Nothobrya sertaneja,

Nunes, Rudy Camilo & Bellini, Bruno Cavalcante, 2019, A new species of Nothobrya Arlé, 1961 (Collembola: Entomobryidae) from Brazil and notes on key characters for Nothobryinae taxonomy, with an identification key to the species of the subfamily, Zootaxa 4615 (2), pp. 375-391: 379-386

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Nothobrya sertaneja

sp. nov.

Nothobrya sertaneja  sp. nov. Nunes & Bellini

Figs 2–26View FIGURE 2View FIGURES 3–4View FIGURES 5–8View FIGURE 9–10View FIGURE 11View FIGURES 12–13View FIGURES 14–16View FIGURES 17–18View FIGURES 19–26, Tables 1–2

Type material. Holotype female on slide, Brazil, Piauí State, Coronel José Dias municipality, vicinities of Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Toca de Cima do Pilão (8°51’47.36”S; 42°33’26.24”W), Caatinga biome, 09.ii.2017, R. C. Nunes coll. 2 paratypes on slides: 1 female and 1 male, same data as holotype. Type material deposited at CC /UFRN.GoogleMaps 

Other examined material. Three females, Brazil, Piauí State, São Raimundo Nonato municipality, Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Baixão das Andorinhas (8º51’40.96”S; 42º41’12.49”W), Caatinga biome, 09.ii.2017, R.C. Nunes coll.

Diagnosis. Antennae with 4–5 antennomeres. Labial basolateral field with chaetae a4–5 as spiny-like mic. Head’s ventral groove with 4–5 surrounding ciliated chaetae of different sizes. Tergal S-chaetotaxy, from Th. II to Abd. V as 2,2|1,6,6, 14,4 for sens, and 1,0|1,0,1,0,0 for ms. MTO with 7–13 spine-like chaetae. Ungues internally with 2 paired teeth at≅the base, both equally sized, plus 1 median and 1 apical tooth; and with 1 outer unpaired tooth. Collophore anterior side with 7 ciliated chaetae plus 3 distal mac; posterior face with 3–4 smooth chaetae (1 unpaired at midline, plus 2+2 or 3+3 paired). Tenaculum with 2–3 smooth chaetae in the corpus. Manubrial plate with 4 ciliated chaetae and 2 pseudopores.

Description. Habitus similar to Isotomidae  ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Scales absent. Total length (head + trunk) of type series ranging between 1.22–1.9 mm in adults (holotype 1.9 mm). Antennae shorter than body length. Antennae: trunk ratio as 1: 1.92–2.91 (holotype 1: 2.57). Antennal ratio in type series as I: II: III: IV = 1: 1.54–1.67: 1.61–1.81: 1.99–2.93 (holotype 1: 1.67: 1.67: 2.3). Abd. III: IV ratio in the midline of type series as 1: 1.27–1.64 (holotype 1: 1.64). Yellowish ground with dark and light blue pigment on ventral body and head, anterior half of Ant. I–II, total length of Ant. III–IV, edges of Th. II to Abd. VI, proximal coxae, distal trochanter and femora, total length of tibiotarsi, and dorsal manubrium.

Head: Figs 3–11View FIGURES 3–4View FIGURES 5–8View FIGURE 9–10View FIGURE 11. Antennae four-segmented in most specimens (four of the six examined individuals). Ant. IV simple, not annulated or sub-segmented, with at least four types of chaetae: blunt sensilla, bristle-like sensilla, ciliated chaetae and one bifurcated subapical chaeta, thicker than others, with a rounded basis inside the terminal cavity and the bifurcated projection coming out; apical bulb absent ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 3–4). Ant. III sense organ typical of Entomobryoidea, with 2 rods, 2 spiny and 1 blunt small guard sensilla, plus some surrounding blunt and bristle-like sensilla, and ciliated chaetae ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 3–4). In two specimens there is a small constriction in the basis of Ant. II, not totally closing the subsegment ( Figs 5–6View FIGURES 5–8). In two specimens, different from the previous ones, Ant. I is completely subsegmented ( Figs 7–8View FIGURES 5–8). Four prelabral smooth chaetae. Labral formula as 4 (a1–2), 5 (m0–2), 5 (p0–2), all smooth and subequal. Four hook-like labral papillae, as typical for the genus ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9–10). Labial basolateral and basomedian fields with only smooth chaetae, with variable formula as m1rel1–2a1–5, m1–2rel1–2a1–5 or mel1–2a1–5, with chaeta r (present or absent) smaller than m1 and subequal to m2 (also present or absent), chaetae a4–5 as spiny-like mic ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 9–10). Labial palp with five smooth proximal chaetae (p.c.). Labial palp papillae and guard chaetae formula as: H(2), A(0), B(5), C(0), D(4), E(4) + l.p.; lateral process finger-shaped, not reaching the papilla base. Outer maxillary lobe with basal and distal subequal and smooth chaetae; sublobal plate with 4 smooth appendages ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 9–10). Ventral postlabial chaetotaxy with several smooth to very weakly ciliate mac, mes and mic of different sizes anteriorly, plus several clearly ciliated mac and mes of different sizes posteriorly; ventral groove with 4 – 5 surrounding ciliated chaetae of different sizes ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 9–10). Eyes 8+8, G–H lenses slightly smaller, A–F subequal, with 5 interocular chaetae. PAO present as an oval vesicle located between the basis of Ant. I and the eyes ‘A’ and ‘B’. At the optical microscope the PAO seems like an extra eye, membranous, without any cavity or projection. Dorsal chaetotaxy with 5 antennal (An), 6 anterior (A0–3, A5–6), 6 medio-ocellar (M0–4e), 7–9 sutural (S0, S2–5e; S2 and S3e as mac or mic), 3 post-sutural (Ps2–3, Ps5), 3 postoccipital internal (Pi1–3), 6 postoccipital anterior (Pa1–5), 4 postoccipital medial (Pm1–4), 6 postoccipital posterior (Pp1–5, Pp1e), and 3 postoccipital external (Pe2–4) mac ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11).

Trunk dorsal chaetotaxy: Figs 12–18View FIGURES 12–13View FIGURES 14–16View FIGURES 17–18. Tergal S-chaetotaxy, from Th. II to Abd. V as 2,2|1,6,6, 14,4 for sens, and 1,0|1,0,1,0,0 for ms. Mes and secondary mac sometimes similar in size. Th. II with 1 ms, 1 al ≅, and 1 accessory sens (acc.p6); about 28–30 anterior (a1a–1p, a2–2ea2, a3–3p–m.a3a, a3e–3ep, a4–m.a4a–4p2, a4ea–4ep, a5, a6– 6i– 6aip, a7–7e, and an extra mac of uncertain homology external to a4; a2e as mac or mic and a3p can be absent), 18–19 medial (m1, m2– 2i 2, m4– 4i– 4p, m5, m6–6e–m.m 6i, m6p–6pe–6pi, m7–7p–7pi2; m 2i as mac or mic) and 19–24 posterior (p 1i 2–m.p1a, p2–m.p2p, p2e–2ep2, p3–3p, p4ip–4p, p5pi–5pe, p6– 6ei; p 1i 2, m.p2p, p2ep2, p4 and p4ip as mac or mic) mac ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 12–13). Th. III with 1 al and 1 accessory sens (acc.p6); 11–12 anterior (a1–5, a 6i– 7e; a 4i as mac or mic), 11–12 medial (m 1i– 5e, m 6i–7i; m 4i as mac or mic) and 14–16 posterior (p1–1p, p2p–2ep, p3–3p, p4ip–4p, p5pi–5pe, p6–6pi; p2p as mac or mic and p6pi as mac or mes) mac ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 12–13); the mic immediately internal to the p6, above p6pi may be present as mic or mes (not represented). Abd. I with 1 ms and 1 accessory sens (acc.p6); 9–12 anterior (a1, a1a–1ai?–1ae, a2a–2ae, a2e, a3–3a, a5– 5i– 6; a1 as mac or mic, a2e and a 6 may be absent) and 7 medial (m 2i– 3, m4–4p, m 5i– 5) mac ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 14–16). Abd. II with 1 as, 1 accessory sens (acc.p6), and 4 sens (s); 5–7 anterior (a1–3, a6–7; a1a and a2a as mac or mic), 8 medial (m3–3eai, m4–7) and 0–1 posterior (p6, which can be mes) mac, plus two bothriotricha (a5, m2) ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 14–16). Abd. III with 1 as, 1 ms, 1 accessory sens (acc.p6) and 4 sens (s); 4 anterior (a1–3, a7), 6 medial (m3–3ea, m4, am6, pm6) and 3 posterior (p4, p6–7) mac, plus three bothriotricha (a5, m2, m5) ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 14–16). Abd. IV with several median and posterior sens (about 14 of them), as and ps not clearly distinguishable; mac formula as 4 ‘A’ (A2–2p, A5–6), 2 ‘Ae’ (Ae6, Ae8), 3 ‘B’ (B3, B5–6), 2 ‘C’ (C1, C4), 1 ‘T’ (T7), 2 ‘D’ (D3–3p), 6 ‘E’ (E2a–4p2), 1 ‘Ee’ (Ee12), 1 ‘Fi’ (Fi4), 2 ‘F’ (F2, F3), 3 ‘Fe’ (Fe3–5), plus two bothriotricha (T2, T4) ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 17–18). Abd. V with 1 as, 2 accessory sens (acc.p4–5) and 1 sens (s); 0–2 anterior (a3, a6; a3 as mac or mes and a6 can be absent), 4–5 medial (m2–3, m5–5e; m5a as mac or mes), 3 posteroanterior (p4a–5a, p6ai) and 9 posterior (p1, p3–5pi, ap6–pp6) mac ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 17–18).

Legs, collophore and furcula: Figs 19–26View FIGURES 19–26. MTO with 7–13 spine-like chaetae, 13 in the holotype ( Fig. 19View FIGURES 19–26). Tibiotarsi not jointed. Ungues with 4 subequal inner teeth, 2 paired at the base, both equally sized, plus 1 median and 1 apical tooth; plus 1 outer unpaired tooth. Unguiculi acuminate, with 4 smooth lamellae, as typical for the genus. Tenent hair smooth and pointed. Tibiotarsus III with a smooth inner distal chaeta near the unguiculus ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 19–26). Collophore anterior side with 7 ciliated chaetae plus 3 distal mac ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 19–26); posterior face with 2–3 smooth chaetae (2+2 or 3+3 paired), plus an unpaired chaeta possibly also smooth, seen only by the alveolus and the proximal paired chaetae can be absent; lateral flap with about 23 smooth and 3 ciliated chaetae of different sizes ( Fig. 22View FIGURES 19–26). Tenaculum with 4+4 teeth and 2–3 smooth chaetae on corpus ( Fig. 23View FIGURES 19–26). Manubrium ventral and dorsal side covered by ciliated chaetae similar to those found on the rest of the body. Manubrial plate with 4 ciliated chaetae and 2 pseudopores ( Fig. 24View FIGURES 19–26). Dens dorsal side covered by ciliated chaetae of different sizes, not forming distinguishable rows at the first proximal quarter, that progressively turning into 2 well defined rows, with a gap in the distal quarter, and ending with 2 larger ciliated chaetae; 1 inner and 2 outer smooth chaetae proximally ( Fig. 25View FIGURES 19–26). Dens ventrally covered with ciliated chaetae similar to those of the manubrium. Mucro falcate, without mucronal spine ( Fig. 26View FIGURES 19–26).

Etymology. The word “sertaneja” refers to “sertão”, a popular term used to define vast countryside lands, especially the great depressions of northeastern Brazil. “Sertão” landscapes mostly present semiarid climates and are covered by dry forests of deciduous vegetation where the new species was found. “Sertão” also is a common word to Caatinga biome, which is equivalent to Australian “outback”. Thus “sertaneja” is a person or thing (gender feminine) from “sertão”.

Distribution and habitat. The new species was found at Serra da Capivara National Park and vicinities, in the Caatinga biome, Piauí State, Northeast Brazil ( Fig. 27View FIGURE 27), a complex mosaic of phytophysionomies formed by deciduous vegetation highly adapted to the semiarid weather. According to the Köppen-Geiger system, the climate of the area is “BShw”—Semiarid with a long dry season and rainy summer, characterized by high temperatures during almost all year and irregular precipitations. The annual average temperature is 25ºC, with maximum temperature reaching 35ºC and minimum 12ºC. Annual average rainfall is 650 mm, but can vary from 0 mm to 1.100 mm in the driest and rainiest years recorded, respectively. Highest levels of precipitation occur during January to March. The region has an annual potential evapotranspiration of about 1.400 mm according to the Thornthwaite’s methodology ( Rodet 1997; Barros et al. 2012).

All specimens were collected from soil and leaf litter samples, in two distinct localities with different soil properties, locally known as “Baixão das Andorinhas” and “Toca de Cima do Pilão”. “Baixão das Andorinhas” is a canyon formed by erosion of red sandstones commonly seen in “Serra da Capivara” plateau, and the superior borders of the canyon (where the samples were collected) are covered by a typical savanna-like vegetation, populated by native grasses and sparsely distributed small trees and shrubs. The soil is shallow and sandy, with low water retention capacity, and receives high levels of insolation during all the year. “Toca de Cima do Pilão” is covered by limestone formations surrounded by sandstones. The samples were collected in the top of the karst, which is predominantly covered by Cactaceae  and Bromeliaceae  , with sparse semideciduous and latifoliate trees.

Remarks. Concerning the overall morphology, Nothobrya sertaneja  sp. nov. differs from N. arlei  and N. schubarti  by antennae with 4–5 antennomeres (6 in N. arlei  and N. schubarti  ); MTO with 7–13 spine-like chaetae (15 in N. arlei  and 3–4 in N. schubarti  ); tenaculum with 2–3 smooth chaetae on corpus (4 ciliated chaetae in N. arlei  and 2 chaetae with unclear morphology in N. schubarti  ); and inner unguis with 2 basal paired teeth, 1 median and 1 apical tooth (2 basal paired, 1 median and 2 lateral teeth in N. arlei  and 2 basal paired and 0 – 1 unpaired median tooth in N. schubarti  ) ( Arlé 1961; Baquero et al. 2004a; Silveira & Mendonça 2016).

Detailed data on dorsal chaetotaxy is lacking for N. schubarti  and part of N. arlei  , so for now the most reliable elements to compare Nothobrya species concern other features as compared previously and shown in Table 1. Silveira & Mendonça (2016) presented a detailed scheme of macrochaetotaxy to N. arlei  trunk, but such chaetae were not labelled and apparently some elements on lateral terga, plus pseudopores and polymorphisms were omitted. We believe the unusual position of the lateral bothriotrichum on Abd. III of N. arlei was related to a detached chaeta, since abdominal bothriotricha in Nothobrya sertaneja sp. nov. have small alveoli hard to track down, quite similar to those of microchaetae.


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


CSIRO Canberra Rhizobium Collection