Drassodella tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938,

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R., 2019, A revision of the endemic South African long-jawed ground spider genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae), Zootaxa 4582 (1), pp. 1-62: 30-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4582.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:9DC61794-4BD7-4F6D-BB8C-84D9855C8151

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B74F87AB-9E7C-403E-53B3-CBC261839C4F

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scientific name

Drassodella tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938
status

 

Drassodella tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938 

Figs 9, 15, 17View FIGURES 5–17, 66View FIGURES 60–77, 82View FIGURES 78–92, 103, 104View FIGURES 93–110, 136–139View FIGURES 136–139

Drassodella tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938: 474  , fig. 11 (Holotype ♀: SOUTH AFRICA: KwaZulu-Natal Province: Karkloof [29°19'S, 30°15'E], VI.1936, leg. R.F. Lawrence, NMSA 26—examined).

Diagnosis. Drassodella tenebrosa  represents an anomaly in the genus, with female epigynal morphology similar to species in the D. salisburyi  species group and the male palp similar to the D. melana  species group. We placed it in the latter group based on its distribution, which falls within the range of most of the species in this group. Females can be easily recognised from congeners by the very narrow anterior hood that is contiguous with the lateral margins of the median septum, diverging posteriorly to just before the anterior margin of the spermathecae ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 60–77). Males share with D. transversa  sp. nov. the presence of a single prong at the base of the embolus, but can be recognized by the absence of abdominal markings (white spots present in D. transversa  sp. nov.), the RTA not reaching the retrolateral heel of the cymbium (longer in D. transversa  sp. nov.), and the curved versus nearly straight median apophysis (compare Figs 138View FIGURES 136–139 and 149View FIGURES 146–150).

Description. Female (Pietermaritzburg, NMSA 22449). Measurements: CL 3.56, CW 2.72, AL 6.13, AW 3.13, TL 9.80 (9.20–9.80), FL 0.37, SL 1.88, SW 1.58, CH 0.27, AME-AME 0.10, AME-ALE 0.05, ALE-ALE 0.34, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.17, PLE-PLE 0.62, PERW 0.75, MOQAW 0.25, MOQPW 0.29, MOQL 0.37.

Length of leg segments: I 2.56 + 1.40 + 2.10 + 1.92 + 1.40 = 9.38, II 2.32 + 1.28 + 1.84 + 1.78 + 1.36 = 8.58, III 2.06 + 1.14 + 1.44 + 1.76 + 1.06 = 7.46, IV 3.00 + 1.44 + 2.38 + 3.04 + 1.36 = 11.22.

General appearance as in Fig. 103View FIGURES 93–110. Carapace deep red-brown, with radiating brown mottling; smooth surface, with few white feathery setae; upsilon marking of white feathery setae prominent from eye region towards posterior margin, diverging from fovea posteriorly. Clypeus height equal to 2.7 AME diameter; AME equal to ALE; AME separated by distance equal to their diameter, AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.5 AME diameter; PME smaller than PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 0.63 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 2.13 PME diameter. Chelicerae deep red; three teeth on promargin, distal tooth largest; retromargin with two subequal teeth. Sternum red. Legs with proximal segments reddish-orange, distal segments orange. Leg spination: femora: I do 2 rl 1, II do 2 rl 1, III do 4 rl 2, IV do 4 rl 2; patella spineless; tibiae: III pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: III pl 4 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 4 do 2 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; palpal spination: femora do 3; patellae rl 1; tibiae pl 4 do 1; tarsi pl 1 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 1. Abdomen yellow-grey, lighter anteriorly, without markings ( Fig. 103View FIGURES 93–110); anal tubercle with white setae; two sigilla on anterior margin; sub-oval lateral sclerites above booklungs; venter light brown; two straight rows of tiny sclerites from booklungs to spinnerets. Spinnerets pale, with brown mottling. Epigyne with narrow, crescent-shaped, recurved anterior hood, lateral margins contiguous with margins of median septum, diverging posteriorly to form broad arch; lateral hoods absent; ST I, ST II and connecting ducts deep red-brown; ST I and II similar in size, ST II oval and directly anterolaterally ( Figs 66View FIGURES 60–77, 136, 137View FIGURES 136–139).

Male (Pietermaritzburg, NMSA 2980). Measurements: CL 3.14, CW 2.44, AL 3.78, AW 1.84, TL 7.36 (6.96–7.36), FL 0.29, SL 1.68, SW 1.40, CH 0.13, AME-AME 0.09, AME-ALE 0.06, ALE-ALE 0.31, PME-PME 0.13, PME-PLE 0.15, PLE-PLE 0.57, PERW 0.71, MOQAW 0.22, MOQPW 0.30, MOQL 0.33.

Length of leg segments: I 2.52 + 1.32 + 2.12 + 1.96 + 1.28 = 9.20, II 2.14 + 1.12 + 1.52 + 1.68 + 1.20 = 7.66, III 1.88 + 0.88 + 1.24 + 1.68 + 0.84 = 6.52, IV 2.84 + 1.16 + 2.16 + 2.84 + 1.18 = 10.18.

General appearance as in Fig. 104View FIGURES 93–110. Carapace deep red-brown; surface smooth; upsilon marking of white feathery setae from eye region towards posterior margin, diverging posterior to fovea. Clypeus height equal to 1.63 AME diameter; AME smaller than ALE; AME separated by distance slightly larger than their diameter, AME separated from ALE by distance equal to 0.75 AME diameter; PME equal to PLE; PME separated by distance equal to 2.17 their diameter, PME separated from PLE by distance equal to 2.50 PME diameter. Chelicerae redbrown; promargin with three teeth, median tooth largest, distal tooth aligned with space between retromarginal teeth; retromargin with two subequal teeth. Endites dark orange, pale at maxillar hair tuft. Labium dark-orange, pale at anterior margin. Sternum orange, few setae medially, erect setae concentrated around margins. Legs with brown proximal segments, distal segments yellow; tibiae of first pair distinctly pale in distal half, but not reaching tip. Leg spination: femora: I do 2 rl 1, II do 2 rl 1, III do 4 rl 2, IV do 4 rl 2; patellae: spineless; tibiae: III pl 2 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv2 vt 2, IV pl 2 do 1 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; metatarsi: III pl 4 rl 3 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2, IV pl 4 do 2 rl 4 plv 2 rlv 2 vt 2; palpal spination: femora do 3; patellae rl 1; tibiae pl 4 do 1; tarsi pl 1 do 2 rl 2 plv 2 rlv 1. Abdomen grey ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 93–110); small dorsal scutum present; two sigilla present on anterior margin; venter light brown; post-epigastric sclerites small; oval lateral sclerites present above booklungs. Spinnerets pale with brown mottling. Palp yellowbrown; RTA short, not obscured in ventral view by retrolateral heel of cymbium; in retrolateral view triangular, slightly dorsally-directed, with broad base and sharp tip; cymbium quite broad, 1.76 times longer than wide, narrowed to rounded point distally; embolus with one narrow dorsal prong, aligned with palpal axis, ventral prong absent; median apophysis short, narrow, hook-shaped ( Figs 82View FIGURES 78–92, 138, 139View FIGURES 136–139).

Additional material examined. SOUTH AFRICAGoogleMaps  : KwaZulu-Natal Province: Pietermaritzburg   GoogleMaps [29°37'S, 30°23'E], XI.1938, leg. R.F. Lawrence, 1 imm. 1♂ 1♀ ( NMSA 2980View Materials); Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal Botanical Gardens , 29°36'S, 30°20'E, 19. VIIIGoogleMaps  .1984, leg. C.E. Griswold, 1♀ ( NMSA 22449View Materials); Pietermaritzburg, Town Bush [29°36'S, 30°23'E], XIIGoogleMaps  .1939, leg. R.F. Lawrence, 2 imm. 1♂ 2♀ ( NMSA 2905View Materials)  ;

Distribution. Known from the KwaZulu-Natal midlands ( Fig. 140View FIGURE 140).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Gallieniellidae

Genus

Drassodella

Loc

Drassodella tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938

Mbo, Zingisile & Haddad, Charles R. 2019
2019
Loc

Drassodella tenebrosa

Lawrence, R. F. 1938: 474