Perania Thorell, 1890

Schwendinger, Peter J., 2013, A taxonomic revision of the spider genus Perania Thorell, 1890 (Araneae: Tetrablemmidae: Pacullinae) with the descriptions of eight new species, Revue suisse de Zoologie 120 (4), pp. 585-663 : 588-596

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Perania Thorell, 1890
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Perania Thorell, 1890

Perania Thorell, 1890: 315 ; type species by original designation and monotypy, P. pallida Thorell, 1890 [formally placed in the synonymy of Perania nigra ( Thorell, 1890) by Lehtinen, 1981: 15].

Mirania Lehtinen, 1981: 16-17 ; type species by designation and by monotypy, Phaedima armata Thorell, 1890 ; Mirania placed in the synonymy of Perania by Schwendinger, 1989: 579.

REMARKS: There is some confusion about which is the valid type species of Perania . Bourne (1980: 259) was the first to note that the juvenile holotype of Perania pallida (the originally designated type species of Perania ) is probably conspecific with either Phaedima picea Thorell, 1890 or Phaedima nigra Thorell, 1890 (both latter species at that time in Paculla Simon, 1887, now in Perania ). On page 250 of the same paper Bourne more specifically suggested that P. pallida is conspecific with P. nigra , but on page 254 he explicitly gave P. picea as the type species “Type species of the genus: Perania picea ( Thorell, 1890) ”. Lehtinen (1981: 15) was more decisive about this and placed P. pallida in the synonymy of P. nigra . The type locality of all three nominal species is Mt Singgalang. As the new specimens of P. nigra were found quite close to Mt Singgalang, and new specimens of P. picea much further away, it is possible that an incorrect locality was given for the types of P. picea . Thus it appears more likely that the type of P. pallida is conspecific with the types of P. nigra . I therefore follow Lehtinen’s decision.

Phaedima Thorell, 1881 (type species Phaedima granulosa Thorell, 1881 ) is a junior homonym of Phaedima Robineau-Desvoidy, 1863 in the Diptera . Simon (1887: 194) replaced the name Phaedima Thorell, 1881 with Paculla Simon, 1887 and later (1894: 573) explicitly transferred all corresponding species. These included Phaedima granulosa , armata , P. nigra and P. picea , but not Perania pallida . Paculla granulosa is still in that combination. Paculla picea and Paculla nigra were transferred to Perania by Bourne (1980: 254, 256) and by Lehtinen (1981: 16, 15); Paculla armata was transferred to Mirania by Lehtinen (1981: 17) and then to Perania by Schwendinger (1989: 579).

When Bourne (1980) synonymised Perania pallida with either Paculla picea or Paculla nigra (unclear; see above), and when Lehtinen (1981) unambiguously synonymised Perania pallida with Paculla nigra , both authors at the same time also transferred Paculla picea and Paculla nigra to Perania . Therefore Perania pallida (the type species of Perania ) was never in Paculla and certainly never in Phaedima Thorell. Strictly speaking Paculla and Phaedima Thorell are thus not synonyms of Perania .

DIAGNOSIS: Distinguished from all other Pacullinae by both sexes possessing fragmented lateral opisthosomal plates and a relatively large, posteriorly widened sternal apophysis; males with a clypeal process (not present in all species), conical setal bases on tibia I and metaratsus I, and a long, narrow cymbial apex (except for one species); females with a reduced dorsal opisthosomal plate, a more or less strongly fragmented anterior opisthosomal plate (except for one species), a more or less strongly fragmented preanal plate, a completely fragmented postgenital plate, and a leathery anterior collar of their vulva.

DESCRIPTION: The following can be added to the observations of Bourne (1980: 252-254) and Lehtinen (1981: 14): Body length 4-13 mm. “Thoracic” portion of carapace in both sexes unmodified (in most species), or with a pair of low humps (only in P. nigra ; Fig. 21A-D), or with a pair of long, pointed, dorsad-directed horns (only in P. armata ; Fig. 24A-F). Clypeus of males unmodified, or with a more or less strongly developed process [short, truncate or pointed (Figs 27A-D, 30A-B); or medium-sized to long and digitiform (Figs 15A-B, 19A-F, 31A-D, 34A-B); or long and apically widened (Figs 4A-D, 7A-B, 9A-E, 12A-B, 17A]. Clypeus of females unmodified (in most species), or with a short, rounded hump (in P. tumida sp. n., P. egregia sp. n. and P. quadrifurcata sp. n.; Figs 7C-F, 9F-J and 12G-H, respectively), or with a short, pointed cone (only in some females of P. deelemanae sp. n.; Fig. 31F-H). The larger the clypeal process, the lower the “cephalic” portion of the carapace. Chelicerae of most males and females unmodified (Fig. 2H), or with a distolateral boss in males of P. robusta and P. siamensis (Fig. 2A, E), or with a mediolateral hump in both sexes (more pronounced in female) of P. coryne (Fig. 17B-C). Sclerotised parts of legs and palps very dark (as sclerites elsewhere on the body), contrasting with white or creamcoloured membranes. Tibia I and metatarsus I (in P. utara sp. n. also metatarsus II) of all males with conical setal bases prolaterally to ventrally (Fig. 36G-H); these mostly absent in females (present, but weaker than in males, on leg I of all P. egregia sp. n. and some P. quadrifurcata sp. n.). Metatarsus I in males and females of P. cerastes and P. coryne ventrally with slightly to moderately elevated setal bases carrying proximally thick, strongly sigmoid setae abruptly turning distad and then away from axis of metatarsus (Fig. 36G); in males and females of P. robusta equivalent setae also with basal thickening (like an onion plant) but distal portion straight or only slightly sigmoid; these setae in other species unmodified. Postgenital plate of males short and usually more or less completely fused to posterior margin of pulmonary plate (Figs 27F, 36B-C), rarely separate (Fig. 27E); in females always completely fragmented into microplates (Fig. 36E). Preanal plate well-developed in males (Fig. 36A-C); in females more or less modified: reduced to a short, transverse, compass-needle shaped sclerite [in P. nigra (Fig. 21F), P. siamensis and in some P. quadrifurcata sp. n. and some P. cerastes ], or fragmented into normal or slightly enlarged microplates (in most species; Fig. 36E). Opisthosoma additionally with three pairs of ventrolateral plates with a finely granular surface, lying laterally between unpaired ventral plates (pulmonary, postgenital, preanal and anal plates) with a smooth surface: (1) anterior ventrolateral plates long, narrow, lying parallel to lateral margin of pulmonary plate or being more or less fused with it, (2) median pair [corresponding to Shear’s (1978: 8) “perigenital plates”] somewhat triangular, with or without interconnecting bridge or bridge fragments (in males only), situated between postgenital plate and preanal plate, (3) posterior pair oval to triangular, smaller than the other pairs, always without interconnecting bridge, situated between preanal plate and anal plate (Fig. 36B-C, E). Strap-like lateral plates mostly absent (distinct rudiments only in male of P. selatan sp. n.), but instead several bands of microplates present. Posterior side of opisthosoma of males with bands of isolated microplates (in continuation of lateral bands), or with up to seven horizontal strap-like plates (Fig. 37B-C); only female of P. utara sp. n. with eight such strap-like plates (shorter than in male), in females of all other species these being fragmented into isolated microplates (Fig. 37D). Microplates near posterior margin of dorsal scutum conically elevated in females of some species (Fig. 36E); not so in males. A few microplates on anterior side of opisthosoma on or above anterior margin of pulmonary plate obliquely elevated and pointed in males and females (less distinct) of P. harau sp. n., P. deelemanae sp. n. and P. selatan sp. n.

Male palp usually with quite long and pointed (in most species; e.g. Fig. 28E, J), rarely short and blunt cymbial apex (only in P. egregia sp. n.; Fig. 10C-D); bulbus of palpal organ globular (e.g. Fig. 13A) or pear-shaped (e.g. Fig. 25A, C), with a constricted V-shaped (e.g. Fig. 19H, J) or U-shaped (e.g. Fig. 25A) transition to the embolus (in most species), rarely without a recognisable transition (only in P. egregia sp. n.; Fig. 10A-B, E); embolus rarely straight, short, deep/wide at base (only in P. egregia sp. n.; Fig. 10A-B, E), usually sigmoid, long, narrow/shallow at base (all other species; e.g. Fig. 7G-H); apex of embolus somewhat triangular (Fig. 2B-C), or fan-shaped (Fig. 2F), or deeply divided into 2-4 tips or lobes (the upper one, if present, called “subterminal lamella”, the lower one “embolic part”; e.g. Fig. 2I). No conductor. Palpal tarsus of females without claw. Pocket-like vulva with rigid, partially or completely pigmented ventral wall and with a membranous, transpartent dorsal wall, both continuing into the anterior part of the cuticular uterus in the form of a leathery, strongly pigmented (at least in posterior portion), dorso-ventrally depressed anterior collar (e.g. Fig. 2K, P); a pair of large, more or less distinctly fused, pigmented or unpigmented ventral spermathecae situated between genital atrium and anterior collar (e.g. Fig. 2K); spermathecae with more or less clearly outlined patches of gland pores anteriorly and laterally (extending far onto dorsal sides in some species; e.g. Fig. 23A) in all species (e.g. Fig. 2K), and with external ventral pouches (only in P. utara sp. n.; Fig. 18E-G) or internal ventral chambers (e.g. Fig. 33B-E) in some species.

SPECIES INCLUDED: P. armata ( Thorell, 1890) (Sumatra), P. birmanica ( Thorell, 1898) ( Myanmar), P. cerastes Schwendinger, 1994 (peninsular Malaysia), P. coryne Schwendinger, 1994 (peninsular Malaysia), P. egregia sp. n. ( Thailand), P. ferox sp. n. ( Thailand), P. harau sp. n. (Sumatra), P. deelemanae sp. n. (Sumatra), P. korinchica Hogg, 1919 (Sumatra), P. nasicornis Schwendinger, 1994 ( Thailand), P. nasuta Schwendinger, 1989 ( Thailand), P. nigra ( Thorell, 1890) (Sumatra), P. picea ( Thorell, 1890) (Sumatra), P. quadrifurcata sp. n. ( Thailand), P. robusta Schwendinger, 1989 ( Thailand, China), P. selatan sp. n. (Sumatra), P. siamensis Schwendinger, 1994 ( Thailand), P. tumida sp. n. ( Thailand), P. utara sp. n. (Sumatra). Total: 19 species.

DISTRIBUTION: Southern China, eastern Myanmar (= Burma), Thailand, peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, islands of the Lingga Archipelago (Fig. 1).

KEY TO THE SPECIES OF PERANIA :

1 Males ....................................................... 2

- Females.................................................... 15

2(1) “Thoracic” portion of carapace with a pair of long, straight, pointed horns (Fig. 24A-C). Western Sumatra ....................... P. armata

- “Thoracic” portion of carapace without such horns (only a pair of indistinct humps in that position in P. nigra , Fig. 21A-C)................. 3

3(2) Clypeus without process........................................ 4

- Clypeus with process.......................................... 7

4(3) Chelicerae with distolateral boss or hump (Fig. 2A, E; not to be confused with mediolateral bulge on chelicerae of male and female of P. coryne , see Fig. 17B-C)............................................... 5

- Chelicerae without distolateral boss or hump (Fig. 2H)................. 6

5(4) Large spiders (5.8-6.6 mm carapace length); chelicerae with pronounced distolateral boss (Fig. 2A); metatarsus I ventrally with a band of proximally swollen, straight setae; apex of embolus shallow (only slightly deeper than median portion of embolus), somewhat triangular, indistinctly bifid (Fig. 2B-C). Northern Thailand, southern China.. P. robusta

- Medium-sized spiders (4.7-5.4 mm carapace length); chelicerae with less pronounced distolateral hump (Fig. 2E); metatarsus I ventrally with normal setae; apex of embolus not split, much deeper than median portion of embolus, fan-shaped (Fig. 2F). Southern Thailand.... P. siamensis

6(4) “Thoracic” portion of carapace with a pair of low humps (Fig. 21A-C); embolus much longer than bulbus, together forming a U with near parallel sides (Fig. 22A). No conical setal bases on metatarsus II. Western Sumatra ......................................... P. nigra

- “Thoracic” portion of carapace without posterior humps; embolus about as long as bulbus, at right angles to each other (Fig. 18B-D). Conical setal bases (as in Fig. 36H) on metatarsus II. Northern Sumatra. P. utara sp. n.

7(3) Clypeal process short, more or less distinctly pointed, occupying less than 10% of carapace length (Figs 27A-D, 30A-B, 34A-B).............. 8

- Clypeal process medium-sized or long, occupying distinctly more than 10% of carapace length, digitiform, apex not wider than its base in dorsal view (Figs 15A-B, 19A-F, 31A-D)................................. 9

- Clypeal process long, occupying about 20-30% of carapace length, apex distinctly wider than base in dorsal view (Figs 4A-D, 7A-B, 9A-E, 12A-B, 17A)................................................ 10

8(7) Clypeal process indistinct, pointed (Fig. 27A-D). Median portion of embolus only slightly bent, about as deep as base of embolus; subterminal lamella short, triangular or rounded, distad-directed; embolic part tapering, abruptly bent ventrad (Fig. 28). No remnants of lateral opisthosomal plates; no or only few microplates on posterior side of opisthosoma interconnected. Western Sumatra .................. P. picea

- Clypeal process indistinct, asymmetrically pointed (Fig. 30A-B). Median portion of embolus strongly bent, distinctly deeper than base;

subterminal lamella a broadly and obliquely truncate lobe; embolic part a small pointed tooth with slightly bent tip, directed ventrad (Fig. 30C-H). No remnants of lateral opisthosomal plates; five distinct straplike horizontal plates on posterior side of opisthosoma. Western Sumatra ................................................. P. korinchica

- Clypeal process distinct, pointed (Fig. 34A-B). Median portion of embolus strongly bent, as deep as or only slightly deeper than base of embolus; subterminal lamella a narrowly rounded, distad-directed lobe; embolic part indistinct, a short, widely rounded lobe (Fig. 34D-G). Remnants of lateral plates in anterior portion of opisthosoma; no or only few microplates in bands on posterior side of opisthosoma interconnected. Southern Sumatra ......................... P. selatan sp. n.

9(7) Clypeal process long (occupying more than 20% of carapace length; Fig. 15A-B); ventral side of metatarsus I with proximally swollen, strongly sigmoid setae on low tubercles (Fig. 36G); embolus short, slightly bent, median portion with small prodorsal tooth; no ventrad-directed subapical lamella; apex deep, distinctly bifid, carrying a group of spinuliform microtrichia and a bulge prolaterally (Fig. 15C-T). Peninsular Malaysia............................................. P. cerastes

- Clypeal process medium-sized (10-15% of carapace length; Fig. 19A-F); metatarsus I ventrally without strongly sigmoid setae; embolus long, strongly sigmoid, median portion straight; a triangular, ventrad-directed subapical lamella below shallow, hook-shaped apex; subterminal lamella very indistinct, distad-directed, embolic part tapering (Fig. 19G-J). Western Sumatra .................................... P. harau sp. n.

- Clypeal process medium-sized (10-15% of carapace length; Fig. 31A-D); metatarsus I ventrally without strongly sigmoid setae; embolus long, strongly sigmoid, its apex slightly deeper than median portion, lanceolate, with a short, widely rounded, dorsad-directed subterminal lamella; no ventral subapical lamella (Fig. 32B-F). Southern Sumatra ............................................... P. deelemanae sp. n.

10(7) Cymbium short, its apex strongly reduced and widely truncate (Fig. 10C, D); palpal organ exceptionally stout, without marked transition between bulbus and embolus (Fig. 10A-B, E). Northeastern Thailand.. P. egregia sp. n.

- Cymbium long, its apex well-developed, narrow and pointed (Figs 5A-C, 7G-I, 13A-C); palpal organ with marked transition between voluminous bulbus and slender embolus (Figs 5A-B, 7G-H, 13A-B).......... 11

11(10) Clypeal process hourglass-shaped in dorsal view, its distal margin strongly arched (Fig. 17A); retrolateral margin of chelicera with weak (in female more pronounced) median bulge (Fig. 17B); metatarsus I ventrally with strongly sigmoid, proximally swollen setae on slightly elevated bases (as in Fig. 36G); apex of embolus not much deeper than base, indistinctly divided into small, narrowly rounded or pointed subterminal lamella and larger, more widely rounded, lobate embolic part (Fig. 17D-E). Peninsular Malaysia.......................... P. coryne

- Clypeal process anvil-shaped in dorsal view, its distal margin slightly arched or straight (Figs 4A, C-D, 7A, 12A); metatarsus I ventrally without strongly sigmoid setae; apex of embolus different...............12

12(11) Apex of embolus with four distinct tips (two on each part of deeply split apex), three of them long, shallow and pointed, one of them short, deeper and rounded (Fig. 13A-B, D-G). Western and eastern Thailand.................................................. P. quadrifurcata sp. n.

- Apex of embolus different, if four tips present, then three of them on embolic part of split apex and not pointed (Figs 2I-J, M-N, 5A-B, D-G, 7G-H)..................................................... 13

13(12) Deep and lobate subterminal lamella clearly surpassing shallow pointed embolic part without a dorsal lobe (Fig. 5A-B, D-G). Western Thailand.................................................. P. ferox sp. n.

- Subterminal lamella not or only indistinctly surpassing deep embolic part carrying a dorsal lobe...................................... 14

14(13) Subterminal lamella and embolic part not or only slightly overlapping, the former narrowly rounded, the latter broadly truncate (Fig. 2I-J). Northern Thailand....................................... P. nasuta

- Subterminal lamella and embolic part distinctly overlapping, the former narrowly rounded, the latter tripartite, its median process lobate, widely rounded and most prominent, its lower process small, digitiform and ventrad-directed (Fig. 7G-H). Northern Thailand........... P. tumida sp. n.

- Subterminal lamella and embolic part distinctly overlapping, the former widely rounded, the latter indistinctly bipartite, its lower process large, deep, with pointed, distad-directed tip (Fig. 2M-N). Northern Thailand................................................. P. nasicornis

15(1) “Thoracic” portion of carapace with a pair of long, pointed horns (Fig. 24D). Anterior opisthosomal plate entire, separated from pulmonary plate (Fig. 24H-I). Ventral wall of spermathecae with a pair of internal chambers separated from each other (Fig. 26B, E). Western Sumatra .............................................. P. armata

- “Thoracic” portion of carapace with a pair of indistinct humps (Fig. 21D). Anterior opisthosomal plate entire, widely connected to pulmonary plate (Fig. 21E). Ventral wall of spermathecae with a pair of internal chambers connected to each other by a median bridge (Fig. 23B, E). Western Sumatra ......................................... P. nigra

- “Thoracic” portion of carapace without modifications. Anterior opisthosomal plate more or less strongly fragmented, not connected to pulmonary plate (e.g. Fig. 31I)....................................... 16

16(15) Eight more or less complete strap-like horizontal plates on posterior side of opisthosoma (Fig. 37C). Ventral wall of spermathecae with a large pair of external pockets (Fig. 18E-G)..................... P. utara sp. n.

- Only bands of microplates on posterior side of opisthosoma (as in Fig. 37D). Ventral wall of spermathecae without external pockets............ 17

17(16) Ventral wall of spermathecae with a pair of internal chambers (Figs 20B-D, 23B-C, E-F, 26B-C, E-F, 29B-C, 33B-E, 35B-E).......... 27

- Ventral side of of spermathecae without internal chambers.............. 18

18(17) Tibia I and metatarsus I usually with conical setal bases ventrally (as in Fig. 36H; only absent in one P. quadrifurcata sp. n. female examined)..... 19

- Leg I always without conical setal bases........................... 20

19(18) Clypeal hump always distinct (Fig. 9F-J); spermathecae without posterolateral compartments; anterior collar of vulva surpassing spermathecae for almost their length; median zone of anterior collar distinctly less pigmented than lateral zones (Fig. 11). Northeastern Thailand. P. egregia sp. n.

- Clypeal hump indistinct (Fig. 12G-H) or absent; each spermatheca with a distinctly separate posterolateral compartment; anterior collar of vulva not or only slightly surpassing spermathecae; median zone of anterior collar slightly less pigmented than lateral zones (Fig. 14A-D). Western to northeastern Thailand........................ P. quadrifurcata sp. n.

20(18) Clypeal hump always present, distinct or indistinct (Fig. 7C-F); vulva as in Fig. 8. NorthernThailand.......................... P. tumida sp. n.

- Clypeal hump always absent; vulva different........................ 21

21(20) Spermathecae with indistinctly outlined anterolateral porepatches lying in more or less distinct trenches (Figs 2L, P, 3F); ventral wall of genital atrium and posterior portion of spermathecae only little less pigmented than porepatches (Figs 2K, O, 3E)................................ 25

- Spermathecae with strongly pigmented, distinctly outlined anterior porepatches on bulged surface, no trenches anterolaterally (Figs 2D, G, 16E-F, 17G); posterior portion of spermathecae unpigmented (Figs 16A-C, 17F); ventral wall of genital atrium pigmented or unpigmented.... 22

22(21) Ventral wall of genital atrium completely or partially pigmented (Figs 16A-D, 17F); metatarsus I ventrally with proximally swollen, strongly sigmoid setae on slightly elevated bases (Fig. 36G)................... 23

- Ventral wall of genital atrium largely unpigmented (except for a narrow marginal pigmentation); metatarsus I ventrally without strongly sigmoid setae...................................................... 24

23(22) Porepatches of vulva separated from each other by roughly their width (Fig. 16A-C, E-F). Ventral wall of genital atrium completely pigmented (Fig. 16A-D). Chelicerae unmodified. Peninsular Malaysia....... P. cerastes

- Porepatches of vulva separated from each other by much less than their width (Fig. 17F-G). Ventral wall of genital atrium pigmented in lateral thirds, median third unpigmented (Fig. 17F). Retrolateral surface of chelicerae distinctly bulged in the middle (Fig. 17C). Peninsular Malaysia.............................................. P. coryne

24(22) Spermathecae relatively small, widely separated from each other (Fig. 2D). Large spiders (5.8-6.6 mm carapace length). Northern Thailand and southern China.............................. P. robusta

- Spermathecae relatively large, almost touching each other in the middle (Fig. 2G). Medium-sized spiders (4.7-5.4 mm carapace length). Southern Thailand.................................... P. siamensis

25(21) Vulva much wider than long; anterior collar not surpassing widely arched common anterior margin of spermathecae (Fig. 3D-E); anterolateral sides of spermathecae with deep trenches (Fig. 3F). Eastern Myanmar........................................... P. birmanica

- Vulva longer than wide or only slightly wider than long; anterior collar far surpassing invaginated common anterior margin of spermathecae; anterolateral sides of spermathecae slightly bulged, plane or with shallow trenches (Fig. 2K-L, O-P)................................ 26

26(25) Opisthosoma with conical microplates behind dorsal scutum; spermathecae posteriorly narrower or only slightly wider than anteriorly, lateral margins of spermathecae straight or slightly and evenly convex (Fig. 2K). Northern Thailand.............................. P. nasuta

- Opisthosoma without elevated microplates; spermathecae posteriorly distinctly wider than anteriorly, their lateral margins distinctly bulged posteriorly (Fig. 2O). Northern Thailand................... P. nasicornis

27(17) Anterior opisthosomal plate fragmented into microplates of similar size. Ventral wall of genital atrium entirely pigmented, relatively long; internal ventral chambers small and with entire walls, or large with broken walls, always without longitudinal ribs; anterior margin of anterior collar of vulva slightly arched (Figs 20A-C, 29A-B)............ 29

- Anterior opisthosomal plate fragmented into numerous microplates and three larger plates (Fig. 31I). Ventral wall of genital atrium only pigmented in median zone, relatively short; internal chambers of spermathecae large and wide, their walls entire, thick and always enforced with longitudinal ribs; anterior margin of anterior collar of vulva strongly arched (Figs 33A-B, D-E, 35A-B, D-E)................ 28

28(27) Common anterior margin of spermathecae straight or only slightly invaginated; internal chambers of spermathecae distinctly separated from each other (Fig. 33B, D-E). A short, pointed cone on clypeus of some (but not all) females (Fig. 31F-H). Southern Sumatra .... P. deelemanae sp. n.

- Common anterior margin of spermathecae deeply invaginated; internal chambers of spermathecae close to or in contact with each other (Fig. 35B, D-E). Clypeus always unmodified. Southern Sumatra ....................................................... P. selatan sp. n.

29(27) Internal chambers of spermathecae relatively wide, their walls open on both lateral sides, posteriorly indistinct, anteriorly slivered into 2-3 parallel stripes (Fig. 29B); large spiders (4.8-4.9 mm carapace length). Western Sumatra ......................................... P. picea

- Internal chambers of spermathecae relatively narrow, their walls entire or open laterally on both sides, posteriorly distinct, anteriorly entire (Fig. 20B-C); medium-sized spiders (3.5-4.0 mm carapace length). Western Sumatra .................................... P. harau sp. n.

THE PERANIA ROBUSTA SPECIES GROUP

DIAGNOSIS: Characterized by a wide vulva with largely unpigmented (pigmentation only in a narrow band along posterior margin) ventral wall of genital atrium; spermathecae with clearly outlined anterior porepatches not or only very slightly extending onto dorsal side, posterior portion of spermathecae unpigmented. Males without clypeal process and with a more or less distinctly developed distal-retrolateral boss on chelicerae; femora of legs and palps granular (with slightly elevated setal bases); anterior ventrolateral plate free or at its posterior end fused to pulmonary plate; bulbus of palpal organ ovoid, apex of embolus not or only indistinctly bifid.

SPECIES INCLUDED: Perania robusta , P. siamensis .

DISTRIBUTION: Yunnan Province in southern China, northernmost tip of

Thailand (and probably the area in between); southern Thailand (Fig. 1, localities 1-8).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pacullidae

Loc

Perania Thorell, 1890

Schwendinger, Peter J. 2013
2013
Loc

Mirania

SCHWENDINGER, P. J. 1989: 579
LEHTINEN, P. T. 1981: 17
1981
Loc

Perania

LEHTINEN, P. T. 1981: 15
THORELL 1890: 315
1890