Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865,

Zolotuhin, Vadim V., 2012, Taxonomic remarks on Andraca Walker, 1865 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) with descriptions of five new species, Zootaxa 3262, pp. 22-34: 23-25

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Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865


Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865 

Figs. 1–7

Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , List of specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum 32: 582. TL: [Darjeeling] “Hindostan”. Lectotype: ď ( ZMHU) [designated below].

= Andraca angulata Kishida, 1993  , syn. nov., Moths of Nepal 2: 144, fig. 308, pl. 57, figs 113, 14. Locus typicus: Nepal, Godavari. Holotype: ď ( NSMT) [examined].

Description. Wingspan males 41–45 mm, females 52–60 mm, forewing length— 21–24 in males and 30–34 in females. The species is diagnosed externally as well by dark chestnut colouration and distinctly angled hind wings with outer margin festooned; the apex of the fore wing is falcate, especially in females. Hind wings in females also angled or at least festooned. Male genitalia (Figs. 23–26): uncus oar-shaped, with semicircular apical cut. Branches of gnathos infused, distinct, long, slender, almost parallel-sided, strongly bent at a middle. Valva narrow basally, with costal margin unsclerotized; costa bears near the apex a short pyramidal process situated almost on the same vertical line with papilla-like short harpe. Apex of valva tapered sclerotized and flattened without additional processes. Both valvae are slightly asymmetrical, with different development of equipment and saccular fold. Aedeagus with three groups of long, curved, spine-like cornuti often situated in one row; dorsal surface of the aedeagus covered with hair-like setae adjoining with a row of cornuti; vesica long. These characters are somewhat variable in different populations. In the Nepalese population, the caudal incision is small; in Thai moths the lobes of uncus are rounded, and in Chinese specimens the uncus is rather parallel-sided. Hence, these differences appear to be clinal and are not considered diagnostic.

PLATE 1. Adults. 1. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , ď, Lectotype, Darjeeling, coll. Atkinson ( ZMHU). 2. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , ď, Holotype of Andraca angulata Kishida, 1993  , Nepal, Kathmandu, Godavari, 1.600 m, 7.V 1991 ( NSMT). 3. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , ď, Thailand, Changwat Nan, 5 km N of Bo Luang, 1000 m, 18.VIII 1999, leg. T. Csovary & L. Mikus (MWM). 4. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , ď, China, Yunnan, Dabingshan, Yunxian, 1.800 m, V 2000, leg. native collector (MWM). 5. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , Ψ, Paratype of Andraca angulata Kishida, 1993  , Nepal, Kathmandu, Mt. Phulchouki, 2.275 m, VIII 1991 ( NSMT). 6. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , Ψ, Nepal, Taplejung Area, Tambowa, 2125 m, 12.X 1994, leg. M. Hreblay & T. Csovary (MWM). 7. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , Ψ, Thailand, Changwat Chiang Mai, 20 km NW of Sop Kha, 2 km S of Kop Dong, 1800 m, 13.IX 1999, leg. A. Szabo & Z. Czere (MWM). 8. Andraca trilochoides Moore, 1865  , ď Holotype, Darjiling ( BMNH). 9. Andraca trilochoides trilochoides Walker, 1865  , ď, East-Nepal, Surke Danda, 1 km W of Kesawa, 2000 m, 16–17.VI 1998, leg. M. Hreblay & B. Benedek (MWM). 10. Andraca trilochoides roepkei Bryk, 1944  , ď, Thailand, Mt. Doi Phahompok, 18 km NW of Fang, 2100 m, 14.X 2000, leg. local collector (MWM). 11. Andraca trilochoides trilochoides Walker, 1865  , Ψ, East-Nepal, Surke Danda, 1 km W of Kesawa, 2000 m, 16– 17.VI 1998, leg. M. Hreblay & B. Benedek (MWM). 12. Andraca trilochoides roepkei Bryk, 1944  , Ψ, Thailand, Chiang Mai Prov., Doi Inthanon nat. Park, km 37,3 road (N of) Chong Thong near/around checkpoint 2, 1730 m, lower mont. forest, 28– 31.XI 1998, leg. R. Brechlin (MWM). 13. Andraca chrysocollis Zolotuhin  , sp. nov., ď, Holotype, Philippines, Northern Luzon, Ifugao, Banaue vic., 20 km N Lagawe, Sekundärwald/Reisfelder, 16 ° 54 ’N, 121 °06’E, 22.IX – 16.X 1988, 1200 m, leg. Cerny & Schintlmeister (MWM). 14. Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865  , mature caterpillar, Myanmar, 2002 (photo: Stefan Naumann).

Diagnosis. Readily determined in most localities because of the strongly acute hind wings; females are characterised by festooned hind wings. From externally similar A. stueningi Zolotuhin & Witt, 2009  , it could be separated by genitalic structures (males) or by smooth external margin of the fore wing in females (distinctly acute in stueningi  ). In spite of small genitalic differences of populations, no real characters distinguished them into separate subspecies were found. Therefore they all are considered within one species; quite possible, they will be separated later in a subspecies based on molecular investigations. Permanently confused with this species another congener, the A. trilochoides Moore, 1865  , is generally much darker, of dark chestnut colour, with hind wings widely rounded, with smooth margin, without any tooth or festoon as well as outer margin of the fore wing is also smooth; also in females. In male genitalia, valvae of trilochoides  rather symmetrical, uncus with smaller incision up to without any, and aedeagus with cornuti rarely situated in a row. For comparison, the species is also illustrated here (Figs. 8–12, 27, 28).

Bionomics. A montane species. In China and Thailand it seems to be a winter flier from late August to February, at altitudes from 1000–2300 m, but in Nepal and India there are two generations in June –July and in October-December, at altitudes from 800–2600 m. The immature stages seem to be misidentified with those of A. trilochoides Moore. Mature  larvae of the species were collected in Myanmar in 2002 by Stefan Naumann (host plant? Camelia  ), and one is illustrated here (Fig. 14).

Distribution. Northern India (Sikkim, Darjeeling, Meghalaya), Nepal, Bhutan, northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, Nan), southern China (south of Yunnan), Myanmar ( Chin State). Not known from Vietnam, where it appears to be replaced by A. stueningi Zolotuhin & Witt, 2009  .

Comments. Designation of a lectotype for this taxon is necessary to promote taxonomic stability. Walker’s (1865: 582) original description states: “Hindostan. In Mr. Atkinson’s Collection,” and there is no lettered prefix to the type locality as is frequent for Walker types (Martin Honey, pers. comm. 26 Sep. 2007), suggesting a synytypic series. Four male specimens from Atkinson’s collection collected from Darjeeling are in the MHUB, and although none bear original Walker labels these are treated here as available syntypes, with one of the two males having an intact abdomen hereby designated LECTOTYPE for bipunctata  . The lectotype bears the following labels: light brownish rectangle with printed “Darjeeling;” white rectangle with black frame printed “coll. Atkinson;” yellowish rectangle with printed text “Zool. Mus. / Berlin;” and white rectangular handwritten in blue pen “ Andraca  / bipunctata Wlk.  ;’ red printed label (framed with black) “ LECTOTYPE. Andraca  / bipunctata  Walker / 1865 List Spec. Lepid. Insects / Colln. Br. Mus. 32: 582. / V. Zolotuhin des.” The other males are supplied with paralectotype labels, and since two females from the same location were not enumerated by Walker and therefore were not considered as syntypes (specimens in the type series are smaller than other topotypical specimens, and may have been reared). Kishida’s Andraca angulata  fully corresponds to A. bipunctata  both externally and genitalically and therefore falls into synonymy. Recently, Wang et al. (2011) stated “On the Andraca  species, Zolotuhin & Witt (2009) considered “ A. bipunctata  ” reported by previous entomologists as A. trilochoides  without explanation in detail. Here, we retain the scientific name A. bipunctata  to the moth which is a serious pest of tea trees, and …. all the specimens from Yunnan Province in this study belong to the real species A. bipunctata  .” The male figured therein was true trilochoides  (Fig. 1 A), and so it will be important to determine whether pest status should be applied to trilochoides  , bipunctata  or both species. Note that both bipunctata  and trilochoides  can now be considered as reliably listed from China.


Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universitaet


National Science Museum (Natural History)














Andraca bipunctata Walker, 1865

Zolotuhin, Vadim V. 2012

Andraca angulata

Kishida 1993

Andraca bipunctata

Walker 1865