Amazochroma carvalhoi (Mello-Leitão, 1941),

Rafael N. Carvalho & Adriano B. Kury, 2018, Further dismemberment of Discocyrtus with description of a new Amazonian genus and a new subfamily of Gonyleptidae (Opiliones, Laniatores), European Journal of Taxonomy 393, pp. 1-32: 17-22

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.393

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0D9D591F-0D5E-4078-B328-5831A7CD06E8

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/BF099B61-8725-7525-FE41-DA1EFAF9FCD9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Amazochroma carvalhoi (Mello-Leitão, 1941)
status

gen. et comb. nov.

Amazochroma carvalhoi (Mello-Leitão, 1941)  gen. et comb. nov.

Figs 1 A –DView Fig. 1, 5–6View Fig. 5View Fig. 6

Discocyrtus carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1941: 437  .

Discocyrtus carvalhoi  – Soares & Soares 1954: 247; Kury 2003: 161.

Material examined

Holotype

BRAZIL: ♂, MT, Santa Terezinha, Barra do Tapirapé , 10.683° S, 50.633° W, A.L. Carvalho leg. ( MNRJ 5143View Materials).GoogleMaps 

Other material examined

BRAZIL: 1 ♀, AM, Manaus , Reserva Florestal ZF-3, 2.21° S, 59.81° W, Reserva do km 41, 28–31 Jul. 2002, G. Machado leg. ( MNRJ 9067View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, PA, Belém , Parque Ambiental de Belém (Utinga), 1.424827° S, 48.438016° W, Feb. 2010, G.H.F. Azevedo et al. leg. ( UFMG 9382View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, PA, Monte Alegre , Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas da Amazônia (IPEAm), 0.84467° S, 54.45327° W, 1970, Mário leg. ( MNRJ 8811View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

FRANCE: 1 ♂, French Guiana, Arrondissement of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Commune de Maripasoula, Monts Atachi Bakka , 3.54463° N, 53.91278° W, 632 m asl., 6 Feb. 2015, S. Cally leg. ( MNRJ 8801View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 1 ♀, French Guiana, Arrondissement of Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni, Commune de Maripasoula, Monts Atachi Bakka , 3.56714° N, 53.96177° W, 127 m asl., 8 Feb. 2015, S. Cally leg. ( MNRJ 8799View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

SURINAME: 1 ♀, Sipaliwini District, Apalagadi Mounts , 2.17064° N, 56.09961° W, 16 Apr. 2014, A. Fouquet and J.P. Vacher leg. ( MNRJ 8800View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, Sipaliwini District, Apalagadi Mounts , 2.17064° N, 56.09961° W, SR 140416View Materials HC001-22, 16 Apr. 2014, A. Fouquet and J.P. Vacher leg. ( NZCS)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, Sipaliwini District, Apalagadi Mounts , 2.17064° N, 56.09961° W, SR 140416View Materials HC001-23, 16 Apr. 2014, A. Fouquet and J.P. Vacher leg. ( NZCS)GoogleMaps  .

Etymology

Patronymic in honor of Brazilian zoologist Antenor Leitão de Carvalho (1910–1985), who collected the holotype of this species.

Diagnosis

Spines of ocularium higher than in Amazochroma pedroi  gen. et sp. nov. ( Fig. 5CView Fig. 5); areas II –IV not divided by a median groove (divided in A. pedroi  gen. et sp. nov.) ( Fig. 5AView Fig. 5); area III with a pair of high, paramedian acuminated spines curved backwards (higher than the pair of low, paramedian rounded, tubercles of A. pedroi  gen. et sp. nov.) ( Fig. 5B, DView Fig. 5); Cx IV with retrodorsal spiniform apophysis (absent in A. pedroi  gen. et sp. nov.) ( Fig. 5AView Fig. 5); Tr IV with prolateral, distal, higher apophysis, forming a bifurcated bar ending in two spines (instead the aborted hook form in A. pedroi  gen. et sp. nov.) ( Fig. 5AView Fig. 5); Fe IV without spines, only tubercles (instead of higher spines on the prolateral and retrolateral axes of A. pedroi  gen. et sp. nov.) ( Fig. 5E –HView Fig. 5).

Redescription

Holotype (male)

MEASUREMENTS. CW 3.3, CL 2.0; AW 6.1, AL 3.6. Leg measurements in Table 3, tarsal counts in Table 4.

DORSUM. Dorsal scutum almost as long as wide, abdominal scutum with lateral margins strongly convex, widest at area II and highest at area III ( Fig. 5A, DView Fig. 5). Carapace with several tubercles on posterior region ( Fig. 5A, DView Fig. 5). Cheliceral sockets shallow, with a small apophysis in the center. Ocularium elliptical, high, inclined frontwards, placed in middle of carapace, armed with a pair of divergent high spines fused at baseline and inclined frontwards ( Fig.5A, C –DView Fig. 5). Mesotergum divided into four clearly defined areas. Area I divided into left and right halves by median groove. Area II anterior lateral border invading slightly space of area I and posterior lateral border invading the space of area III. AS lateral borders with tubercles on full extent, gradually growing to height of area III. All areas with many tubercles. Area I with a pair of paramedian tubercles higher than the others. Area II with one main transverse row of tubercles, replaced in middle by two pairs (one anterior and one posterior) of moderate-sized tubercles forming a trapezoid. Besides those, several others minor tubercles. Area III with a pair of high paramedian acuminated spines curved backwards, with the base covered by small tubercles ( Fig. 5A –B, DView Fig. 5). Area IV with horizontal row of 3 highlighted tubercles. Posterior border of dorsal scutum and free tergites with a horizontal row of tubercles with same height as highlighted on area IV.

VENTER. Cx I –III parallel to each other; each with ventral transverse rows of 9–10 setiferous tubercles (Cx I main row with higher and sharper tubercles). Cx IV much larger than the others, directed obliquely. Stigmatic area Y-shaped, clearly sunken relative to distal part of coxa IV. Intercoxal bridges well marked. Stigmata clearly visible. Free sternites and anal operculum each with a transverse row of small tubercles.

CHELICERA. Basichelicerite elongate, bulla well marked, with marginal setiferous tubercles – three ectal, three posterior, one mesal and one dorso-basal; hand not swollen ( Fig. 5AView Fig. 5).

PEDIPALPUS. Tr with two dorso-ectal, dorso-mesal and medio-ventral setiferous tubercles. Fe with one meso-distal and one mesal ventro-basal setiferous tubercles. Pa with one meso-distal setiferous tubercle. Ti with two rows of setiferous tubercles; four (IiIi) ventro-mesal and four (Iiii) ventro-ectal, of which the two distal are geminated. Ta with two rows of setiferous tubercles; three (IIi) ventro-mesal and four (IiIi) ventro-ectal.

LEGS. Tr I –III each with several ventral tubercles. Fe I and II straight. Fe I retrolateral proximal tubercle higher than the others, not forming a spur. Tr I with prodorsal, proventral, retroventral and retrodorsal rows of small tubercles. Fe II with prodorsal, prolateral, proventral, retroventral, retrolateral and retrodorsal rows of small tubercles. Fe II with a small retrodorsal distal tubercle higher than the others, not forming a spur. Tr II with prodorsal, proventral, retroventral and retrodorsal rows of small tubercles. Fe III substraight. Fe III and Ti III with prodorsal, prolateral, retrolateral and retrodorsal rows of small tubercles, with proventral and retroventral rows of tubercles gradually growing to the distal portion. Fe III and Mt III with a well-developed retrodorsal distal spur. Posterior border of Cx IV not reaching longitudinally the posterior border of dorsal scutum. Cx IV with a prolateral apical caniniform apophysis, moderately elongate and a retrodorsal spiniform apophysis ( Fig. 5AView Fig. 5). Cx IV with prodorsal, prolateral and proventral rows of tubercles. Tr IV prolaterally with three conical apophyses: two proximal, unequal ones and one distal, longer, bifurcated. Tr IV distally and retrolaterally with one spearhead apophysis. Tr IV ventrally with several tubercles along its entire length. Fe IV substraight, curved from the medial region toward dorsal. Fe IV with prodorsal, prolateral, retroventral and retrodorsal rows of small tubercles, dorsal tubercles only in proximal portion ( Fig. 5E –HView Fig. 5). Fe IV prodorsally (entire length) and retrolaterally (proximal-medial portion) with a row of setiferous tubercles ( Fig. 5E –F, HView Fig. 5). Fe IV proventrally and retrodorsally with one distal spine forming a spur ( Fig. 5E –HView Fig. 5). Pa IV covered by tubercles in dorsal view; also with proventral and retroventral rows of three tubercles each. Ti IV with prodorsal, prolateral, proventral, retroventral, retrolateral and retrodorsal rows of tubercles. Ti IV with proventral and retroventral distal spurs. Tarsal counts: 6(3)-6(3)/9(3)-9(3)/7-7/7-7.

PENIS. VP sharply divided into two regions: distal part rectangular, proximal part elliptical ( Fig. 6A –CView Fig. 6). Ventral surface of VP entirely covered with microsetae of type 1 ( Fig. 6CView Fig. 6). All macrosetae inserted on lateral of VP: A1–A3 cylindrical, thick, on basal third of VP, A1 oriented dorsally, A2 oriented sidewards, A3 oriented ventrally ( Fig. 6A –EView Fig. 6); B1 inserted ventrally, below the line of A3 ( Fig. 6C –DView Fig. 6); C1–C3 slender, only moderately elongate, forming an almost longitudinal row on the distal part of VP, C1–C2 close together on distal portion, C3 on medial basal portion ( Fig. 6A –EView Fig. 6); D1 medium, midway between C3 and A1 ( Fig. 6A –EView Fig. 6); E1–E2 inserted ventrally, E1 between the height of C1–C2, E2 beside C3 ( Fig. 6C –DView Fig. 6). Glans sac long, arising from middle bulge on podium, extended as a dorsal process to height of central sinuosity of stylus ( Fig. 6A –B, D –EView Fig. 6). Stylus stout, cylindrical and S-curved to dorsal, without any processes ( Fig. 6A –B, D –EView Fig. 6). Apex of stylus flattened dorsoventrally, with three barbs on each side, one on middle of ventral portion, two on marginal part of medium-basal ventral portion ( Fig. 7F –GView Fig. 7).

COLOR (in vivo). Color background of scutum, coxae and trochanters Strong Reddish Brown (40), with spines of ocularium, paramedian tubercles of areas I and III and main apophyses of coxae and trochanter IV Brownish Black (65). Dry marks Very Pale Purplish Blue (202), distributed on Cx and Tr I –IV, free tergites I –III and all over dorsal scutum encircling tubercles, excepted in two crescent-shaped stripes extending from carapace to area III. Chelicerae, pedipalps (glossier than legs) and most of legs I –IV (excepting femora) Strong Yellow (84). Femora 3-banded: basal 40% as scutum, median 50% as apophyses and distal 10% as rest of legs.

VARIATION. Besides the variation in tarsal counts, shown in Table 4, the distribution and development of tubercles, apophyses and spines in our sample was fairly uniform. No minor (“beta”) males were detected.

Female (MNRJ 8811)

CW 4.2, CL 2.7; AW 7.6, AL 4.7. Cx IV with much weaker armature compared to male, main apophysis reduced to a simple spine. Fe IV thinner, less curved and armed when compared to male. Fe IV with fewer spines on distal proventral axis and a retrolateral distal spur.

Distribution

BRAZIL, Amazonas (NT 0 173 – Uatuma-Trombetas Moist Forests), Mato Grosso (NT 0 140 – Mato Grosso Seasonal Forests), Pará (NT 0 170 – Tocantins-Pindaré Moist Forests); FRENCH GUIANA, Maripasoula; SURINAME, Sipaliwini (NT 0 125 – Guianan Moist Forests) ( Fig. 2View Fig. 2).

Remarks

This species was described in Discocyrtus  , and never illustrated. In a catalogue of the Pachylinae  , Soares & Soares (1954) merely listed the name. Its generic assignment has never been challenged.

NZCS

University, National Zoological Collection of Suriname

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Opiliones

Family

Gonyleptidae

Genus

Amazochroma

Loc

Amazochroma carvalhoi (Mello-Leitão, 1941)

Rafael N. Carvalho & Adriano B. Kury 2018
2018
Loc

Discocyrtus carvalhoi Mello-Leitão, 1941: 437

Mello-Leitao 1941: 437
1941
Loc

Discocyrtus carvalhoi

Mello-Leitao 1941
1941