Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864

Lima, Flávio C. T., 2017, A revision of the cis-andean species of the genus Brycon Müller & Troschel (Characiformes: Characidae), Zootaxa 4222 (1), pp. 1-189: 75-82

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Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864


Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864  

( Figs. 44–48 View FIGURE 44 View FIGURE 45 View FIGURE 46 View FIGURE 47 View FIGURE 48 )

Chalceus opalinus   (not Cuvier): Kner, 1860: 10 (“Irisanga”).

Salmo   pira-pitinga Kner (ex Natterer), 1860: 2 (name unavailable, published under the synonym of Chalceus opalinus   ).

Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864: 334   (Type locality “Irisanga”); Bertoni, 1939: 55 (listed, Paraguay); Shibatta et al., 2002: 409, 411, 414 (Rio Iapó, rio Tibagi basin, Paraná); Vieira et al., 2005: 80 –84, fig. 2d (Rio Cipó; Serra do Cipó National Park; reproduction); Luz-Agostinho et al., 2006: 64 (Corumbá reservoir, rio Corumbá; diet); Lima et al., 2008a: 207 –208 (illustration; ecology, conservation); Lima et al., 2008b: 50 –52 (ecology, distribution, conservation); Pompeu et al., 2009: 663 –664 (Rio Capivarí, upper rio Grande drainage, Minas Gerais; conservation); Bartolette et al., 2012: 62 (Brazil, Goiás, Serra da Mesa dam); Vitorino Jr. et al., 2014: 421 –425 (Rio das Almas basin, upper rio Tocantins; seasonal abundance); Travenzoli et al., 2015: 6, 8–11, 13–14 (Rio Paranaíba basin, Goiás; cytogenetics, phylogenetics relationships, molecular taxonomy). [Not Amaral-Campos, 1950: 139–140].

Brycon reinhardti Lütken, 1875a: 134   –135 (Type locality “flumine Rio d. Velhas”); Lütken, 1875b: 221 –223 (description; Rio das Velhas); Eigenmann & Ogle, 1907: 30 (Rio das Velhas); Howes, 1982: 42 –43 (discussion; syntype BMNH 1876.1.10:36); Alves & Pompeu, 2003: 174 (Rio das Velhas basin; conservation status); Lima, 2003: 177 (synonymization with Brycon nattereri   ). [Not Steindachner, 1876: 27–29; Travassos & Silva-Santos, 1955: 309; Narahara, 1993: 5–6; Almeida-Toledo et al., 1996: 36 –37].

Brycon cf. nattereri: Caramaschi et al., 2012: 49   (Brazil, Goiás, Serra da Mesa dam; abundance).

Diagnosis. Brycon nattereri   can be diagnosed from all remaining cis-andean Brycon   species, with the exception of B. stolzmanni   , B. coxeyi   , B. coquenani   , B. vermelha   , B. insignis   , B. howesi   , B. dulcis   , B. ferox   , B. vonoi   , and B. opalinus   by possessing a color pattern consisting in a humeral blotch and a caudal peduncle blotch, without body stripes or other obvious color markings on caudal and anal-fins (vs. body stripes and caudal/anal fin color markings present; see Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). Brycon nattereri   can be distinguished from B. ferox   , B. vermelha   , B. insignis   , B. howesi   , B. coquenani   , and B. dulcis   by possessing a rounded, obtuse head profile (vs. a distinctly acute head profile), and by possessing a caudal peduncle blotch extending into middle caudal-fin rays (vs. caudal peduncle blotch not extending into middle caudal-fin rays). Brycon nattereri   can be distinguished from B. stolzmanni   and B. coxeyi   by the absence of a patch of dark pigmentation on the opercle (vs. dark patch of pigmentation present on opercle). Brycon nattereri   can be additionally distinguished from B. insignis   , B. howesi   , B. coquenani   , and B. vermelha   by possessing a fifth infraorbital bone about as wide as high (vs. fifth infraorbital bone wider than high; see Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ). Brycon nattereri   can be distinguished from B. opalinus   by possessing lateral line tubules with 2–5 branches (vs. tubules mostly simple), and caudal peduncle blotch extending into middle caudal-fin rays (vs. caudal peduncle blotch not extending into middle caudal-fin rays).

Description. Morphometric data are presented in Table 13 View TABLE 13 . Middle-sized species, largest examined specimen 300.3 mm SL. Body slender to moderately slender. Largest body height slightly ahead of dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal body profile slightly convex from upper lip margin to vertical through anterior naris, slightly convex from latter point to basis of supraoccipital process, moderately to pronoucedly convex from latter point to dorsal-fin origin, straight along dorsal-fin basis, and straight to slightly convex from dorsal-fin basis to adipose-fin origin. Dorsal profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave. Ventral profile slightly convex from lower lip to pelvic-fin insertion, straight to slightly convex from this point to anal-fin origin and approximately straight along anal-fin base. Ventral profile of caudal peduncle slightly concave.

Head profile moderately acute anteriorly, mouth terminal. Jaws isognathous to slightly anisognathous, premaxillary projecting slightly relative to dentary in some specimens, leaving outer row of premaxillary teeth exposed when mouth is closed. Maxillary moderately long, extending posteriorly to anterior margin to anterior third of pupil. Adipose eyelid well developed. Premaxillary teeth in three rows; teeth of third row largest. Five (1), 6 (7), 7 (6), 8 (18), 9 (16), 10 (16), 11 (4), 12 (3), or 14 (1) tricuspidate teeth in outer series. Three (4), 4 (37), 5 (23), or 6 (5) tri- to pentacuspidate teeth in second, inner premaxillary row, plus 2 (20), 3 (48), or 4 (4) tricuspidate teeth between the first and third rows.

Two teeth in third premaxillary row, medial teeth largest, symphyseal teeth smaller, slightly tilted towards each other, both pentacuspidate. Maxillary with distal portion expanded and rounded in profile. Twelve to 26 maxillary teeth, slightly smaller than teeth of first premaxillary row, anterior teeth tricuspidate, posterior teeth unicuspidate. Dentary with 8 (2), 9 (9), 10 (15), 11 (7), 12 (9), or 14 (2) teeth in main series. Anterior four dentary teeth assymetrical, considerably larger and bulkier than remaining teeth, tetra- to pentacuspidate, each with central cusp distinctly larger than remaining cusps. Remaining dentary teeth progressivelly smaller, tri- to unicuspidate. Inner (lingual) series consisting of a small, single unicuspid symphyseal tooth, situated immediately posterior to symphyseal dentary teeth of main series, plus row of 16–24 small, unicuspidate teeth, originating on lingual crest of dentary replacement trench at the level of fourth to sixth main series dentary teeth.

Scales cycloid. Lateral line complete, from supracleithrum to caudal-fin base. Forty-six (2), 47 (4), 48 (2), 49 (11), 50 (11), 51 (15), 52 (12), 53 (6), 54 (5) ou 55 (6) scales in lateral line series. Laterosensory tube simple in specimens smaller than 95 mm SL, ramified in specimens larger than 100 mm SL. Tubules ramification increasing in complexity along ontogeny, specimens between 100–150 mm SL with tubules with two or three branches, larger specimens (> 180 mm SL) typically developing ascendant and descendant main branches and 2–5 secondary branches per scale. Horizontal scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and lateral line 8 (44) or 9 (28). Horizontal scale rows between lateral line and pelvic-fin 3 (2), 4 (49), or 5 (21). Circumpeduncular scales 15 (3), 16 (24), 17 (29), 18 (15), or 19 (3).

Dorsal-fin rays ii, 9. Dorsal fin origin slightly ahead middle of SL. First dorsal-fin pterygiophore inserting behind neural spine of 15th (1) vertebra. Anal-fin rays iii (not including first, small unbranched ray only visible in the cs specimen), 18 (5), 19 (13), 20 (20), 21 (19), 22 (12), 23 (1), 24 (1), or 25 (1). First anal-fin pterygiophore inserting behind haemal spine of 26th (1) vertebra. Last unbranched and anterior 4–5 branched anal-fin rays longer, remaining rays progressively shorter towards anal-fin end. Anal fin displaying numerous (c. 20 per fin-ray main branch) small hooks on last unbranched and posterior main branch of branched rays 1–20, associated with dense, gelatinous tissue in a single specimen ( CAS 79218 View Materials , 204.2 mm SL). A single hook per ray segment, a few hooks at the anterior branch of some anal-fin rays. Sheath of scales covering basis of anal-fin rays composed of two scale rows, lower scale row formed by 16–21 rectangular scales. Pectoral-fin rays i, 12 (18), 13 (37), or 14 (18). Pelvicfin rays typically i, 7. One specimen ( CAS 79218 View Materials , 204.2 mm SL) with minute hooks on distal portion of posterior branch of branched pelvic-fin rays. Main caudal-fin rays 10/9. Caudal fin forked, lobes rounded.

Four branchiostegal rays, three on anterior ceratohyal and one on posterior ceratohyal. First branchial arch with 11 (1), 12 (11), 13 (5), or 14 (1) lower, 1 at angle, and 8(1), 9 (7), 10 (7), or 11 (3) upper gill rakers. Vertebrae 46 (3). Supraneurals 10 (1).

Coloration in alcohol. Top of head, snout, supraorbital, sixth infraorbital, and dorsal portion of body lightgrey to dark-brown. Second, third, fourth, and fifth infraorbitals, and opercle silvery except in specimens that lost most guanine, in which case brownish. Dentary, maxillary, gular area and lower portion of body light brown. Lateral portion of body silvery in specimens retaining guanine, brownish in specimens that were stored for a long period in formalin/alcohol. Humeral blotch present, relatively conspicuous in juveniles but little conspicuous in adult specimens, approximately rounded in shape, situated immediately above lateral line, its anterior margin at level of second, extending longitudinally to posterior margin of third to fourth lateral line scales, and vertically one and half scales high. Large, generally very conspicuous, oval-shaped caudal peduncle blotch, extending along 6–9 last lateral-line scales. Caudal peduncle blotch extending into middle 4–6 caudal fin-rays, often extending to the distal portion of middle caudal rays, forming a distinct caudal-fin stripe. Rayed fins clear, with dark chromatophores scattered over the interradial membranes. Adipose fin light-grey to light-brown. Juveniles (up to 100 mm SL) with narrow, wavy, irregularly-distributed vertical lines formed by dark pigmentation concentrated on anterior and posterior scales margins. Specimens from rio Cipó basin in upper rio São Francisco drainage ( MZUSP 51052, MZUSP 58948, MZUSP 58949, MZUSP 58950) with overall body color, including fins, dark-brown, with scales on lateral portion of body with darkened margins (see item “Variation”, below).

Color in life. Description based on pictures of several unpreserved specimens fished in several portions of the upper rio Paraná basin in Minas Gerais and upper rio Tocantins basin in Goiás, and from photographs of the specimens MZUSP 45793 and MNRJ 19893 immediatelly after collection. Dorsal area, top of head and snout lightgrey to light brown. Infraorbitals, opercular bones and sides of body silvery. Dark peduncular blotch very conspicuous. Fins (including adipose fin) yellowish to reddish.

Common names. “Peripetinga” (Lütken, 1875, 2001: 222), “ pirapitinga   ”, “tabarana”, “tubarana”. The name “tabarana” (from which “tubarana” is a variant) is more often employed for Salminus hilarii   in southeastern Brazil.

Distribution. Distributed in headwater areas in the upper rio Paraná, upper rio Tocantins and upper rio São Francisco basins, central and eastern Brazil ( Fig. 43 View FIGURE 43 ). Bertoni (1939) listed the species as occurring in Paraguay. Though the occurrence of Brycon nattereri   in the upper rio Paraná portion draining Paraguay is not unlikely, recent fish collections in that country (e.g. Géry & Mahnert, 1992) failed to obtain any specimens of this species, and this record is herein considered doubtful.

Variation. Specimens collected at the rio Cipó, a tributary of the rio das Velhas (rio São Francisco basin) present a general color pattern much more darker than the remaining specimens examined from the upper rio Paraná, upper rio Tocantins and other portions of the upper rio São Francisco basins. This overall dark pigmentation is very likely a phenotypical response to the dark waters of the rio Cipó (F. Vieira, pers. comm.), a fact also observed in the Brycon   species occurring in the Amazon basin (see under B. amazonicus   , below), and some other Brycon   species from eastern Brazil (see species accounts of B. howesi   , B. dulcis   , and B. opalinus   , above). Specimens from the upper rio Araguari, a tributary of the rio Paranaíba (upper rio Paraná basin) in Minas Gerais ( MZUSP 44947 and MZUSP 45793) differ from remaining Brycon nattereri   specimens by possessing a considerably convex predorsal profile, well-developed, wide infraorbitals 3–5, and a relatively ill-defined caudal peduncle blotch. There is not, however, a clear geographical pattern, since typical Brycon nattereri   are known from the rio Araguari a little downstream of the area inhabited by these specimens. More material, as well as other type of data (e.g., molecular data) are necessary to understand what may lie behind this variation.

Ecological notes. Brycon nattereri   is apparently restricted to clear- to dark-water, middle-sized rivers, with moderate to swift current, in headwater areas provided with well preserved riparian vegetation. Largest recorded size is 31 cm SL ( Lima et al., 2008b). A 51 cm SL and 2.6 kg specimen recorded as the maximum size for the species by Lima et al. (2008a, b) from the Serra da Mesa area in the upper rio Tocantins was not examined by the author and more likely represents a misidentified specimen, perharps of the sympatric, large-sized Brycon gouldingi   . Brycon nattereri   has an omnivorous, highly opportunistic diet. In the upper rio Tocantins area, its diet was almost entirely composed of allochtonous items, especially seeds and fruits (though only fruits of Chrysobalanaceae   and Caryocar   sp. could be identified) and terrestrial arthropods (mainly beetles and ants). A lizard was recorded in the stomach of a 12 cm SL specimen. Smaller individuals tended to be more carnivorous, whereas larger specimens relied more heavily on plant material ( Lima et al., 2008b). Diet preferences of Brycon nattereri   in the upper Paraná basin pointed to terrestrial and aquatic insects, detritus, small fish, and algae (Luz- Agostinho et al. 2006), in addition to fruits and other vegetal items ( Lima et al., 2008b). Smallest first maturation lengths recorded in the upper rio Tocantins basin were for females 11.4 and for males 9.8 cm SL, and in the upper rio Paraná basin 18.5 cm SL and 15.8 cm SL, respectively ( Lima et al., 2008b). Breeding individuals were detected during the middle dry season (May to July) in the upper rio Corumbá, rio Paraná basin and late dry season (June to August) in the upper rio Tocantins ( Lima et al., 2008a). In the upper rio Araguari basin (upper rio Paraná basin), however, breeding individuals were mainly detected in the late rainy season (March to April; Lima et al., 2008b). A population of Brycon nattereri   was reported to breed in a small river stretch, limited by waterfalls ( Vieira et al. 2005), which strongly suggests that the species does not undertake long spawning migrations. Shortscale migratory behavior for the species was inferred from a seasonal fluctuation in abundance along the year in a tributary of the rio das Almas (upper rio Tocantins) ( Vitorino Jr. et al., 2014). Very likely, the reproductive strategy of Brycon nattereri   seems to fit the seasonal (periodic) type (sensu Winemiller & Rose, 1992). Juveniles (17–100 mm SL) are often collected in streams, which appear to be the recruitment areas for the species.

Conservation. The decline of Brycon nattereri   populations seems to be related to three factors, viz., deforestation of the riparian forest, water pollution, and dam building. Although deforestation and water pollution might be ascribed as the main causes of the decline of Brycon nattereri   in areas historically more disturbed (e.g. the portion of the upper rio Paraná basin situated at the São Paulo state), construction of hydroelectric dams is a concurrent threat that has been increasing in the last decades. Many of the rivers of former known occurrence of the species are nowadays modified by hydroelectric dams and the species appears to subsist in those areas only at undisturbed tributaries, e.g., at the upper rio Tocantins basin in the Serra da Mesa dam area and at the upper rio Araguari basin in Nova Ponte dam area. Brycon nattereri   is considered officially as threatened in Brazil, under the category “vulnerable” (see Lima et al., 2008a, b, for additional information).

Remarks. Brycon nattereri   was described by Günther (1864: 334), based on a specimen briefly described and identified by Kner (1860: 10) as Chalceus opalinus   . This specimen ( NMW 16396 View Materials ) was collected by J. Natterer at “Irisanga” (Rio Orissanga at Orissanga, now Estiva Gerbi, a tributary of rio Mogi-Guaçu, upper rio Paraná basin, São Paulo state; cf. Vanzolini, 1993). Kner (1860: 10) noticed that this specimen, in constrast with Cuvier’s (1819) description of Chalceus opalinus   , possessed a conspicuous caudal peduncle blotch. This latter character was in fact the one used by Günther (1864), who has not examined Kner’s (1860) specimen, to diagnose it from Chalceus opalinus   (“coloration uniform, without blotchess” versus “a large black blotch at the base of the caudal fin”; Günther, 1864: 334). Brycon nattereri   possess, in fact, a caudal peduncle blotch considerably more conspicuous than the one found in B. opalinus   , though there are some variation in this character (see item “Variation”, above). More importanly is the black pigmentation extending into the caudal-fin rays, a condition that clearly diagnoses Brycon nattereri   from B. opalinus   and, in fact, from all remaining, similar-looking Brycon   species from eastern Brazil.

Brycon reinhardti   was described by Lütken (1875a: 134–135) for the rio das Velhas, a tributary of the rio São Francisco, Brazil. A little later, the same author provided a more detailed description, comparing it solely with the sympatric Brycon lundii   (= B. orthotaenia   ) ( Lütken, 1875b: 221–223; 2001: 111–113). Lütken (1875b: 134; 2001: 111) mentioned that the syntypical series of the species was composed by 10 specimens. Lima (2003: 177) listed ten syntypes, distributed in several ichthyological colllections (SMNS, BMNH, ZMUC, MNHN, ZMB, NMW). We have examined five syntypes (MNHN 9589, one syntype; BMNH 1876.1.10.36, one syntype; NMW 59761, two syntypes; USNM 44955, one syntype). The last specimen, though not listed by Lima (2003), undoubtedly also belongs to the syntypical series, which makes the syntypes of Brycon reinhardti   to number eleven, instead of ten. As noticed under the item “Variation”, above, there are no differences among Brycon nattereri   populations from the rio São Francisco and upper rio Paraná basins, and consequently we consider Brycon reinhardti   as a synonym of the latter.

Material examined. Type material. NMW 16396 View Materials (1, 243.0 mm SL): " Irisanga " [= Brazil, São Paulo, Oriçanga (now Estiva Gerbi, 22°16’S, 46°57’W), rio Grande basin]; J. Natterer, no date (1822–1823) Holotype of Brycon nattereri Günther   GoogleMaps   . MNHN 9589 (1, 130.2 mm SL); NMW 59761 (2, 115.9–192.0 mm SL); BMNH 1876.1.10.36 (1, 154.6 mm SL); USNM 44955 View Materials (1, 125.4 mm SL): “ Rio das Velhas ” [trib. Rio São Francisco , Minas Gerais, Brazil]. J.T. Reinhardt; syntypes of Brycon reinhardti Lütken.    

Non types. Brazil, upper rio Paraná basin   , Goiás: GoogleMaps   MZUSP 58850 View Materials (1, 154.2 mm SL): Itumirim, rio Corrente, trib. rio Paranaíba   GoogleMaps , c. 18°30’53’’S, 52°5’25’’W; J.C. Garavello & M.L. Mussara, 28 Nov–1 Dec 1994. MZUSP 43132 View Materials (1, 150.0 mm SL): Quirinópolis, rio Paranaíba system, c. 18°34’S, 50°26’W, collector and date not specifed GoogleMaps   . MNRJ 19895 View Materials (2, 172.7– 196.5 mm SL): Catalão, córrego da Prata, trib. rio São Marcos, rio Paranaíba basin, 17°47'24''S, 47°35'46''W; F. A. Bockmann et al., 21 Nov 1999 GoogleMaps   . MNRJ 19771 (1, 139.3 mm SL); MNRJ 19772 View Materials (1, 146.0 mm SL): Catalão, ribeirão São Domingos, trib. rio São Marcos , rio Paranaíba basin, 18°5'45''S, 47°42'10''W; F. A. Bockmann et al., 24 Sept 1999 GoogleMaps   . MNRJ 19893 (1, 125.4 mm SL); MNRJ 19892 View Materials (5, 69.9–97.7 mm SL): Catalão, córrego da Anta Gorda, trib. rio São Marcos, fazenda Barreiro , 17°52'34''S, 47°35'46''W GoogleMaps   ; F. A. Bockmann et al., 20 Nov 1999. MNRJ 19894 View Materials (1, 157.3 mm SL): Catalão, ribeirão Pires, trib. rio São Marcos , rio Paranaíba basin, 17°52'23''S, 47°43'45''W GoogleMaps   ; F. A. Bockmann et al., 20 Nov 1999. MNRJ 19719 View Materials (1, 50.9 mm SL)   ; MNRJ 19720 View Materials (1, 56.9 mm SL): Catalão, rio São Marcos, trib. rio Paranaíba , bridge at road GO-506, Porto Carapina; C   . A. Figueiredo et al., 22 Sept 1999. MNRJ 19710 View Materials (1, 39.0 mm SL): Catalão, córrego do Barreiro, trib. rio São Marcos , rio Paranaíba basin; C   . A. Figueiredo et al., 24 Sept 1999. MNRJ 19891 View Materials (3, 22.0– 23.2 mm SL): Catalão, ribeirão Buracão, trib. rio São Marcos , rio Paranaíba basin; F   . A. Bockmann et al., 17 Nov 1999   . ZUEC 6364 View Materials (1, 132.1 mm SL): Davinópolis, rio São Bento (trib. Rio São Marcos), 18°8’7’’S, 47°38’24’’W GoogleMaps   ; T.C. Pessali, May 2010. MZUSP 51053 (3, 1 cs, 146.7–212.6 mm SL); MZUSP 68520 View Materials (1, 238.9 mm SL): Caldas Novas, rio Sapé, trib. rio Corumbá, rio Paranaíba basin, 17°48’S, 48°35' W GoogleMaps   ; NUPÉLIA, 23–24 March 1996. NUP 1304 (1, 242.7 mm SL): Caldas Novas, rio Corumbá, trib. rio Paranaíba , 17°43'37''S, 48°32'54''W GoogleMaps   ; NUPÉLIA, 9 Apr 1999. MZUSP 104339 View Materials (2, 98.6–117.3 mm SL): Corumbaíba, córrego Libório, trib. rio Corumbá , 17°55'48"S, 48°28'58"W GoogleMaps   ; NUPÉLIA, 21 March 1996. MZUSP 79967 View Materials (1, 126.6 mm SL): Luziânia, córrego Raso , trib. Rio Corumbá, 16°19’28’’S, 48°11’43’’W GoogleMaps   ; H.L.R. Silva, no date. Distrito Federal: MNRJ 11265 View Materials (1, 114.7 mm SL): Brasília, rio Gama ( rio São Bartolomeu basin), c. 15°54’S, 47°54’W GoogleMaps   ; L.O. Soares, 1957. MZUSP 19861 (18, 19.3–26.4 mm SL); MZUSP 51007 View Materials (4, 17.6–25.6 mm SL): Planaltina, rio Piriripau ( rio São Bartolomeu basin), c. 15°41’S, 47°39’W GoogleMaps   ; Expedition MZUSP/USNM, 30 Sept 1977. IBGE uncat. (1, 300.3 mm SL): Brasília, Ribeirão Santa Maria, Lago de Santa Maria, Parque Nacional de Brasília, 15°41’2’’S, 48°1’17’’W; M.C.L. Ribeiro et al., 26 Aug 1994. IBGE uncat. (1, 111.8 mm SL): Brasília, córrego Três Barras, trib. Ribeirão Bananal, Parque Nacional de Brasília, 15°39’48’’S, 47°57’21’’W; M.C.L. Ribeiro et al., 19 Oct 1992. Minas Gerais: MZUSP 59002 View Materials (1, 140.1 mm SL): Uberlândia, rio Araguari, immediately downstream Miranda hydroelectric dam, 18°54’S, 48°2’W; V. Vono, Aug 1997 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 58910 View Materials (1, 206.9 mm SL): Nova Ponte, rio Araguari, Nova Ponte dam, c. 19°7’S, 47°36’W; F. Vieira et al., Feb 1994 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 59003 View Materials (1, 208.7 mm SL): Uberlândia, rio Araguari , UHE Miranda dam, c. 18°54’S, 48°2’W; V. Vono, May 1998 GoogleMaps   . ZUEC 7940 View Materials (4, 98.6–106.7 mm SL): Veríssimo, rio Uberaba (trib. Rio Grande), 19°41’46’’S, 48°11’30’’W; D.C. Ribeiro & J.M GoogleMaps   . A. Chagas, 29 Sept 2012. MZUSP 44947 View Materials (2, 261.5– 283.3 mm SL): Sacramento, rio Araguari, trib. rio Paranaíba , c. 19°46’S, 47°20’W GoogleMaps   ; E. Zaniboni-Filho, 23–27 Sept 1991. MZUSP 45793 View Materials (2, 168.1–238.0 mm SL): Desemboque, rio das Velhas ou Araguari , 20°0’S, 47°1’W GoogleMaps   ; A. L. Silva, July 1993   . MZUSP 17834 View Materials (1, 52.9 mm SL): ribeirão da Prata, road São João Del Rei/ Itutinga , c. 21°13’S, 44°22’W GoogleMaps   ; H. A. Britski & J.C. Garavello, 10 Nov 1969. MZUSP 51526 View Materials (2, 199.8– 216.7 mm SL): Baependi, rio Itaúna, Pedra Branca , c. 21°57’S, 44°51’W GoogleMaps   ; M. A.F. Filho, 9 Feb 1996. LBP 8101 (1, 236.0 mm SL): Carrancas, rio Capivari , c. 21°32’S, 44°42’W GoogleMaps   ; C. Oliveira et al., 18 May 2009. São Paulo: MZUSP 3359 View Materials (1, 99.6 mm SL): Monte Alegre do Sul, rio Camanducaia , c. 22°42’S, 46°40’W GoogleMaps   ; J. Lima, 1943   . CAS 79218 View Materials (1, 204.2 mm CP), Itatiba [Rio Atibaia at Itatiba , c. 22°58’S, 46°50’W] GoogleMaps   ; J. Lima, 1907. MNRJ 20159 View Materials (4, 68.3–92.1 mm SL): Itararé, rio Verde road SP-258, Itararé / Itapeva border, 24°5’2’’S, 49°12’2’’W GoogleMaps   ; P. A. Buckup & M.R.S.Melo, 25 Jan 2000   . Paraná: MZUEL 826 (2, 222.9–253.0 mm SL): Tibagí, Guartelá Ecological State Reserve, rio Iapó (trib. rio Tibagí ), c. 24°32’S, 50°17’W GoogleMaps   ; O. A. Shibatta et al., 1 Nov 1996. MZUEL 5746 (2, 190.0–230.0 mm SL): Santa Amélia, ribeirão Laranjinha (trib. rio das Cinzas), 23°17’52’’S, 50°28’43’’W GoogleMaps   ; B. Galindo et al., 27 Feb 2011. NUP 8534 (1, 151.0 mm SL): Turvo, rio Pedrinho, trib. rio Ivaí , 25°4’S, 51°30’W GoogleMaps   ; D. Viana, 20 Jan 2009. Rio São Francisco basin   , Minas Gerais: MZUSP 58949 View Materials (2, 191.4– 238.4 mm SL): Jaboticatubas / Santana do Riacho, rio Cipó (trib. Rio das Velhas), Serra do Cipó National Park , c. 19°20’S, 43°38’W; F. Vieira et al., 31 May 1994 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 58948 View Materials (1, 111.7 mm SL): Jaboticatubas / Santana do Riacho, rio Cipó (trib. Rio das Velhas), Serra do Cipó National Park , c.  

19°20’S, 43°38’W; F. Vieira et al., 15 March 1994. MZUSP 58950 View Materials (1, 244.7 mm SL): Jaboticatubas / Santana do Riacho, rio Cipó (trib. Rio das Velhas), Serra do Cipó National Park , c. 19°20’S, 43°38’W; F. Vieira et al., 30 Nov 1994 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 51052 View Materials (1, 228.4 mm SL): Jaboticatubas / Santana do Riacho, rio Cipó (trib. Rio das Velhas), Serra do Cipó National Park , c. 19°20’S, 43°38’W; F. Vieira et al., Aug 1991 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 1599 View Materials (1, 217.0 mm SL): Lassance, ribeirão São José (trib. Rio das Velhas), Serra do Cabral , c. 17°54’S, 44°31’W; E. Garbe, 1912 GoogleMaps   . MNRJ 11264 View Materials (1, 64.0 mm SL): Pirapora , córrego da Cachoeira, c. 17°20’S, 44°59’W; G.S. Myers, P.M. Ribeiro & A.L. Carvalho, Oct 1942 GoogleMaps   . ZUEC 6383 View Materials (2, 51.8–63.5 mm SL): Buritizeiro, ribeirão das Gaitas, trib. rio do Sono , 17°17’43’’S, 45°18’50’’W; T.C. Pessali & T. A. Barroso, Nov 2011 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 17019 View Materials (1, 122.5 mm SL): Buritis , ribeirão dos Confins (trib. Rio Urucuia), 15°38’S, 46°22’W; P.E. Vanzolini, Oct 1964 GoogleMaps   . UFRGS 11266 View Materials (5, 54.6–67.7 mm SL): Unaí / Palmeirinha, trib. rio Salobro at road Unaí / Palmeirinha , 16°09’24’’S 46°44’48’’W, G. Frainer, F.R. Carvalho & V. A. Bertaco, 11 Sept 2009 GoogleMaps   . Rio Tocantins basin   , Goiás:   MZUSP 113836 View Materials (1, 75.3 mm SL): Goiás, São João da Aliança , ribeirão das Brancas, road GO-118, 14°36'56.89"S 47°29'55.94"W; F. Dagosta et al., 27 Nov 2013 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 113865 View Materials (7, 94.4–115.5 mm SL): Teresina de Goiás, rio das Pedras, Cachoeira do Poço Encantado , 13°52'28.90"S, 47°15'45.20"W; F. Dagosta et al., 29 Nov 2013 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 113885 View Materials (3, 79.4–146.5 mm SL): São Jorge, rio São Miguel, at meeting with rio Segredo , 14°8'15.00"S 47°39'58.00"W; F. Dagosta et al., 28 Nov 2013 GoogleMaps   . MZUEL 5745 (4, 19.6–32.0 mm SL): Pirenópolis, ribeirão Santa Maria (trib. rio das Almas), 15°50’50’’S, 48°55’8’’W; O GoogleMaps   . A. Shibatta & A. Claro, 15 Jul 2010. MNRJ 13069 View Materials (1, 89.2 mm SL): Cavalcante, córrego São Bento, trib   . rio Preto (trib. rio Tocantinzinho ); D.F. Moraes Jr., 9 Dec 1987   . MCP 23938 (6, 22.2—34.0 mm SL): Cavalcante, córrego Móquem, road Colinas/Cavalcante, 13°56'28'’S, 47°42'31'’W; W.R. Koch et al., 5 Aug 1996. CAS 68822 (2, 197.3– 235.6 mm SL): Córrego do Poichos into R. Maranhão; C. Ternetz, 10 Nov 1923. CAS 68828 View Materials (1, 113.2 mm SL)   ; CAS 68828 View Materials (2, 172.1– 232.2 mm SL): córrego do Monjolo into rio Maranhão into rio Tocantins; C. Ternetz, 1–14 Oct 1923   . CAS 68831 (3, 126.8–214.0 mm SL): Córrego dos Bichos into R. Mangabeira into R. Maranhão; C. Ternetz, 14 Nov 1923. MZUSP 95051 View Materials (1, 83.4 mm SL): Minaçu, trib   . Rio Tocantizinho, near Serra da Mesa dam, 14°8’46’’S, 48°2’52’’W; O.T. Oyakawa & K.C. Mautari, March 2006 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 62268 View Materials (2, 57.7–68.9 mm SL): Minaçú, trib. rio Tocantizinho , 14°04’43’’S, 48°12’49’’W; M.T. Rodrigues et al., 19 Dec 1995 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 59623 View Materials (3, 1 cs, 84.1–144.6 mm SL): Minaçú, trib. rio Tocantizinho , 14°02'27''S, 48°12'22'' W; M.T. Rodrigues et al., 20 Dec 1995 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 104124 (1, 212.0 mm SL); MZUSP 104223 View Materials (1, 179.4 mm SL): Minaçú, rio Tocantizinho , 14°12’44’’S, 48°3’24’’W; D.F. Moraes & D. A. Halboth, 9–16 Dec 1995 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 104125 View Materials (4, 98.4– 220.2 mm SL): Minaçú, rio Tocantizinho , 14°12’44’’S, 48°3’24’’W; D.F. Moraes & D. A. Halboth, 17 Apr 1996 GoogleMaps   . MZUSP 103126 View Materials (4, 125.7– 206.4 mm SL): Minaçú, rio Tocantizinho , 14°12’44’’S, 48°3’24’’W; D.F. Moraes & D GoogleMaps   . A. Halboth, 11 Aug 1996. MZUSP 104222 View Materials (1, 204.3 mm SL): rio Tocantizinho, mouth of rio Palmeirinha , 14°3’57’’S, 48°29’37’’W; D.F. Moraes & D GoogleMaps   . A. Halboth, 16 Feb 1995   . Distrito Federal: IBGE uncat. (4, 94.0– 187.0 mm SL): Brasília, Ribeirão Palmeiras, trib   . rio Maranhão, 15°31’10’’S, 47°43’40’’W; M.C.L. Ribeiro et al., 8 Jul 1998 GoogleMaps   . IBGE uncat. (2, 138.0–165.0 mm SL): Brasília, Córrego Monjolo , trib. rio da Palma (trib. rio Maranhão), 15°31’9’’S, 47°58’9’’W; M.C.L. Ribeiro et al., 23 Jul 1998 GoogleMaps   . IBGE uncat. (10, 85.0–173.0 mm SL): Brasília, Ribeirão Dois Irmãos, trib. rio do Sal (trib. rio Maranhão), 15°31’9’’S, 48°6’56’’W; M.C.L. Ribeiro et al., 12 Aug 1998 GoogleMaps   .

TABLE 13. Morphometric data of Brycon nattereri (A: holotype, NMW 16396; B: syntypes of Brycon reinhardti: MNHN 9589; NMW 59761 (2); BMNH 1876.1. 10.36 (1); USNM 44955 (1). Mean and range does not include holotype (which is a stuffed specimen).

  A B n Range Mean
Standard length (SL) 243.0 115.9–192.0 73 52.9–283.3 -
Percentages of standard length          
Depth at dorsal-fin origin 28.9 25.4–29.0 68 22.6–32.5 27.6
Snout to dorsal-fin origin 52.1 52.7–55.8 73 50.6–58.7 53.8
Dorsal-fin base length 11.3 9.8–13.2 73 9.5–13.2 11.1
Posterior terminus of dorsal fin to adipose fin 23.9 21.8–24.0 73 20.1–25.5 22.6
Posterior terminus of dorsal fin to hypural joint 37.6 33.7–38.6 72 30.8–38.6 35.3
Snout to pelvic-fin insertion 46.6 48.8–52.2 64 47.3–55.0 51.2
Snout to anal-fin origin 66.0 67.6–70.7 72 60.9–73.6 68.5
Anal-fin base length 20.3 19.1–21.4 73 16.5–23.1 20.0
Caudal peduncle length 13.5 13.3–16.2 73 12.8–19.2 15.8
Dorsal-fin height 16.3 18.2–20.9 71 15.5–22.8 18.7
Pectoral-fin length 14.8 16.8–18.2 73 14.5–20.5 17.5
Pelvic-fin length 11.9 14.4–16.2 71 9.4–16.2 14.1
Caudal peduncle depth 10.1 8.5–9.8 72 8.1–10.6 9.3
Head length 21.9 23.8–28.5 73 22.7–32.0 27.0
Percentages of head length          
Head height 78.6 66.1–71.5 73 61.2–78.6 71.3
Snout length 27.6 27.6–30.6 73 26.1–33.4 29.3
Upper jaw length 43.8 41.7–46.5 73 36.3–46.5 44.2
Horizontal eye diameter 20.3 22.1–26.2 73 18.1–30.0 23.9
Post-orbital length 51.9 46.9–51.2 73 41.2–54.5 48.5
Least interorbital width 37.0 29.1–37.4 73 24.8–41.3 33.4

California Academy of Sciences


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro


Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Campinas


Universidade Federale do Rio Grande do Sul


Reserva Ecol�gica do IBGE














Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864

Lima, Flávio C. T. 2017

Brycon reinhardti Lütken, 1875a : 134

Lima 2003: 177
Almeida-Toledo 1996: 36
Howes 1982: 42
Travassos 1955: 309
Eigenmann 1907: 30
Lutken 1875: 134
Lutken 1875: 221

Brycon nattereri Günther, 1864 : 334

Travenzoli 2015: 6
Vitorino 2014: 421
Bartolette 2012: 62
Pompeu 2009: 663
Lima 2008: 207
Lima 2008: 50
Luz-Agostinho 2006: 64
Vieira 2005: 80
Shibatta 2002: 409
Bertoni 1939: 55
Gunther 1864: 334

Chalceus opalinus

Kner 1860: 10