Gephyrellula violacea ( Mello-Leitão, 1918 )

Santos, Fabricio H. & Rheims, Cristina A., 2018, Taxonomic revision of the genus Gephyrellula Strand, 1932 (Arachnida, Araneae, Philodromidae), Zootaxa 4527 (3), pp. 381-391: 383-388

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Gephyrellula violacea ( Mello-Leitão, 1918 )


Gephyrellula violacea ( Mello-Leitão, 1918) 

Figs 1–24View FIGURE 1View FIGURES 2–5View FIGURES 6–9View FIGURES 10–14View FIGURES 15–18View FIGURES 19–23View FIGURE 24

Gephyrella violacea Mello-Leitão, 1918: 122  (Holotype female from Pinheiro [currently Piraí, Pinheiral, 22°37’ S, 43°54’ W],

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, deposited in MNRJ 921 [Mello-Leitão Private Collection 371], lost, not examined). Gephyrellula violacea Strand, 1932: 137  . Gephyrellula paulistana Soares, 1943: 10  , figs 8–9 (Holotype male from Bosque da Saúde [23°34’ S, 36°29’ W], São Paulo,

São Paulo, Brazil, deposited in MZSP, not located, not examined). Syn. nov.

Material examined. BRAZIL: Pará:GoogleMaps  1♀, Tucuruí   GoogleMaps, [03°46’S 49°40’W], April 1984, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 5629View Materials). Sergipe: 1♂, 2♀, Canindé de São Francisco, Usina Hidrelétrica de Xingó , [09°38’S 37°47’W], 15 April 2000, L. Ianuzzi leg. ( IBSP 88192View Materials, 88201View Materials, 88198View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, São Cristovão, Campus Universidade Federal de Sergipe, [10°55’S 37°06’W], 17 March 1992, H. Araújo leg. ( IBSP 8456View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Tocantins: 2♀, Miracema, Usina Hidrelétrica Luis Eduardo Magalhães , [09°40’S 48°24’W], 1–11 October 2001, E. K. Kashimata & C.Y. Fukami leg. ( IBSP 31594View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, 5♀, 11–21 October 2001, R. Bertani & W.I. Toledo leg. ( IBSP 31543View Materials, 31530View Materials)  ; 1♂, 2♀, Palmas, Margem direita do Rio Tocantins, [10°06’S 48°25’W], 1 January 2002, D. M. Cândido & M. Costa leg. ( IBSP 40416View Materials, 40421View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 4♂, 5♀, Usina Hidrelétrica Luis Eduardo Magalhães , [10°08’S 48°19’W], January 2002, D. M. Cândido & M. Costa leg. ( IBSP 40315View Materials, 40531View Materials, 40564View Materials, 40514View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Taquari (10°20’01.7”S 48°19’56.0”W), 0 7 December 2007, I. Knysak et. al. leg. ( IBSP 115643View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Bahia: 1♀, Salvador [12°55’S 38°26’W], Jardim Botânico, November 2005 – April 2006, A.O. Alves leg. ( IBSP 63329View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Minas Gerais: 1♂, Nova Porteirinha , (15°48’55.1'”S 43°16’6.8”W), 9–16 August 2013, N.G. Fonseca leg. ( UFMG 19523View Materials  ); 1♀, Prudente de Morais [19°28’S 44°09’W], Fazenda Sapé, 13 October 2001, E.S.S. Álvares leg. ( IBSP 44233View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ); 1♀, 8 June 2000, E.S.S. Álvares leg. ( UFMG 619View Materials  ); 1♀, Manga, Parque Estadual da Mata Seca (14°50’50”S 44°00’28”W), September 2011, R.N.S.L. Garro et al. leg. ( UFMG 14742View Materials).GoogleMaps  Mato Grosso do Sul: 1♀, Morro do Azeite [19°29’S 57°18’W], 1♀, August 1998, J. Raizer et al. leg. ( IBSP 38743View Materials); 1♀, Corumbá, Passo do Lontra , Subregiões Miranda e Abobral , [19°44’S 56°50’W], July 1998 – November 1999, J. Raizer et al. leg. ( IBSP 97467View Materials); 24♂, 23♀, Brasilândia , Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Motta , [21°15’S 51°54’W], 2000, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 30323View Materials, 30554View Materials, 30555View Materials, 31108View Materials, 31145View Materials, 31176View Materials, 31185View Materials, 31335View Materials, 31408View Materials, 31440View Materials, 31443View Materials; 31459, 35189, 35198, 35202, 35204, 35205, 35215, 35222, 35287, 35449, 35457, 35459, 35507, 35644, 35666, 35673, 35674); 3♂, 3♀, Fazenda Cisalpina , 2000, Equipe IBSP ( IBSP 31385View Materials, 31424View Materials); 3♀, Santa Rita do Pardo [21°17’S 52°50’W], 2–5 July 2001, D.F. Candiani & F. Cini leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 37897View Materials); 1♀, Anaurilândia [22°11’S 52°43’W], 12–19 March 2001, F. S. Cunha & C.A.R. Souza leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 38905View Materials); 1♂, 1♀, 5–11 March 2001, F. S. Cunha & J.P. Guadanucci leg.  ( IBSP 41329View Materials, 41337View Materials); 3♀, Bataguassu, Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Motta [21°40’S 52°25’W], 31 March 2001, R. P. Indicatti & C.A.R. Souza leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 38668View Materials); 1♂, 22–25 May 2001, D. M. Cândido & C.Y. Fukami leg. ( IBSP 39454View Materials).  São Paulo: 1♂, 3♀, Pereira Barreto, Usina Hidrelétrica Três Irmãos [20°39’S 51°15’W], September–October 1990, Bertani, Costa & Bertim leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 4864View Materials); 4♂, 31♀, Presidente Epitácio, Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Motta [22°19’S 52°46’W], 16 January– 13 February 1999, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 23302View Materials, 23321View Materials, 23326View Materials); 4♂, 6♀, Ilha da Lagoa do Machado , 30 March 2001, R. P. Indicatti & C.A.R. Souza leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 38363View Materials); 11♂, 51♀, Primavera, Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Motta, [22°30’S 53°00’W], 11♂, 51♀, January–February 2000, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 29861View Materials, 29869View Materials, 29870View Materials); 1♂, 2001, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 53158View Materials); 1♂, São Paulo [23°34’S 46°43’W], Campus Instituto Butantan, March 2008, G. Ruiz leg.GoogleMaps  ( IBSP 116801View Materials); 1♂, 5 October 2007, C. Borelli leg.  ( IBSP 116838View Materials); 1♀, 15 December 2016, F.H. Santos leg.  ( IBSP 213038View Materials); 3♀, Rosana, Usina Hidrelétrica de Rosana [22°36’S 52°47’W], December 1986, Equipe IBSP leg. ( IBSP 4478View Materials); 1♀, Jundiaí [23°11’S 46°52’W], 13 March 2008, Prefeitura Municipal de Jundiaí leg. ( IBSP 91797View Materials).GoogleMaps  Paraná: 1♂, 1♀, Foz do Iguaçu , [25°29’S 54°35’W], 11 October 1991, A.B. Bonaldo leg. ( MCTP 1649View Materials).GoogleMaps  Santa Catarina: 1♀, Reserva Biológica Marinha do Arvoredo [27°17’S 48°22’W], 1♀, 24 October 1997, A.A. Lise leg. ( MCTP 10119View Materials).GoogleMaps  Rio Grande do Sul: 1♀, Caxias do Sul [29°07’S 51°01’W], Fazenda Souza, 11–12 November 1995, Equipe do Laboratório de Aracnologia MCTP leg. ( MCTP 7148View Materials).GoogleMaps 

Diagnosis. See genus diagnosis.

Remarks. In the original description of Gephyrellula, Mello-Leitão (1918)  states that the genus is most similar to Gephyra ( L. Koch, 1875)  [currently Gephyrota Strand, 1932  ] and Gephyrina Simon, 1895b  by the extremely flattened body. All three genera have a similar eye arrangement and lack leg scopula. However, Gephyrota  was described from Australia and its current distribution ranges from the Ivory Coast, in Africa, to Queensland in Australia, with no Neotropical representatives ( World Spider Catalog 2018). In addition, its species have a prosoma that is as wide as long (wider than long in Gephyrellula  ) and has a higher clypeus ( L. Koch 1875). Gephyrina  was described from Venezuela and currently includes three species from Brazil ( World Spider Catalog 2018). Although one of these species might be a junior synonym of G. violacea  , we did not examine the type material and the original descriptions do not allow any speculation on whether or not this is the case. Nevertheless, we believe that Gephyrina  and Gephyrellula  are distinct genera, based on the fact that the original description of Gephyrina  and of the type species G. alba Simon, 1895  mentions the presence of four pairs of spines on ventral tibia ( Simon 1895b) as opposed to only two observed in Gephyrellula  .

Although the type specimens of both species are unavailable, both original descriptions enable the identification of the species. The synonymy is based on the fact that, in most samples, both males ( G. paulistana  ) and females ( G. violacea  ) were collected together and no other specimen, amongst all the examined material, could be attributed to the genus. We have refrained from designating a neotype because - although we are certain that the holotype of G. violacea  was lost in the fire that destroyed the arachnological collection at MNRJ (Sept/2018) - we cannot be sure that the holotype of G. paulistana  , that was not located in MZSP, is not simply misplaced in the collection. In addition, we do not have material from any of the two type localities.

Redescription. Male (IBSP 31185): Prosoma dark orange with lateral margins pigmented in dark tones with a well-delineated row of bristles; triangular whitish cephalic pigmentation mark extending from fovea to base of cephalic region. Chelicerae orange with brown spots. Labium and endites pale orange. Sternum pale orange slightly darker at lateral margins. Legs and pedipalps yellow with dark spots. Opisthosoma cream colored; dorsally with dark-toned lateral pigmentation ( Figs 15–16View FIGURES 15–18). Total length 3.10. Prosoma flattened, wider than long, anterior region slightly extended: length 1.40, width 1.60; clypeus low with six macrosetae. Eyes arranged in two recurved rows: diameters 0.09, 0.07, 0.05, 0.09; interdistances: 0.15, 0.02, 0.25, 0.15, 0.16, 0.21. Chelicerae longer than wide, with one promarginal tooth and two retromarginal teeth ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 2–5). Labium wider than long, with anterior margin slightly curved. Endites oblong, convergent, longer than wide; serrula with a single row of short denticles ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 2–5). Sternum as long as wide with slightly curved anterior margin and slightly convex posterior margin. Legs laterigrade, without scopula: I: 6.4 (2.0, 0.8, 1.5, 1.4, 0.7); II: 8.8 (2.8, 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, 1.0); III: 5.3 (1.7, 0.6, 1.3, 1.2, 0.5); IV: 5.1 (1.8, 0.6, 1.1, 1.1, 0.5); trichobothria present dorsally on tibiae, tarsi and metatarsi, with elliptical bothrium with dorsal plate with two distal grooves partially covering a ventral plate with one distal groove; tarsus with a pair of pectinate claws with a slightly curved main tooth followed by 18–20 straight secondary teeth; spination pattern: femora I–III: p0-1-1; d1-1-1; r0-1-1; femur IV d1-1-1; r0-0-1; tibiae I–II: p1-0-0; r1-0-0; v2-2 -0; tibiae III–IV: p1-0-0; v2-2 -0; metatarsi I–IV: p1-1-0; r1-1-0; v2-2 -2. Opisthosoma oval: length 1.9, width 1.1. Epiandrous spigots absent. Tracheal spiracle single, contiguous to spinnerets. Anal tubercle small, triangular with few terminal hairs. Six spinnerets: ALS conical, bi-segmented with short and truncated distal segment; PMS with a single cylindrical segment; PLS bi-segmented, with truncated distal segment. Palp: patella without apophysis; tibia with one prolateral, one dorsal and one retrolateral spine and two distal apophysis; RTA conical, with tip gently pointing dorsally; VTA colourless arising close to RTA ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 6–9); cymbium with distal scopula and one prolateral spine; ST visible in prolateral and ventral views between 7–9 o´clock position; Teg oval; Ts arising at approximately 8:30 o’clock position and pointing towards 2:30 o’clock position; CoP small, hook shaped arising at 3 o’clock position ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 6–9), close to the tip of the E; C hyaline, inserted medially, accommodating the distal E; E filiform, curved, arising from Teg at 9 o´clock position ( Figs 7View FIGURES 6–9, 10–12View FIGURES 10–14, 19–21View FIGURES 19–23).

Redescription. Female (IBSP 40421): Coloration pattern generally lighter than in male. Prosoma pale with lateral margins whitish with a well-delineated row of bristles; with conspicuous whitish cephalic pigmentation mark extending from fovea to base of cephalic region. Chelicerae pale yellow with brown spots. Labium, endites and sternum pale yellow. Legs and pedipalps yellow mottled with dark spots. Opisthosoma as in males, much lighter ( Figs 1View FIGURE 1, 17–18View FIGURES 15–18). Total length 5.15. Prosoma: length 1.65, width 1.85. Opisthosoma: length 3.5, width 2.55. Eyes: diameters 0.08, 0.06, 0.06, 0.07; interdistances: 0.18, 0.05, 0.18, 0.28, 0.15, 0.22. Legs: I: 6.75 (2, 0.8, 1.75, 1.5, 0.7); II: 8.65 (2.65 1, 2.2, 1.9, 0.9); III: 5.85 (1.9, 0.7, 1.4, 1.25, 0.6); IV: 5.37 (1.8, 0.6, 1.2, 1.22, 0.55); trichobothria as in male ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 2–5); tarsus with a pair of pectinate claws as in male ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 2–5); spination pattern as in male, except: femur I: d0; p1-0-0; r0; femora II–IV with no spines; tibiae I–IV: p1-1-0; r1-1-0. Epigyne: epigynal plate wider than long; MS wider than long; ES parallel; pair of AGP and PGP present ( Figs 13View FIGURES 10–14, 22View FIGURES 19–23). Vulva: GH on long, curved ducts, dorsal to R; R rounded; FD laterad ( Figs 9View FIGURES 6–9, 14View FIGURES 10–14, 23View FIGURES 19–23).

Variation. Males (n = 15): total length: 3.1–4.2; prosoma length: 1.1-1.6; femur I length: 1.6–2.1. Females (n = 15): total length: 3.5–6.2; prosoma length: 1.2–2.1; femur I length: 1.4–2.0.

Distribution: Brazil, states of Pará, Sergipe, Tocantins, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de

Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul ( Fig. 24View FIGURE 24).


Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo


Museu de Ciencias














Gephyrellula violacea ( Mello-Leitão, 1918 )

Santos, Fabricio H. & Rheims, Cristina A. 2018

Gephyrella violacea Mello-Leitão, 1918 : 122

Mello-Leitao, C. F. de 1918: 122