Protoneura corculum Calvert, 1907,

Ellenrieder, Natalia Von & Garrison, Rosser W., 2017, A synopsis of the Neotropical genus Protoneura (Odonata: Coenagrionidae), Zootaxa 4361 (1), pp. 1-76: 22-23

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4361.1.1

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scientific name

Protoneura corculum Calvert, 1907
status

 

Protoneura corculum Calvert, 1907 

Figs. 8View FIGURES 5–8 (♂ habitus), 32 (♀ habitus), 54 (♀ mes. plate), 78 (gen. lig.), 104 (♂ app.), 121 (map)

Protoneura corculum Calvert, 1907: 395  –397, pl. 10, Figs. 41–44View FIGURES 41–44 (in key, description of ♂ ♀, illustrations of ♂ S10, base of wing, and ♀ pronotum and mesostigmal plates);— Williamson (1915: 619, 623, Figs. 2View FIGURES 1–4, 13, 14View FIGURES 13–16; discussion of relationships, in key, illustration of wings and thoracic pattern);— Alayo (1968a, b: 74, 75, Figs. 23BView FIGURES 21–24, 39BView FIGURES 37–40, 42I, 42JView FIGURES 41–44; key to Cuban species, illustrations of ♂ wings, head, thorax, and S10);— Paulson (1982: 252, 260; Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba);— Measey (1994: 45; Belize);— Boomsma & Dunkle (1996: 25; Belize);— González-Soriano & Novelo-Gutiérrez (1996: 162; Mexico);— Trapero-Quintana & Naranjo-López (2003: 27; Cuba);—Trapero-Quintana & Naranjo-López (2004: 180; in key for Cuba);— Westfall & May (2006: 431–433, 438, 439, Figs. 223A, 224C, 226C; in key to northern representatives of genus, characterization of adults, illustrations of ♂ thorax and S10, ♀ pronotum and mesostigmal plates);— Garrison et al. (2003: 20; type information);— Pessacq (2008: 527; in phylogenetic analysis);— Trapero-Quintana & Torres-Cambas (2008: 26; Cuba);— Garrison et al. (2010: 379, 381, Figs. 2510, 2511, 2514; illustrations ♂ genital ligula and S10);— González-Soriano et al. (2011: 184; Mexico);— González-Soriano & Novelo-Gutiérrez (2011: 2, Appendix VIII.21.2; Mexico);— Meurgey (2013: 300, 305; distribution).

Primary types. Holotype ♂. Guatemala: Livingston , 18 ii 1905, E. B. Williamson leg. [ UMMZ]. 

Specimens examined. 17 ♂ 19 ♀: MEXICO, Yucatan State  : 1 ♂, Xlacah Cenote, Merida {21°5' N, 89°35' W, 6 m}, 22 vii 1932, E.P. Creaser leg. [ UMMZ]GoogleMaps  ; Veracruz State: 8 ♂ 11 ♀ (six pairs in tandem), Caldera Lake , near Motel Playa Azul and Laguna Catemaco (18°25'34'' N, 95°5'41'' W, 349 m), 18– viii 1976, R.W. Garrison & J.A. Garrison leg. [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (in tandem), same data but [ CSCA]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (in tandem), same data but [ FSCA]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (in tandem), same data but [ UMMZ]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, vicinity of Lagunas Azul and Emilia, Los Tuxtlas Biological Station , about 30 km NE of Catemaco (18°25'12'' N, 95°6'36'' W, 600 m), 7–14 viii 1982, R.W. Garrison leg. [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂ 1 ♀, Laguna del Cacahuateno, Los Tuxtlas {18°24'41'' N, 95°7'51'' W, 508 m}, 3 viii 1978, E. González leg. [ FSCA]. BELIZE, Cayo Dist. GoogleMaps  : 1 ♂, stream on W highway at Unitedville School, 30 v 1993, S.W. Dunkle leg. [FSCA]; Toledo Dist.: 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (in tandem), San Antonio, about 5 m W of Southern highway junction, borrow pits  , 2 mi N of Bladen River {16°14' N, 89°1'W, 124 m}, 8 vi 1993, S.W. Dunkle leg. [RWG]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Piedra Lagoon, 0.9 mi S of junction Southern Highway and Punta Gorda road {16°6' N, 88°47' W], 7 vi 1993, S.W. Dunkle leg. [ FSCA]. GUATEMALA, El Petén Dept.GoogleMaps  : 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (in copula), Aguada, Tikal {17°13' N, 89°36' W, 194m}, 29 vii 1963, T.W. Donnelly leg. [ FSCA]GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, E of Laguna Perdida {17°3' N, 90°13' W, 74 m}, 19 vii 1970, J.T. MacLean leg. [FSCA]; 1 ♂, Flores, 24–30 vi 1980, W. Brehme leg. [FSCA]; Izabal Dept.: 1 ♂ (paratype), Livingston {15°50' N, 88°45' W}, 18 ii 1905, E.B. Williamson leg. [ UMMZ]GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂, Morales {15°29' N, 88°49' W, 40 m}, 27 v 1909, E.B. Williamson leg. [UMMZ].

Characterization. Male: Epicranium black with metallic copper and green reflections, thorax dorsum black and orange, dorsum of S1–2, distal portion of S3–5, and S6–10 black; pale colors orange and yellow ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5–8). Pronotum black with anterior and lateral margins orange. Mesepisternum orange with middorsal carina and dorsal margin black; mesepimeron black with small orange spot on anterodorsal corner; metepisternum yellow with distal 1/4 black, with an orange spot on anterodorsal corner; metepimeron entirely yellow. Coxa, trochanter, and basal half of femur yellow; remainder of femur brown; tibia and tarsi yellow with brown margins; tibial spurs shorter than twice intervening spaces. Genital ligula lacking lateral lobes and with a straight distal margin, with margins of distal segment spiculate, and laterodistal corners projected anteroventrally ( Fig. 78View FIGURES 71–78). Cercus shorter than S10 length, shorter than half of paraproct’s length, about as long as wide, with a depression on external lateral surface ( Fig. 104aView FIGURES 103–105); medial surface with a small blunt ventrobasal and a rounded mediobasal tooth; tip slightly bifid, with a stronger outer tooth and a lower blunt medial tooth, visible in dorsal and mediodorsal views ( Figs. 104b, cView FIGURES 103–105). Paraproct about twice as long as S10 length, at midlength narrowing to half its basal width and with medial surface concave ( Fig. 104aView FIGURES 103–105). TL 35–38; Hw 16–18.

Female: As male but pale colors yellow; mesepisternum black with narrow yellow antehumeral stripe extending along basal 1/2; mesepimeron with narrow yellow humeral stripe along distal 1/2; S1–10 black dorsally, S3–7 with narrow yellow basal ring; pale lateral area of S9 extended medioposteriorly to about 1/2 of segment height ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 29–32). Middle lobe of pronotum lacking pronounced lateral depressions; posterior lobe entire, smoothly convex, directed posterodorsally (Fig. 54c). Mesostigmal plate upright and foliate, adjacent at posteromedial corner with a transverse tubercle on mesepisternum (Figs. 54a, b); no depressions behind mesostigmal plates. TL 31.5–34.5; Hw 17.5–19.5.

Diagnosis. Protoneura corculum  and P. paucinervis  can be distinguished from all congeners by male paraproct longer than twice cercus length ( Figs. 104aView FIGURES 103–105; 109a) and female upright foliaceous mesostigmal plate with medial corner adjacent to a transverse tubercle on mesepisternum (Figs. 54a, b; 59a, c). Male of P. corculum  differs from P. paucinervis  by orange color of mesepisternum ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5–8; yellow in P. paucinervis  , Fig. 13View FIGURES 13–16), and by blunt ventrobasal and mediobasal cercus teeth (104b, c; pointed in P. paucinervis  , Fig. 109bView FIGURES 109–111). Female differs by black on metepisternum against metepisternal-metepimeral suture extending along distal 1/4 of suture in P. corculum  ( Fig. 32View FIGURES 29–32; along distal 3/ 4 in P. paucinervis  , Fig. 37View FIGURES 37–40), and by sides of posterior lobe of pronotum smoothly convex in P. corculum  (Fig. 54c; straight in P. paucinervis  , Fig. 59b).

Remarks. Calvert (1907) was unsure of the pale colors of the male when describing this species. He stated that the thorax was mostly pale blue but this was in error most likely due to postmortem effects.

Habitat and biology. Adults found at lagoons, cenotes (DRP, RWG), and open slow moving rivers surrounded by forest ( Measey 1994), where tandem pairs hover over water’s surface near edge of shore (R. W. Garrison pers. obs.). Pairs oviposit on floating stems in usual Protoneura  fashion, with female abdomen bent at approximately a right angle in two places so the posterior part of S6 can be held against S2 between the wings, stabilizing it, presumably an adaptation to the long, slender abdomen in this genus (D. R. Paulson pers. comm.).

Distribution. Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Cuba ( Fig. 121View FIGURES 121–122).

UMMZ

University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology

CSCA

California State Collection of Arthropods

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Odonata

Family

Protoneuridae

Genus

Protoneura

Loc

Protoneura corculum Calvert, 1907

Ellenrieder, Natalia Von & Garrison, Rosser W. 2017
2017
Loc

Protoneura corculum

Garrison 2010: 379
Garrison 2003: 20
Alayo 1968: 74
Calvert 1907: 395
1968