Holocacista rivillei (Stainton)

van Nieukerken, Erik J. & Geertsema, Henk, 2015, A new leafminer on grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded generic concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae), ZooKeys 507, pp. 41-97: 51

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Holocacista rivillei (Stainton)


Taxon classification Animalia Lepidoptera Heliozelidae

Holocacista rivillei (Stainton)  Figs 9, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 87, 88, 105

Elachista rivillei  Stainton, 1855: 89.

Holocacista rivillei  ; van Nieukerken et al. (2012b): 62 [redescription]; Cean (2014): 385 [record Rumania, description]


The type species of Holocacista  has recently been diagnosed in the context of a study of European (and North American) Vitaceae  miners ( van Nieukerken et al. 2012b), when the genus was still considered monotypic. Here we briefly diagnose it against other species in the genus, without a full redescription. It should be noted that only material from Italy and Bulgaria has been examined in detail. Morphological details (Figs 21, 23, 24, 26) and venation (Fig. 29) are described under the generic treatment. For a full synonymy we refer to van Nieukerken et al. (2012b).

Differential diagnosis

(Fig. 9). Wingspan 4.0-4.5 mm. Antenna ringed, 15 segments; head and thorax bronze grey. Forewing fuscous to black, with golden silvery pattern consisting of four spots, costals distal to dorsals, the first costal and dorsal sometimes united as oblique fascia; a distinct fringe line, fringe silvery white. Differs from South African Holocacista capensis  and Holocacista salutans  by more golden shining spots and distinct first costal spot (almost absent or reduced in other species); from Holocacista varii  and other species by distinct fringe line and ringed antenna.

Male genitalia (Fig. 105, and Figs 48-50 in van Nieukerken et al 2012b). Total length vinculum + tegumen 630-720 μm, phallus 575-630 μm. Pecten with 8-10 teeth. Juxta more elaborate than in South African Vitaceae  miners, deeply bifurcate. Phallus without spines on phallocrypt, wrinkled. Female genitalia illustrated by van Nieukerken et al (2012b, Figs 51-52) and Cean (2014).


Host plants. Vitaceae  : Vitis vinifera  , wild and cultivated, possibly also on cultivated Parthenocissus  Planch. (new record from Russia, Kalmykiya).

Leafmines (Figs 87, 88). The egg is inserted usually close to a major vein, probably on leaf underside. The mine is first a gallery, turning from once to several times around the oviposition site and then extends, often along a vein as a rather straight linear mine, occasionally as a serpentine mine; distally enlarging into a small blotch. The frass is black forming a broken line, often not exactly in the middle of the mine; in thicker leaves it may be wider; in the blotch the frass is dispersed; the larva cuts out a case of about 3.3-4 mm × 2.0-2.5 mm.


Widespread in southern Europe, Turkey and Central Asia ( van Nieukerken et al. 2012b), now also recorded in Romania ( Cean 2014). Probably only native in eastern part of its current distribution area.

Material examined.

Adults and leafmines: Bulgaria: 1♂, 7 adults [sex not determined], Sliven, 5.iv.1928, P. Tschorbadjiev, Genitalia slide JCK7867 (coll. Natural History Museum Sofia). Italy: 28 adults (4♂, 1♀ dissected), Vicenza, Borghetto, experimental vineyard, leafmines on Vitis vinifera  , 2007, emerged i–ii.2009, M. Baldessari (RMNH); 1♂ (dissected), 7♀, many leafmines, larvae, ibidem, 19.viii.2013, EvN2013904, emerged 11. ix– 3.x.2013, M. Baldessari (RMNH). Russia: leafmines only, Kalmykiya, Elista, Citypark, 26.ix.2000, leafmines on Parthenocissus  , V. Zolotuhin (coll. Zolotuhin).