, stridulatory lines laterally. Fangs reddish orange, paler distally, with long and thin setae.

Opisthosoma: Pale yellow, darker posteriorly, oval, longer than both width and height ( Figs 19View Figures 19–22, 20View Figures 19–22). Region of gonopore pale yellow ( Fig. 20View Figures 19–22), surrounded by small setae. Colulus long, pale orange, conical. Spinnerets pale orange, anterior lateral spinnerets cylindrical, longest, posterior median spinnerets shortest, with long setae; posterior lateral spinnerets cylindrical, slightly curved and with some long setae. Tracheal opening near posterior margin of opisthosoma.

Palps: Trochanters orange, femora reddish brown, long and thin, patellae reddish brown; tibiae reddish orange, darker, oval, curved ventrally, almost straight dorsally, wider distally than ventrally ( Figs 23-25View Figures 23–28). Tarsus oval, reddish brown, bulb oval, with short, wide and slightly curved embolus ( Figs 26-28View Figures 23–28, 32-34View Figures 29–34, 35View Figures 35–37, 36View Figures 35–37). Canal along embolus ( Figs 32-34View Figures 29–34, 37View Figures 35–37).

Female (paratype; LATLAX-T002): Specimen collected manually, preserved and observed in 80% ethanol. Measurements: Total length 10.40. Carapace 3.75 long, 3.25 wide. Clypeus length 0.55. Diameter of AME 0.16, PME 0.20, PLE 0.20; AME-PME 0.23 Labium: length 0.80, width 0.75. Sternum: length 2.05, width 1.75. Leg lengths: I (total 18.73): femur 5.10 / patella 1.20 / tibia 5.68 / metatarsus 5.50 / tarsus 1.25; II (19.79): 5.50 / 1.24 / 6.10 / 5.60 / 1.35; III (15.83): 4.50 / 1.25 / 4.50 / 4.50 / 1.08; IV (18.09): 5.10 / 1.20 / 5.18 / 5.37 / 1.24. Leg formula: 2-1-4-3.

Differs from the male as follows. Prosoma: Carapace paler orange, with darker brown violin-shaped pattern; ocular region dark brown ( Fig. 21View Figures 19–22). Clypeus dark reddish orange. Sternum dark orange ( Fig. 22View Figures 19–22). Labium and endites more reddish orange, endites flat basally ( Fig. 22View Figures 19–22). Legs: Coxae dark orange ( Figs 21View Figures 19–22, 22View Figures 19–22). Trochanters dark orange ( Fig. 22View Figures 19–22). All femora pale orange ( Figs 21View Figures 19–22, 22View Figures 19–22). Patellae dark orange. Tibiae, metatarsi, and tarsi pale reddish orange ( Figs 21View Figures 19–22, 22View Figures 19–22).

Chelicerae: Wider than in the male. Slightly dark reddish brown, with stridulatory lines laterally. Fangs dark reddish orange.

Opisthosoma: Opisthosoma pale yellow ( Figs 21View Figures 19–22, 22View Figures 19–22). Spinnerets dark orange.

Palps: Trochanters pale orange, femora pale brown, paler ventrally; patellae pale brown, tibiae and tarsi reddish surrounded with several long and sparse setae. Tibiae cylindrical, tarsi conical.

Genital area: Seminal receptacles asymmetric, S-shaped, curved basally and apically with rounded lobes ( Fig. 56View Figures 56–61). Base of seminal receptacles wide and slightly sclerotized, round internally ( Fig. 56View Figures 56–61). See variation section for more details ( Figs 57-61View Figures 56–61).

Variation.

MALES. Mexico City: Males from Coyoacán are light brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace, males from Tlalpan are light brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace. Tlaxcala: Males from Santiago Tlacochcalco Municipality of Tepeyanco are light brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace and light brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace. Males from Huamantla are dark brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace. Mexico City: Coyoacán (N = 3): Tibia I 5.9-6.5 (x̄ = 6.1); carapace length (CL) 2.6-3.1 (x̄ = 2.9); carapace width (CW) 2.4-2.7 (x̄ = 2.5). Tlalpan (N = 3): Tibia I 6.0-7.6 (x̄ = 5.8); carapace length (CL) 2.2-3.2 (x̄ = 2.8); carapace width (CW) 2.5-2.7 (x̄ = 2.6). Tlaxcala: Santiago Tlacochcalco Municipality of Tepeyanco (N = 7): Tibia I 3.8-6.6 (x̄ = 5.0); carapace length (CL) 2.5-4.2 (x̄ = 3.1); carapace width (CW) 2.2-3.2 (x̄ = 2.7). Huamantla (N = 3): Tibia I 5.0-6.5 (x̄ = 5.8); carapace length (CL) 3.2-3.3 (x̄ = 3.2); carapace width (CW) 2.7-2.9 (x̄ = 2.8). FEMALES. Mexico City: Females from Coyoacán are dark brown, legs the same color as the carapace. Females from Tlalpan are dark brown, legs the same color as the carapace. Estado de Mexico: Female from San Mateo Ixtacalco, Municipality Cuautitlán Izcalli is dark brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace. Tlaxcala: Females from Santiago Tlacochcalco, Municipality of Tepeyanco are light brown, legs slightly darker than the carapace. Females from Huamantla are dark brown, legs the same color as the carapace and light brown, legs the same color as the carapace and light brown. A female from the Trinidad Tenexyecac, Municipality of Ixtacuixtla is light brown, legs the same color as the carapace. Mexico City: Coyoacán (N = 3): Tibia I 5.8-7.1 (x̄ = 6.7); carapace length (CL) 3.9-4.2 (x̄ = 4.1); carapace width (CW) 3.2-4.0 (x̄ = 3.7). Tlalpan (N = 6): Tibia I 4.6-6.3 (x̄ = 5.2); carapace length (CL) 1.7-4.0 (x̄ = 3.2); carapace width (CW) 1.8-3.3 (x̄ = 2.6). Estado de Mexico: San Mateo Ixtacalco, Municipality Cuautitlán Izcalli (N = 1) Tibia I 3.6; carapace length (CL) 2.5; carapace width (CW) 2.5. Tlaxcala: Santiago Tlacochcalco Municipality of Tepeyanco (N = 2): Tibia I 4.5, 5.3; carapace length (CL) 3.2, 3.3; carapace width (CW) 2.5, 2.9. Huamantla (N = 11): Tibia I 4.1-6.7 (x̄ = 5.1); carapace length (CL) 1.7-4.0 (x̄ = 3.3); carapace width (CW) 1.8-3.5 (x̄ = 2.7). Trinidad Tenexyecac, Municipality of Ixtacuixtla (N = 1): Tibia I 5.4; carapace length (CL) 3.3; carapace width (CW) 2.5.

There is little variation in the shape of the male palps, even those of specimens from different populations ( Figs 48-55View Figures 48–55). The shape of the embolus varies little; the specimens from Tlaxcala have the embolus slightly more curved than the specimens from Mexico City ( Figs 52-55View Figures 48–55). Also, the specimens from Tlaxcala have a slightly thinner palpal tibia than specimens from Mexico City ( Figs 48-51View Figures 48–55). The seminal receptacles of females are asymmetrical, and although all they are all S-shaped with rounded or oval lobes apically, they are highly variable ( Figs 56-61View Figures 56–61). The small accessory lobes of the receptacles on each side vary in width among specimens ( Figs 56-61View Figures 56–61). The internal part of the bases of the seminal receptacles is round, wide and slightly sclerotized in all specimens, with the distance between them equal to their height ( Figs 56-61View Figures 56–61).

Natural history.

The specimens of L. tenochtitlan  sp. nov. ( Figs 1View Figures 1–6 - 9View Figures 7–13, 11View Figures 7–13 - 17View Figures 14–18) were collected in urban areas in houses and buildings ( Figs 10View Figures 7–13, 18View Figures 14–18). The specimens from Mexico City were collected in houses, on doors, storage boxes, drawers, under chairs and tables ( Figs 7-13View Figures 7–13). The specimens from Tlaxcala were collected in houses behind doors, behind decorative items on the wall, under beds, under chairs and tables, among wooden boards for construction, under wardrobes, and between ornamental artificial plants, and under stored items ( Figs 14-18View Figures 14–18). Even the first record from Tlaxcala (Trinidad Tenexyecac) was a female specimen collected among construction debris close to a football/soccer field. Some specimens from Huamantla, Tlaxcala were collected inside an abandoned house, mainly under stored items, behind doors and under wardrobes; other specimens were collected outside of a house in spaces and cracks in a wall ( Figs 14-17View Figures 14–18).

Distribution.

MEXICO: Mexico City, Tlaxcala, Estado de Mexico ( Figs 82View Figure 82–83 - 84View Figures 84).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sicariidae

Genus

Loxosceles